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Chapter 13 communicable diseases

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1 Chapter 13 communicable diseases
Page 400

2 Lesson 1 Communicable diseases
Germs and Disease- Diseases (any condition that interferes with the normal functioning of the body/mind) Communicable Disease (can spread to a person from another person, animal or object) colds, flu- caused by Germs (organisms that are so small they can only be seen through a microscope) germs are diseases the cause PATHOGENS- Infection (condition that happens when pathogens enter the body, multiply and cause harm- when the body can’t fight off an infection, a disease develops Kinds of Pathogens- 4 Types: virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoa- VIRUS (smallest/simplest pathogens)- not alive and made of genetic material and protein- causes upper respiratory infections- Bacteria (simple one-celled organisms) exist in all environments on earth, harmful (strep throat) and helpful (breaks down food)

3 Communicable diseases
Types of Pathogens- Fungi (organisms that are more complex than bacteria but cannot make their own food) thrive in warm, moist environments- most harmless but can cause disease (ringworm)- Protozoa (one-celled organisms that are most complex than bacteria) most harmless but can cause disease (malaria) How Pathogens Spread- 1. Direct Contact with Others- wash hands often- person with pinkeye rubs eye with hand, their hand touches yours, your hand touches your eye, you have pinkeye 2. Indirect Contact with Others- sneeze and pathogens are in air, anyone breathing this air can become infected- use tissue to cover mouth when sneeze- sharing drinking glasses, utensils, personal items can spread germs- never share personal items 3. Contact with someone else’s Blood- needles (tattoo/piercing/drug)- pathogens can spread when infected blood touches broken skin of non-infected person

4 Communicable diseases
How Pathogens Spread- 4. Sexual Contact- will discuss in lesson 5/6 5. Contact with Contaminated Food/Water- food borne illnesses (illnesses people get from germs in the food) cook meat thoroughly, store food correctly (pantry, refrigerator), clean all surfaces meat has touched, to get all pathogens off, mix a tablespoon of bleach into a gallon of water to kill pathogens 6. Contact with Animals/Insects- mosquitos can infect the West Nile Virus to birds, horses and humans- Page 403

5 Lesson 2 immune system Keeping Pathogens Out- Body has 5 Barriers to Protect Itself and are its first line of defense: tears, saliva, skin, mucous membranes and stomach acid- if pathogens get passed these barriers you Immune System (combination of body defenses made up of cells, tissues and organs that fight pathogens in the body)- Immune System has 2 responses to these pathogens: nonspecific response and specific response NONSPECIFIC RESPONSE- (the way the body reacts is the same no matter what foreign matter enters the body) splinter- INFLAMMATION (body’s response to injury/disease resulting in a condition of swelling, pain, heat and redness) PHYGACYTES (white blood cells surround pathogens and destroy them)- when your body temperature rises, it’s harder for the pathogens to reproduce

6 Immune system SPECIFIC RESPONSE- (attacks a particular pathogen and its poisons)- immune system remembers pathogens already dealt with and already has a response for it making it quicker to fight pathogen LYMPHATIC SYSTEM (secondary circulatory system that helps the body fight pathogens and maintains its fluid balance) LYMPH (fluid circulating in the lymphatic system) Lymphocytes (special white blood cells in the blood and lymphatic system) Antigens and Antibodies- ANTIGENS (substances that send the immune system into action) ANTIBODIES (specific proteins that attach to antigens keeping them from harming the body)- Page 411

7 Immune system IMMUNITY (ability to resist the pathogens that cause a particular disease)- healthy mothers pass immunity to babies during pregnancy/breastfeeding and last a few months until baby is able to fight pathogens on its own- Vaccine (preparation of dead or weakened pathogens that are introduced into the body to cause an immune response)- helps the immunity system prepare memory cells for specific diseases without making someone sick

8 Lesson 3 common communicable diseases
Colds- runny nose, sore throat, sneezing- spread by direct and indirect contact- too many strains of viruses to make vaccines INFLUENZA (characterized by fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle aches and respiratory symptoms) spread by direct and indirect contact- usually Dec-May every year flu season- after WWI, a flu outbreak killed 20 million throughout the world, 600,000 in US- scientist worry new strains of flu could also be deadly to large numbers of people Chicken Pox, Measles and Mumps- contagious diseases caused by viruses- Chicken Pox- contagious a week before symptoms appear- rash (may even be in mouth/throat) and becomes blisters, fever, aching muscles- 80% of all US children would get it, developed vaccine in 1995 so is less common now

9 Common communicable diseases
Measles- rash, fever and head/body aches- contagious few days before symptoms and five days after- 1 million children die each year- vaccines make this less common now Mumps- fever, headache and swollen salivary glands- contagious one week before symptoms until 9 days after- vaccines make this less common now Other Communicable Diseases- US has good medical care and clean living conditions so we are better protected from many diseases Mononucleosis (mono/kissing disease)- viral disease characterized by severe sore throat and swelling of lymph glands in the neck and throat area- fatigue, loss of appetite, fever and headache- infected when come in contact with saliva of infected person- drinking glasses and utensils

10 Common communicable diseases
Hepatitis- viral disease characterized by an inflammation of the liver and yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes- weakness, loss of appetite, fever, headaches, sore throat- 3 Strains: Hep. A-spreads among people when infected human wastes contaminate the food/water Hep. B/C- can damage liver and lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer- spreads through contaminated blood or body fluids- needles/sexual contact- vaccines for Hep A/B and medications to help treat Hep C Tuberculosis (TB)- bacterial disease usually affects lungs- fatigue, night sweats, fever, weight loss- spread through the air- can carry bacteria without showing symptoms and spread to others

11 Common communicable diseases
Pneumonia- serious inflammation of the lungs- fever, cough, chills and difficulty breathing- caused by virus or bacteria- spread through direct or indirect contact- bacterial pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics- get rest and plenty of fluids Strep Throat- sore throat caused by streptococcal bacteria- red and painful throat, fever, swollen lymph nodes of neck, headache, nausea and vomiting- spread through direct or indirect contact- can test from strep at doctors office- can take antibiotics for it- all cases need medical attention- if left untreated can develop more serious problems such as rheumatic fever which can damage the heart

12 Lesson 4 preventing the spread of disease
Keeping Pathogens from Spreading- you can’t avoid pathogens- develop good habits to protect yourself- HYGIENE (cleanliness) limits the number of pathogens you encounter- eat healthy food, exercise, rest, bathe and keep a clean environment Protecting Yourself from Pathogens- avoid close contact with infected people, never share eating utensils/cups/toothbrushes/personal items, wash hands thoroughly and often, keep hands away from mouth, nose, eyes, don’t bite fingernails, handle food safely, wipe counters, empty trash often, keep pets clean and healthy

13 Preventing the spread of disease
Protecting Others from Pathogens- if feel sick tell an adult, stay home from school/public places when ill, cover mouth/nose when sneeze, turn head from others when sneeze/cough- if no tissue sneeze in crook of elbow, take medicine if needed Healthful Lifestyle- eat balanced diet, bathe regularly with soap and shampoo, avoid alcohol, tobacco and drugs, get 8-9 hours of sleep a night, rest when sick, keep immunizations up to date, manage stress, visit with doctor regularly for check ups

14 Lesson 5 sexually transmitted diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD/I)- infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact- STDs affect men and women- completely preventable- highest rate of increase in STDs is in the adolescent population- Common STDs: Chlamydia- bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive organs, urethra and anus- silent disease because there may not be any symptoms- symptoms include genital discharge and pain when urinating- can be treated with antibiotics Genital Warts- growths or bumps in the genital area caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV)- HPV most common STD in US- warts can be treated but no cure for HPV

15 STD Genital Herpes- viral STD that produces painful blisters on the genital area- may have periodic outbreaks of painful blisters or sores, pain in lower half of body, genital discharge- even if no symptoms the virus is still in body Trichomoniasis- STD caused by protozoan Trichomonas viginalis- vaginal discharge, discomfort during urination, irritation or itching in the genital area- can be treated and cured with medications Pubic Lice (crabs)- insects that infect the genital area- itching and visible crawling insects- highly contagious- treated with medicated shampoo and prescription lotion

16 std Gonorrhea- bacterial STD that affects the mucous membranes of the body, particularly in the genital area- thick yellow discharge and a burning sensation when urinating- can be treated with antibiotics- if left untreated can infect other parts of the body including heart and fertility problems SYPHILIS (bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the body) first stage painless sores and swollen lymph glands- second stage severe rash- then bacteria moves on to rest of body- can damage organs including brain, mental disorders, blindness death, if caught in first and second stage can be cured with antibiotics Hepatitis B- disease caused by the hep B virus that affects the liver- sexual contact or needles- there is a vaccine for Hep B- Anyone who has sexual contact with another person may have an STD and not know it- only way to know not have it is to practice abstinence

17 abstinence Media sends the message that sexual activity is exciting- no mention of risks- engaging in sexual activities puts you at risk for STDs and pregnancy, social and emotional problems- use refusal skills to avoid it- it’s normal to have sexual feelings as a teen- understand your family’s values and what is expected of you- don’t have to hide feelings of affection (hand holding)- abstinence pays off: can be sure relationship is built on shared interest and trust- get to know someone in a way that goes beyond physical attraction- shows respect for both families, can remain committed to your long term goals (education)

18 Lesson 6 hiv/aids HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is a disease that interferes with the body’s ability to fight infection- an infected person can HIV for years with no symptoms; however, once body infected the virus begins damaging the immune system Spread of HIV- Sexual Intercourse with Infected Person- most common way to get HIV- circulates in bloodstream and in body fluids (semen and vaginal fluids)- Using Contaminated Needles- single drop of blood can infect a person with HIV- (needles from drugs/tattoos/piercings/diabetes)- pregnant mother can pass it on to their baby during pregnancy or from breastfeeding- infected mothers can take medicine to reduce risk of passing it on to baby

19 Hiv/aids HIV is not Spread By: casual contact, swimming in a pool with an infected person, sharing utensils, breathing air, donating blood, mosquitos, hugging or shaking hands, using same toilet, shower, bathtub or toilet, sharing sports equipment- Don’t have to avoid those with HIV/AIDS Fighting AIDS- remains a high problem around the world- In Africa millions of adults have died leaving millions of children without parents- US 14,000 people die every year- Scientists and educators are working to improve medical treatments- right now can slow down the progress of the disease- drugs are very expensive and has serious side effects- new drugs are also losing their ability to treat infection due to changes in virus/resistance- working on vaccine but progress is very slow Abstinence and HIV- safe if abstain from sexual activity and don’t share needles- the more sexual partners the more likely you will get HIV/AIDS

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