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Chapter 8: Sexually Transmitted Infectious/Diseases

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1 Chapter 8: Sexually Transmitted Infectious/Diseases
FORMER 425 STUDENT PROJECT Chapter 8: Sexually Transmitted Infectious/Diseases

2 What is an STI? This is an STI STI stands for:
Sexually Transmitted Infection

3 History Previously known as STD; Name change emphasizes infections are curable Darkest episode in medical history: Tuskegee Syphilis Study; details arose in the late 90’s Long term and short term research of STI’s. Methodology: deny treatment to 400 low income African men who had STI’s while not letting them know they had syphilis

4 The STI Pandemic Most common cause of illness and disease worldwide.
More people are suffering from STI related symptoms or illnesses than the total number of people with the common cold. (any given day) HIV and AIDS are the major pandemics

5 Statistics (2010) Chlamydia: 1,244,180 Gonorrhea: 301,174
Syphilis: 44,828 Age 15 – 24 are at the greatest risk According to CDC, every year approximately 19 million new cases are diagnosed in the US alone Over 65 million Americans are living w/ an incurable STI.

6 Parasitic: Sexually Transmitted Bugs?
Trichomoniasis (trich) Caused by trichomonas vaginalis Nonbacterial, nonviral Men: no symptoms; still contagious Women: green/yellow discharge, unpleasant odor, genital irritation Pubic Lice (crabs) Not the same as head lice Symptom: most intense itching imaginable Treatment: special creams/ointment/shampoo, shaving/combing

7 Risk Factors Lack of STI symptoms Example: Chlamydia
STIs often asymptomatic Example: Chlamydia Accurate Information abstinence-only and abstinence-only-until-marriage programs Myth Versus Fact You can get herpes from a toilet seat. You can get HIV from getting a tattoo or body piercing You can get an STI just through oral sex

8 Risk Factors Unhealthy sexual emotions and attitudes
Poor sexual communication Disclosure of sexual history

9 Substance abuse

10 (Unprotected intercourse without a barrier.)
No Risk (Activities that do not include an exchange of bodily fluids.) Probably Safe (Barrier protected activities, or very little bodily fluid contact.) Risky (Activities during which exchange of bodily fluids might create some danger of transmitting HIV.) High Risk (Unprotected intercourse without a barrier.)

11 Bacterial STI’s

12 Chlamydia Symptoms Thick, cloudy discharge from the vagina or penis
Irregular, painful periods for women Discomfort during urination Irritation in vaginal and/or anal areas

13 Chlamydia continued… Transmitted through: Oral, vaginal, and anal sex
EXTREMELY contagious Can be transmitted through one sexual encounter with an infected partner

14 Chlamydia continued… Treatment No vaccine available (ongoing research)
Oral antibiotics (will cure most cases) Both partners must be treated to prevent reinfection

15 Chlamydia

16 Gonorrhea Symptoms MEN: WOMEN:
Painful burning sensation during urination Cloudy discharge from penis or anus WOMEN: Often no noticeable symptoms Cloudy vaginal discharge, painful urination Vaginal bleeding between periods

17 Gonorrhea Transmitted through: Treatment
Vaginal, anal, or oral sexual CONTACT Can transmit to newborns during delivery and cause eye infections Treatment No vaccine available (ongoing research) Oral antibiotics (will cure most cases) Both partners must be treated to prevent reinfection

18 Gonorrhea

Chancre sore appears during infection. Heals completely within a few weeks SECONDARY STAGE Occurs within weeks or months Fever, sore throat, sore throat, fatigue, hair loss, and skin rashes on hands and feet LATE STAGE Bacterium spread leads to organ and neurological damage, mental illness, and death

20 Syphilis Transmitted through Treatment
Vaginal, anal, or oral sexual CONTACT Treatment No vaccine available (ongoing research) Antibiotics (penicillin) Both partners must be treated to prevent reinfection

21 Syphilis

22 Eye Bleach!

23 Herpes simplex (HSV) type 1 -cause orals herpes ex. cold sores
type 2 - genital herpes, sores Not curable

24 transmitted through oral and vaginal sex, and you can also get it from kissing
sometimes people that contract herpes they will get sick painful small blisters appear

25 Hepatitis B (HBV) 7 strains of hepatitis
1/3 of all cases are contracted from sexual activity transmitted through semen, vaginal fluid, blood ex. needles, drugs tattoos inflammation and disruption of the liver jaundice

26 HPV (human papilloma virus)
genital warts: most common STI in the U.S skin to skin contact can cause cancer - ex. cervical cancer Not everyone will have obvious symptoms Gardasil: is a preventative vaccine

27 HIV lack of energy weight loss sores
No cure available but there are a lot of medications most new cases are men that have sex with other men

28 AIDS T-cells drop below 200 Greatly weakens your immune system
HIV and AIDs are becoming a huge pandemic, practice safe sex and protect yourself.

29 Seeing or Feeling STI's Symptoms Is Not Enough
You can be infected but your body has yet to produce symptoms. The riskier and more frequent sexual behavior creates a higher chance of infection. The only way to know for sure is to be tested.

30 Obtaining Accurate Information About STI's
The more effectively educated about STI's, the less chance of infection. A person must be educated and know the risks they are taking. No seat belt, smoking, not using a condom. It is important to be educated on all STI's not just some, as well as have accurate and correct information

31 Overcoming Unhealthy Emotions About Sex
When people become educated about STI's, negative STI emotions decrease. Being educated allows for better communication between partners. Helps people become more comfortable to seek medical attention.

32 Communicating Effectively About Sex
Some people do not like discussing their sexual behavior issues, because of fear or embarrassment. Tips: -become educated -don't feel ashamed or scared -communicate in person -do NOT be forced to participate in a sexual behavior you’re not comfortable with.

33 Avoiding Mixing Sex and Substance Abuse
Drugs and sex do not mix. Alcohol and marijuana should not be combined, they often accompany sex. No matter how educated a person can be, their judgement is greatly affected by drugs. Can be a dangerous or deadly mix.

34 Refraining From Risky Sexual Behaviors
The safest and best method is abstinence Methods on how to have sexual intimate relationships, with low STI risks: 1) Limit number of sexual partners. 2) Get to know potential partner. 3) Make sure that both individuals are STI free. 4) Selective abstinence; engaging in other sexual activities but not intercourse.

35 Disclosing an STI To A Sexual Partner
Ways to disclose the information: - Be honest with yourself - once a person accepts the fact they have an STI, the easier to communicate - Say it, Don’t show it being direct and honest is the best approach for opening communications - Avoid the blame game blaming each other, and trying to determine who gave who what, is not good

36 The Condom Effectiveness Controversy
Many abstinence only groups argue that condoms are not effective in preventing STI's Statistics show that condoms are effective. Even though they are not 100% effective, they are more effective than unprotected sex. So.... better safe than sorry!


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