2What is an STI? This is an STI STI stands for: Sexually Transmitted Infection
3HistoryPreviously known as STD; Name change emphasizes infections are curableDarkest episode in medical history: Tuskegee Syphilis Study; details arose in the late 90’sLong term and short term research of STI’s.Methodology: deny treatment to 400 low income African men who had STI’s while not letting them know they had syphilis
4The STI Pandemic Most common cause of illness and disease worldwide. More people are suffering from STI related symptoms or illnesses than the total number of people with the common cold. (any given day)HIV and AIDS are the major pandemics
5Statistics (2010) Chlamydia: 1,244,180 Gonorrhea: 301,174 Syphilis: 44,828Age 15 – 24 are at the greatest riskAccording to CDC, every year approximately 19 million new cases are diagnosed in the US aloneOver 65 million Americans are living w/ an incurable STI.
6Parasitic: Sexually Transmitted Bugs? Trichomoniasis (trich)Caused by trichomonas vaginalisNonbacterial, nonviralMen: no symptoms; still contagiousWomen: green/yellow discharge, unpleasant odor, genital irritationPubic Lice (crabs)Not the same as head liceSymptom: most intense itching imaginableTreatment: special creams/ointment/shampoo, shaving/combing
7Risk Factors Lack of STI symptoms Example: Chlamydia STIs often asymptomaticExample: ChlamydiaAccurate Informationabstinence-only and abstinence-only-until-marriage programsMyth Versus FactYou can get herpes from a toilet seat.You can get HIV from getting a tattoo or body piercingYou can get an STI just through oral sex
8Risk Factors Unhealthy sexual emotions and attitudes Poor sexual communicationDisclosure of sexual history
10(Unprotected intercourse without a barrier.) No Risk(Activities that do not include an exchange of bodily fluids.)Probably Safe(Barrier protected activities, or very little bodily fluid contact.)Risky(Activities during which exchange of bodily fluids might create some danger of transmitting HIV.)High Risk(Unprotected intercourse without a barrier.)
16Gonorrhea Symptoms MEN: WOMEN: Painful burning sensation during urinationCloudy discharge from penis or anusWOMEN:Often no noticeable symptomsCloudy vaginal discharge, painful urinationVaginal bleeding between periods
17Gonorrhea Transmitted through: Treatment Vaginal, anal, or oral sexual CONTACTCan transmit to newborns during delivery and cause eye infectionsTreatmentNo vaccine available (ongoing research)Oral antibiotics (will cure most cases)Both partners must be treated to prevent reinfection
19Syphilis Symptoms (3 Stages) PRIMARY STAGE SECONDARY STAGE LATE STAGE Chancre sore appears during infection. Heals completely within a few weeksSECONDARY STAGEOccurs within weeks or monthsFever, sore throat, sore throat, fatigue, hair loss, and skin rashes on hands and feetLATE STAGEBacterium spread leads to organ and neurological damage, mental illness, and death
20Syphilis Transmitted through Treatment Vaginal, anal, or oral sexual CONTACTTreatmentNo vaccine available (ongoing research)Antibiotics (penicillin)Both partners must be treated to prevent reinfection
23Herpes simplex (HSV) type 1 -cause orals herpes ex. cold sores type 2 - genital herpes, soresNot curable
24transmitted through oral and vaginal sex, and you can also get it from kissing sometimes people that contract herpes they will get sickpainful small blisters appear
25Hepatitis B (HBV) 7 strains of hepatitis 1/3 of all cases are contracted from sexual activitytransmitted through semen, vaginal fluid, blood ex. needles, drugs tattoosinflammation and disruption of the liverjaundice
26HPV (human papilloma virus) genital warts: most common STI in the U.Sskin to skin contactcan cause cancer - ex. cervical cancerNot everyone will have obvious symptomsGardasil: is a preventative vaccine
27HIV lack of energy weight loss sores No cure available but there are a lot of medicationsmost new cases are men that have sex with other men
28AIDS T-cells drop below 200 Greatly weakens your immune system HIV and AIDs are becoming a huge pandemic, practice safe sex and protect yourself.
29Seeing or Feeling STI's Symptoms Is Not Enough You can be infected but your body has yet to produce symptoms.The riskier and more frequent sexual behavior creates a higher chance of infection.The only way to know for sure is to be tested.
30Obtaining Accurate Information About STI's The more effectively educated about STI's, the less chance of infection.A person must be educated and know the risks they are taking.No seat belt, smoking, not using a condom.It is important to be educated on all STI's not just some, as well as have accurate and correct information
31Overcoming Unhealthy Emotions About Sex When people become educated about STI's, negative STI emotions decrease.Being educated allows for better communication between partners.Helps people become more comfortable to seek medical attention.
32Communicating Effectively About Sex Some people do not like discussing their sexual behavior issues, because of fear or embarrassment.Tips:-become educated-don't feel ashamed or scared-communicate in person-do NOT be forced to participate in a sexual behavior you’re not comfortable with.
33Avoiding Mixing Sex and Substance Abuse Drugs and sex do not mix.Alcohol and marijuana should not be combined, they often accompany sex.No matter how educated a person can be, their judgement is greatly affected by drugs.Can be a dangerous or deadly mix.
34Refraining From Risky Sexual Behaviors The safest and best method is abstinenceMethods on how to have sexual intimate relationships, with low STI risks:1) Limit number of sexual partners.2) Get to know potential partner.3) Make sure that both individuals are STI free.4) Selective abstinence; engaging in other sexual activities but not intercourse.
35Disclosing an STI To A Sexual Partner Ways to disclose the information:- Be honest with yourself- once a person accepts the fact they have an STI, the easier to communicate- Say it, Don’t show itbeing direct and honest is thebest approach for openingcommunications- Avoid the blame gameblaming each other, and trying todetermine who gave who what, is not good
36The Condom Effectiveness Controversy Many abstinence only groups argue that condoms are not effective in preventing STI'sStatistics show that condoms are effective.Even though they are not 100% effective, they are more effective than unprotected sex.So.... better safe than sorry!