PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS IN CHLOROPLASTS IN LEAVES OF GREEN PLANTS **The green pigment chlorophyll traps the sun’s energy **A series of reactions use this radiant energy and converts it to chemical energy
CHEMICAL EQUATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS Along with energy from the sun, six molecules of carbon dioxide react with six molecules of water to form 1 molecule of glucose and six molecules of oxygen.
RATES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS ARE AFFECTED BY: Availability of Water (a Reactant) Sunlight availability (Energy source); greater the amount of sunlight, the greater the rate…to a point Available Nutrients (Needed for proper growth and development) Carbon Dioxide Gas Availability (A Reactant; great amount increases rate..to a point pH of water and soil
TWO TYPES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION Aerobic respiration and Anaerobic respiration. Both produce ATP. How much depends on oxygen levels! 1.) Aerobic respiration occurs when oxygen is available and is more efficient than anaerobic. The process produces a great deal of ATP (about 36) which gives you energy!! 2.) Anaerobic respiration occurs when there is no available oxygen. It is less efficient than aerobic as only 2 ATP molecules are produced
WHAT IS ATP??? Stands for adenosine triphosphate Bonds between phosphates of ATP have a great deal of stored energy When a bond breaks, by an enzyme (ATPase), energy is released and can be used in cell processes After the molecule loses it’s phosphate, another enzyme (ATP synthase) bonds another phosphate creating another ATP molecule ! Adenine Molecule Sugar molecule called Ribose 3 Phosphates
AEROBIC RESPIRATION Occurs when cells need energy Glucose polymers (such as in your glycogen, or a plant’s starch) are broken down into smaller, glucose molecules The glucose molecules are then broken down in a series of more reactions that create energy in the form of ATP For every glucose molecule, about 36 ATP are produced! ( 1 glucose molecule + 6 oxygen molecules yields 6 carbon dioxide molecules, 6 water molecules and ATP Energy!!! (About 36 ATP)
RATES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION ARE AFFECTED BY: pH – depends on the environment the cell that is respiring is in! Temperature; as it increases, the rate increases…to a point (too hot and enzymes denature!) Available oxygen – greater levels increase the process, but not too much!!
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION 2 Types; both occur in the cytosol of the cytoplasm 1.) Alcoholic Fermentation (from yeast and plants; top equation) 2.) Lactic Acid Fermentation (in animals; bottom equation) makes your muscles sore during exercise ***If you look at both reactions, there is no oxygen as reactant!!
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND AEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION Photosynthesis makes the food, and requires energy while cellular respiration breaks it down and gives off energy! (ATP) The equations are opposite!! But the sun is not needed for cellular respiration! Sugar (Glucose) Sugar (Glucose)