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Nursing Care of Clients with Upper Respiratory Disorders.

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Presentation on theme: "Nursing Care of Clients with Upper Respiratory Disorders."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nursing Care of Clients with Upper Respiratory Disorders

2 Nursing Care of Patients with Upper Airway Disorders Upper airway disorders may be minor, treated outside health care setting – Or may be severe, life threatening Require good assessment skills, understanding of variety of disorders that affect upper airway, impact those disorders may have on patient Patient teaching is important aspect of care

3 Specific Disorders Infections Rhinitis Sinusitis: acute, chronic Pharyngitis: acute, chronic Tonsillitis, adenoiditis Peritonisillar abscess Laryngitis

4 Upper Respiratory Tract Disorders and Risk Factors Influenza – Highly contagious viral respiratory disease – Usually occurs in epidemics or pandemics – Avian influenza: possible pandemic Sinusitis – Sterile air-filled cavities in the facial bones – Sinusitis

5 Viral Upper Respiratory Infection Pathophysiology – Local inflammatory response – Swelling of mucous membranes of nasal passages – Hyperactivity of mucus-secreting glands – Immunity produced only to individual virus

6 Rhinitis and Sinusitis

7 Pharyngitis

8

9 Viral Upper Respiratory Infection Manifestations – Nasal congestion – Profuse nasal discharge (coryza) – Sneezing – Coughing – Sore throat – Low-grade fever – Headache – Malaise – Muscle aches

10 Viral Upper Respiratory Infection Sinusitis Pathophysiology – Sinus opening obstruction, impaired drainage Manifestations – Pain and tenderness – Headache, fever, and malaise – Nasal congestion – Purulent nasal discharge – Bad breath

11 Influenza Medications – Prophylaxis – Treatment to reduce severity Amantadine Rimantadine Zanamivir Oseltamivir Ribavirin – Symptom relief also include ASA Acetaminophen NSAIDs Antitussives Antibiotics are not indicated

12 Sinusitis Medication Therapy – Antibiotics – Oral or topical decongestants – Antihistamines – Saline nose drops or sprays – Systemic mucolytic agents

13 Nursing Process: Care of Patients with Upper Respiratory Infections - Assessment Health history Signs and symptoms: headache, cough, hoarseness, fever, stuffiness, generalized discomfort and fatigue Allergies Inspection of nose, neck, throat – Include palpation of lymph nodes

14 Nursing Process: Care of Patients with Upper Respiratory Infections - Diagnosis Ineffective airway clearance Acute pain Impaired verbal communication Deficient fluid volume Deficit of knowledge related to prevention, treatment, surgical procedure, postoperative care

15 Nursing Process: Care of Patients with Upper Respiratory Infections - Planning Maintenance of patent airway Relief of pain Maintenance of effective communication Normal hydration Knowledge to how to prevent upper airway infections Absence of complications

16 Interventions Interventions to maintain patent airway Promote comfort – Analgesics – Gargles for sore throat – Use of hot packs for sinus congestion or ice collar to reduce swelling, bleeding post tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

17 Interventions (cont’d) Rest Refrain from speaking, use alternative communication Encourage liquids; 2 to 3 L a day, appropriate foods

18 Patient Education Prevention of upper airway infections Emphasize frequent hand washing When to contact health care provider Need to complete antibiotic treatment regimen Annual influenza vaccine for those at risk

19 Potential Complications Sepsis Meningitis Peritonsillar abscess Otitis media Sinusitis

20 Health Promotion Activities Viral Upper Respiratory Infection Maintaining good general health Stress-reducing activities Limiting exposure to crowds Good handwashing Influenza Immunization education Risk reduction activities – Avoiding crowds – Avoiding those who are ill


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