Presentation on theme: "HSC 2024: Undertake agreed pressure area care. Sheena Helyer Picture from Tissue Viability Society."— Presentation transcript:
HSC 2024: Undertake agreed pressure area care. Sheena Helyer Picture from Tissue Viability Society
Learning outcomes The learner will: Understand the anatomy and physiology of the skin. Understand good practice when undertaking pressure area care. Follow the agreed care plan. Understand the use of materials, equipment and resources available when undertaking pressure area care. Prepare to undertake pressure area care. Undertake pressure area care.
Anatomy and physiology of the skin
Functions of the Skin Protection Sensation Heat regulation Storage Absorption
Ageing skin Becomes thinner Less fat exposes bony prominences more. More wrinkled Dermal/epidermal junction is weaker Less sweat glands Less able to manufacture Vitamin D Not as able to resist infection. Decreased pain perception Circulation decreased. Sun damage Healing takes longer Picture from beauty-personalhealthcare.blogspot.com and immune- health-solutions-for-you.com
What can you do to keep your skin healthy? Drinking plenty of water Regular skin cleansing Moisturiser Plenty of vitamins and minerals in the diet Getting enough sleep No smoking Limit exposure to the sun Regular exercise
Maintaining healthy skin For tissues to be viable i.e. stay alive, they have a basic requirement for oxygen and nutrients to help growth and repair and for waste products to be removed. The oxygen and nutrients are transported around the body in the blood by arteries and then through tiny capillaries. When there is disruption to the blood supply through the capillaries this area of tissue will die and this will result in a pressure sore. Nursing and residential care, November 2007,Vol 9,No 11 p. 516
Definition of a pressure ulcer “ Localised injury to the skin and/or the underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure combined with shear and/or friction. A number of contributing factors are also associated with pressure ulcers. Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel
Stages of pressure ulcers Stirling Scale. Picture from spinal-injury,net
Stages of pressure sores Stage 1. Discolouration of intact skin, light finger pressure applied to the site will not alter the discolouration. Stage 2. Partial thickness skin loss or damage involving the epidermis and/ or dermis. Stage 3. Full thickness skin loss involving damage or necrosis of subcutaneous tissue, but not extending to underlying bone, tendon or joint. Stage 4. Full thickness skin loss with extensive destruction and tissue necrosis extending to underlying bone, tendon or joint.
Mechanisms which cause pressure sores to develop Pressure is when the body tissue is compressed or squashed so much that the blood cannot reach the skin. Picture from wessexhealth.co.uk
Mechanisms which cause pressure sores to develop Friction is when two rough or moist surfaces rub together and cause superficial skin damage.
Mechanisms which cause pressure sores to develop Shear is when the skin is being pulled in two directions which can lead to damage below the surface of the skin. Picture from shame-pressure-ulcer.jpg
Pressure area care involves:- Regular changes of position Picture from annals.org
Pressure area care involves:- Careful positioning Picture from thecompleteword.com
Pressure area care involves:- Care during moving and assistance procedures to avoid friction Pictures from wsergo.com hillrom.co.uk 30-swift-slide-sheeto.jpg
Pressure area care involves:- Provision of suitable equipment Picture from assistireland.ie Pressure-care.co.uk Squirrelmedical.co.uk Carehome.co.uk
The purpose of pressure relieving surfaces is to redistribute weight Picture from staffsfallsprevention.co.uk
Strategies to avoid development of pressure sores Assess for risk factors Write a care plan for all to follow Record and document care given Provide necessary equipment Ensure that Manual Handling is of a high standard to prevent friction and shearing forces Check skin frequently and moisturise if necessary Change incontinence pads on time Turn and reposition Improve nutrition
Consequences of pressure sores For the individual Pain Reduced mobility Reduced quality of life Possible wound infection Death… For the organisation Increased care cost SOVA investigation Legal case Poor reputation Loss of customers Financial loss
This is what we need to avoid! Picture from seattletime.com, thebody.com, sci.washington.edu
Complications of pressure sores Infection Necrosis Picture from clinimed.co.uik Ouhse.edu
Case Study: Mr Smith Picture from bbc.co.uk
Case study: Mr Smith Mr Smith is an 85 year old who lives in a sheltered flat. He has cardiac failure. As a consequence his legs have become very swollen and the skin on his legs is very fragile, occasionally he suffers skin tears that weep. He sits in a chair most of the day and is only able to walk a few steps with 2 carers. He is underweight. His body mass index is 19. His appetite is very poor and he has lost weight in the past 3 months. He is occasionally incontinent of urine. The highlight of the week is when he goes to his daughter’s house on Sundays and has lunch with the family. Work out Mr Smith’s risk factor score using the Waterlow risk assessment tool Describe what you would do to reduce his risk of getting pressure sores
Review the learning outcomes The learner will:- Understand the anatomy and physiology of the skin. Understand good practice when undertaking pressure area care. Follow the agreed care plan. Understand the use of materials, equipment and resources available when undertaking pressure area care. Prepare to undertake pressure area care. Undertake pressure area care.