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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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Presentation on theme: "Sexually Transmitted Diseases"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Presented By : Pradeep Soni 514a Stavropol state medical academy Department of asu

2 Sexually Transmitted Diseases
transmitted during coitus or genital contact 1 in 4 will contract STD between yrs of age require moist environments (“transitional zones”)

3 STDs common areas of infection:
vulva, vagina urethra in females penis, urethra in males mouth, oral cavity, eyes, anus in both sexes if untreated, can pass from transitional zone to other tissues person usually has >1 STD as a time

4 Causes BACTERIA : single-celled, microscopic organisms
cause disease by producing toxins can be prevented by vaccines; killed by antibiotics Examples of bacterial STDs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis

5 Causes Examples of viral STDs: VIRUSES: tiny, noncellular particle
has DNA or RNA core and a protein coat parasitic (reproduces in host cell) some can be prevented by vaccine Examples of viral STDs: Herpes genitalis, HPV, HIV OTHERS: FUNGI, PROTOZOA, INVERTEBRATES

6 Chlamydia (most prevalent bacterial STD)
caused by bacterium-like microorganism that lives inside cells symptoms: urinary tract infection in both males and females yellowish vaginal discharge Infected tissues become red, irritated some may be asymptomatic (30% of males, 50-70% of females)

7 Chlamydia Life Cycle Chlamydia Cervicitis

8 Chlamydia if left untreated, PID can result in females
untreated males can develop infertility (due to scarring of sex accessory tubes) can be passed from pregnant woman to child during delivery > lung and eye infections in newborn detected by tissue culture treated with antibiotics (note: penicillin is ineffective) association exists between chlamydia and cervical cancer

9 Gonorrhea Bacterial STD Symptoms similar to those of chlamydia

10 Syphilis STD caused by bacterium 1st epidemic: 15th century, W. Europe
bacterium thrives in moist regions 9/10 cases due to transmission during coitus

11 Stages of Syphilis: Primary stage
involves single sore (chancre) where bacteria 1st entered the body appears days after entry heals in 1-5 weeks afterwards, travels in blood, lymph to other parts of body

12 Primary Syphilis Chancre
Sores Primary Syphilis Chancre

13 Secondary stage of syphilis
occurs 2 weeks - 6 months after primary stage characterized by rash on upper body, arms, hands, spreads to other skin larger bumps develop, burst (release lots of bacteria!) doesn’t itch; painless can also cause hair loss, sore throat, headache, loss of appetite, nausea, muscle / joint pain, low fever sometimes symptoms are overlooked goes away in 2-6 weeks enters latent stage

14 Secondary Syphilis Rash

15 Latent stage of syphilis
can last for years has few or no symptoms after 1 yr, bacteria can no longer be transmitted (except to fetus) 1/2 never leave latent stage 1/2 enter tertiary stage if not already treated with antibiotics

16 Tertiary stage of syphilis
bacteria has invaded tissues throughout the body causes large, tumor-like sores on skin, muscle, internal organs greatly damages heart, valves ultimately affects central nervous system > paralysis, blindness, psychotic behavior 4000 die per year in U.S. due to advanced syphilis

17 Congenital Syphilis can be passed from mother to fetus at any stage of syphilis placenta protects baby up to 6 mo. then, bacteria enters fetal bloodstream: 30% miscarry 70% born with congenital syphilis and go through normal progression of disease can severely damage developing tissues of newborn; many die

18 Diagnosis / treatment of syphilis
Cultures; blood test for antibodies several antibiotics are effective curable, like gonorrhea may cause permanent damage if tertiary stage is reached

19 Herpes genitalis most common viral STD (1 million in U.S. contract / year) incurable caused by herpes simplex type 2 virus other herpes viruses exist (cause fever blisters, cold sores, chicken pox, infectious mononucleosis) type 2 invades areas below the waist; type 1 invades above the waist 20% of infections in genital region are due to type 1

20 Genital Herpes Simplex

21 Genital Herpes Simplex in Females

22 Herpes likewise, type 2 is sometimes found in mouth sores
condoms not 100% effective in preventing transmission type 2 can be transmitted by nonsexual contact

23 Herpes: Symptoms Burning sensation followed by appearance of blisters
Blisters rupture in 1-2 days; become painful ulcers Possible flu-like symptoms in males > sores occur on penis in females > on labia, clitoris, cervix, vagina, urethra, perineum

24 Herpes Symptoms in both sexes: painful urination and coitus; sometimes fever and enlargement of lymph nodes sores heal between 1-6 weeks if virus comes into contact with eye, can cause blindness

25 Herpes: Transmission even with no sores, virus is harbored within body in nerve cells near spinal cord a person is most infectious when sores are present; transmission at other times? sores can reappear throughout a persons lifetime

26 Herpes: Transmission triggers for recurrence:
sunlight stress menstruation sex sometimes, antibodies are developed that alleviate or stop recurrences

27 Herpes: Treatment no cure for herpes
drugs can disrupt viral reproduction some forms resistant proper hygiene helps reduce spread vaccine is currently being developed that decreases frequency of sore recurrence

28 Herpes vaginal deliveries can result in infection of newborn:
25% can develop blindness, brain damage 25% develop skin lesions rarely, virus can cross placenta

29 Human papilloma virus Over 70 strains
Some cause “venereal warts” -moist, soft, cauliflower-like bumps (within 3 weeks - 8 months) appear on cervix, labia, vulva, perineum in females on penis in males, urethra, scrotum treated topically with dry ice, liquid nitrogen > warts dry up and fall off in a few days warts may recur

30 Perianal Wart

31 HPV Penile Warts

32 Possible HPV on the Tongue

33 Human papilloma virus major cause of cervical cancer (95% of cases associated with HPV) also associated with cancer of the penis, vagina, anus

34 AIDS AIDS = acquired immune deficiency syndrome:
condition is caught, not inherited virus attacks immune system certain infections, cancers occur in infected persons caused by human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) live and reproduce in helper T cells host cells die as viruses depart to infect other cells consequence: decrease in helper T cells, which are necessary for stimulating antibody production by B cells and activity of killer T cells

35 AIDS between 4.2 and 15 years, HIV infection leads to fullblown AIDs
stages: “window period” (incubation period): can be as long as six months virus replicates slowly; no antibodies detected “acute phase of HIV disease” (after seroconversion): lasts 2-4 weeks accompanied by flu-like illness (fever, swollen glands, muscle aches, weight loss)

36 AIDS “asymptomatic phase”: little or no symptoms
virus continues to replicate, destroy T cells “symptomatic phase”: opportunistic infections begin examples: bacterial skin infections, diarrhea, fever, tuberculosis

37 AIDS T cell count less than 200 cells per microliter of blood (normal is cells) accompanied by one or more opportunistic infections: pneumonia neurological problems (meningitis, seizures) cancers of skin, cervix, lymph nodes death follows in about 2 years


39 AIDS: Transmission of HIV
virus is present in bodily fluids: blood, semen, cervical and vaginal secretions low levels also present in urine, saliva, tears (no evidence that virus can be transmitted by these fluids) transmitted when contaminated fluid enters another’s body risk of contraction is greatest in receptive partner during anal or vaginal intercourse common modes of transmission: use of contaminated needles, sexual contact, during pregnancy

40 AIDS: Transmission of HIV
virus does not live long outside of the body cannot be contracted from classroom activities, bathrooms, swimming pools, kissing, sharing food, coughing, sneezing, sweating, sharing utensils, giving blood

41 Pregnancy and HIV Use of protease inhibitors during pregnancy can reduce risk of infecting fetus (25% to 8%) HIV-positive women are advised not to breastfeed

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