Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION OF POINTS 3.1 Definition of Points Points (acupoints) are the places through which Qi of Zang-fu organs and meridians is transported.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "GENERAL INTRODUCTION OF POINTS 3.1 Definition of Points Points (acupoints) are the places through which Qi of Zang-fu organs and meridians is transported."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 GENERAL INTRODUCTION OF POINTS

3 3.1 Definition of Points Points (acupoints) are the places through which Qi of Zang-fu organs and meridians is transported to the body surface. In Chinese, points are called shuxue, shu means transportion, and xue means hole.

4 3.2 Classification of Points Points fall roughly into three categories: points of the fourteen meridians, extraordinary points and Ashi points, which are described respectively as follows:

5 Points of the fourteen meridians, also known as the "regular points", are distributed along the twelve regular meridians and Du and Ren Meridians. As the major part of points they have their regular locations, regular names and pertaining meridians.

6 Extraordinary points also have their regular names and regular locations, but are not integrated with the fourteen meridians. They are also named "extra points" in short. These points are specially effective in the treatment of certain diseases.

7 Ashi points are also called tender spots. They have no specific names and definite locations, and the tender spots and other sensitive spots are places for needling and moxibustion.

8 3.3 Therapeutic Properties of Points Points manifest themselves in the following three therapeutic properties.

9 Local and adjacent therapeutic properties: All the points in the body share the common feature in terms of their therapeutic properties. Each point located on a particular site is able to treat disorder in this area and in nearby tissues and organs.

10 Remote therapeutic properties: They are the basic regularity of the therapeutic properties of points of the fourteen meridians. The points of the fourteen meridians, especially those of the twelve regular meridians located below the elbow and knee joints, are effective not only for local disorders but also for disorders of the tissues and Zang-fu organs so far as the circulation of their pertaining meridians can reach.

11 Some even have systemic therapeutic properties. For example, Zusanli (ST 36) not only treats disorders of the lower limbs, but also regulates the whole digestive system, even has some effects on resistance and immune reactions of the body.

12 Special therapeutic properties:Clinical practice has proved that needling somepoints may bring forth biphasic beneficial regulation on a variety of functional abnormalities of the body. For instance, puncturing Tianshu (ST 25) relieves both diarrhea and constipation. In addition, the therapeutic properties of some points show relative specificity, For instance, Dazhui (DU 14), has an antipyretic effect, and Zhiyin (BL 67) helps correct the malposition of a fetus.

13 3.4 Methods of Locating Points What is remarkable about the therapeutic results is first the accuracy of locations of points. In order to locate points accurately, an acupuncturist must grasp the methods of locating points. The methods of locating points include bonelength measurement, anatomical landmarks, simple measurement and finger measurement.

14 3.4.1 Bone-length measurement This, also known as proportional measurement, is a method of locating points in which the bone segments are taken as measurement markers to measure the width or the length of various portions of the body, and then, the measurements are converted proportionately into the point-locating standards. The bone-length measurement has become a basic principle of locating points. Now, Table 3 and Fig. 3 have showed us the standards for bone-length measurement.

15 3.4.2 Anatomical landmarks This method is based on the body surface landmarks. The landmarks can be divided into two types: (1) fixed landmarks, referring to those visable and unchangable even with body movement, such as the five sense organs, finger (toe) nails, nipple, umbilicus, etc. and

16 (2) movable landmarks, referring to spaces, depressions, wrinkles, etc. that will appear while the joints, muscles, skin and others move voluntarily. For instance, when mouth is open and a depression anterior to the tragus is formed, Tinggong (SI 19) can be located; and when the hand is clenched into a fist and transverse palmar crease appears, Houxi (SI 3) can be located.

17 3.4.3 Simple Measurement This is simply employed in clinical practice. For example, to locate Fengshi (GB 31) at the tip of the middle finger when at attention, or when the index fingers and thumbs of both hands are crossed with the index finger of one hand stretching, Lieque (LU 7) is in the place right under the tip of the index finger.

18 3.4.4 Finger measurement The length and width of the patient's finger(s) are taken as a standard for point location. The following three methods are commonly used in clinic.

19 (1) Middle finger measurement: When the patient's middle finger is doubled into the palm, the distance between the two medial ends of the creases of the interphalangeal joints is taken as one cun. This method is used employed to measure the vertical distance to locate the limb points, or to measure the horizontal distance to locate the points on the back.

20 (2) Four-finger measurement: The width of the four fingers (index, middle, ring and little) brought close together side by side at the level of the dorsal skin crease of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is taken as three cun.

21 (3) Thumb measurement: The width of the interphalangeal joint of the patient's thumb is taken as one cun. The method is also employed for measuring the vertical distance to locate the points on the limbs.

22 3.5 Special Points

23 3.5.1 Five Shu Points Each of the twelve regular meridians has, below the elbow or knees, five special points, namely, Jing-(Well), Ying-(Spring), Shu-(Stream), Jing- (River) and He-(Sea), which are termed Five Shu points as a whole. They are situated in the above order from the distal ends of the extremities to elbow or knee.

24 The ancient people gave the names of the Five Shu points because they likened the flow of meridian Qi to flow of water. Jing-(Well) point is situated in the place where the meridian Qi starts to bubble; Ying-(Spring) Point is where the meridian Qi starts to gush;

25 Shu-(Stream) Point is where the meridian Qi flourishes; Jing-(River) Point is where the meridian Qi is pouring abundantly; and finally, He- (Sea) Point signifies the confluence of rivers into the sea, where the meridian Qi meets in Zang or Fu organs.

26 Clinically, the Jing-(Well) Point is generally indicated in mental disorders and vexation or fullness in the chest; the Ying-(Spring) Point in febrile diseases; the Shu-(Stream) Point, in heaviness and joint pain; the Jing-(River) Point, in asthma and pharyngolaryngeal disorders; the He-(Sea) Point, in diseases of the six Fu organs, such as gastrointestinal diseases.

27 3.5.2 Yuan-(Primary) Points Each of the twelve regular meridians has a site on the limbs where the Yuan- (Primary) Qi is retained. This site is called Yuan-(Primary) Point (In the Yin meridians, Yuan-(Primary). Points overlap with Shu-(stream) Points of the Five Shu Points). Yuan-Primary Points play an important role in the treatment of disorders of meridians and Zang-fu organs.

28 3.5.3 Luo-(Connecting) Points Each of the twelve regular meridians has, on the limbs, a collateral to link its exteriorly-interiorly related Yin and Yang meridians. On the trunk, there are the collaterals of Du and Ren Meridians and Major Collateral of the spleen distributed on the back, abdomen and lateral side of the hypochondrium. Each of the collaterals has on Luo-(Connecting) Point on its origin.

29 They are termed "the Fifteen Luo-(Connecting) Points". A Luo-(Connecting) point may be used to treat disorders involving the two exteriorly-interiorly related meridians and disorder in the area dominated by the two meridians.

30 3.5.4 Xi-(Cleft) Points The Xi-(Cleft) Point is the site where Qi of the meridian is deeply converged. Each of the twelve regular meridians and the four extra meridians (Yinwei, Yangwei,Yinqiao and Yangqiao) has a Xi-(Cleft) Point on the limbs, amounting to sixteen in all.

31 The Xi-(Cleft) Points used to treat acute disorders in the area governed by its pertaining meridian and those of its pertaining Zang or Fu organ.

32 3.5.5 Back-Shu Points Back-Shu Points are corresponding points on the back where Qi of the respective Zang-fu organs is infused. Back-Shu Points are located on the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang bilateral to the spinal column on the back.

33 Most of them are situated close to their respectively related Zang-fu organs. So Back-Shu Points present abnormal reactions, such as tenderness, to the dysfunction of their corresponding Zang-fu organs. They are very significant in the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders of their corresponding Zang-fu organs.

34 3.5.6 Front-Mu Points Front-Mu Points are those on the chest and abdomen where Qi of the respective Zang-fu organs is infused and converged. They are located close to their corresponding Zang-fu organs. Front-Mu Points are those on the chest and abdomen where Qi of the respective Zang-fu organs is infused and converged. They are located close to their corresponding Zang-fu organs.

35 If a Zang or Fu organ is diseased, abnormal reactions, such as tenderness, often appear in its corresponding Front-Mu Point. So, the Front- Mu Points play a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders of their corresponding Zang-fu organs.

36 3.5.7 Crossing Points Crossing Points are those at the intersections of two or more meridians. Most of them are distributed on the head, face and trunk. They may be used to treat meridian disorders of the areas where they are located. Among them, the Crossing Points of Du and Ren Meridians are more important and have more wide indications.

37 3.5.8 Eight Influential Points The Eight Influential Points are the eight points where the vital essence and energy of the Zang organs, Fu organs, Qi, blood, tendon, vessel, bone and marrow join together. These points are distributed on the trunk and limbs.

38 3.5.9 Eight Confluence Points The eight Confluence Points refer to the eight points where the eight extra meridians communicate with the twelve regular meridians. All of them are distributed on the areas superior and inferior to the wrist joints and ankle joints.

39 Lower He-(Sea) Points The Lower He-(Sea) Points refer to the six points of the three Yang meridians of hand and foot, where the downward-flowing Qi of the six Fu organs along the three Yang meridians of foot, and the three Yang meridians of hand meet. Most of them are distributed around the knee joints and indicated in disorders of the six Fu organs.

40 4 THE FOURTEEN MERIDIANS AND THEIR POINTS

41 4.1 The Lung Meridian of Hand-Taiyin and its points The Meridian

42 The Circulation of the Meridian The Lung Meridian of Hand-Taiyin originates from the Middle Jiao, descending to link with the large intestine. Winding back, it runs along the upper orifice of the stomach, passes through the diaphragm, and pertains to the lung.

43 From the lung system, which refers to the portion of the lung communicating with the throat, it comes out transversely (Zhongfu, LU 1). Descending along the radial border of the medial aspect of the upper arm, it reaches the cubital fossa. Then it goes continuously downwards along the anterior border of the radial side in the medial aspect of the forearm and enters cunkou (Taiyuan, LU 9).(Zhongfu, LU 1)(Taiyuan, LU 9)

44 Passing the thenar eminence, (Yuji, LU 11) and going along its radial border, it ends at the medial side of the tip of the thumb. The branch emerges from Lieque (LU 7) and runs along the dorsum of the hand onto the radial side of the tip of the index finger. (Yuji, LU 11) Lieque (LU 7)

45

46 Main Pathological Manifestations The main pathological manifestations include cough, asthma, hypopnea, hemoptysis, common cold, fullness sensation in the chest, sore throat, pain in the supraclavicular fossa and anterior border of the shoulder and back and so on.

47 Principal Indications The points on the meridian are mainly used to treat the disorder of the throat, chest and lung, as well as other local symptoms or illnesses along the circulation of the meridian.

48 4.1.2 Points

49 (1) Zhongfu (LU1) LOCATION Six cun lateral to the midline of the chest, in the first intercostal space

50 INDICATIONS Cough, asthma, fullness of the lung, pain in the chest and back, sore throat.

51 METHOD Puncture obliquely or subcutaneously cun towards the lateral aspect of the chest. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Front-Mu Point of the lung, Crossing Point of the Lung Meridian of Hand-Taiyin and the Spleen Meridian of Foot-Taiyin.

52 (2) Yunmen (LU 2) LOCATION In the superior lateral part of the anterior thoracic wall, superior to the coracoid process of scapula, in the depression of the infraclavicular fossa, 6 cun lateral to the anterior midline.

53 INDICATION Cough, asthma, chest pain and shoulder pain. METHOD Puncture obliquely cun toward the lateral aspect of the chest. To avoid injuring the lung, never puncture deeply toward the middle aspect. Moxibustion is applicable.

54 (5) Chize (LU 5) LOCATION On the cubital crease, near the radial border of the tendon of m. biceps brachii. The point is located with the elbow slightly flexed.

55 INDICATION Cough, hemoptysis, sore throat, fullness the chest, spasmodic pain of the elbow and arm. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun, or prick the point to cause bleeding. REMARKS He-(Sea) Point of the Lung Meridian of Hand- Taiyin.

56 (6) Kongzui (LU 6) LOCATION On the palmar aspect of the forearm, on the line joining Taiyuan (L 9) and Chize (L5), 7 cun above the transverse crease of the wrist.

57 INDICATIONS Cough, hemoptysis, sore throat, asthma, hemorrhoid, pain and disability of extension and flexion of the elbow and arm. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Xi-(Cleft) Point of the lung Meridian of Hand-Taiyin.

58 (7) Lieque (LU 7) LOCATION Superior to the styloid process of the radius, 1.5 cun above the transverse crease of the wrist.

59 INDICATIONS Exopathogenic headache, cough, stuffy nose, sore throat, toothache, deviation of the mouth and eye, and weakness of the wrist. METHOD Puncture cun obliquely upward. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Luo-(connecting) Point of the Lung Meridian of Hand-Taiyin, one of the Eight Confluent Points, communicating with Ren Meridian.

60 (8) Jingqu (LU 8) LOCATION When the palm faces upward, the point is one cun above the transverse crease of the wrist; on the medial side of the styloid process of the radius, in the depression on the lateral side of the radial artery.

61 INDICATIONS Cough, asthma, chest pain, sore throat, pain in the wrist and hand. METHOD Just away from the radial artery, puncture perpendicularly or obliquely cun. REMARKS Jing-(River) Point of the Lung Meridian of Hand-Taiyin.

62 (9) Taiyuan (LU 9) LOCATION At the radial end of the transverse crease of the wrist, in the depression on the radial side of the radial artery.

63 INDICATIONS Cough, asthma, hemoptysis, chest pain, sore throat, pain in the wrist and arm, acrotism. METHOD Just away from the radial artery, puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Shu-(Stream) and Yuan-(Primary) Point of the Lung Meridian of Hand-Taiyin. Influential Point of vessels.

64 (10) Yuji (LU 10) LOCATION At the midpoint of the palmar side of the first metacarpal bone, on the junction of the red and white skin.

65 INDICATIONS Cough, asthma, sore throat, aphonia, fever. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Ying-(Spring) Point of the Lung Meridian of Hand- Taiyin.

66 (11) Shaoshang (LU 11) LOCATION On the radial side of the thumb, about 0.1 cun posterior to the corner of the nail.

67 INDICATIONS Cough, sore throat, fever, coma and manic-depressive disorders. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly 0.1 cun, or prick the point to cause bleeding. REMARKS Jing-(Well) Point of the Lung Meridian of Hand-Taiyin.

68 4.2 The Large Intestine Meridian of Hand-Yangming and its points The Meridian

69 The circulation of the Meridian The Large Intestine Meridian of Hand- Yangming starts from the tip of the index finger (Shangyang, LI 1). Running upwards along the radial side of the index finger and passing through the interspace of the 1st and 2nd metacarpal bones (Hegu, LI 4), it enters into the depression between the tendons of m. extensor pollicis longus and brevis.(Shangyang, LI 1)(Hegu, LI 4),

70 Then, running on along the anterior aspect of the forearm, it reaches the lateral side of the elbow. From there, it ascends along the lateral anterior aspect of the upper arm to the highest point of the shoulder (Jianyu, LI 15). Then, along the anterior border of the acromion, it goes up to the 7th cervical vertebra (the confluence of the three Yang meridians of the hand and foot) (Dazhui, DU 14), and descends to Quepen (ST 12) (the supraclavicular fossa) to connect with its corresponding Zang-fu organs. It then passes through the diaphragm and enters the large intestine, its pertaining organ.(Jianyu, LI 15).(Dazhui, DU 14)

71 The branch from Quepen (ST 12) runs upwards to the neck, passes through the cheek and enters the lower gums. Then it turns back to upper lip and crosses the opposite meridian at the philtrum. From there, the left meridian goes to the right and the right meridian to left, to the contralateral sides of the nose (Yingxiang, LI 20), where the Large Intestine Meridian links with the Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming.(Yingxiang, LI 20),

72

73 Main Pathological Manifestations The pathological manifestations mainly include abdominal pain, borborygmus, diarrhea, constipation, dysentery, sore throat, toothache, watery nasal discharge or hemorrhage, as well as pain, fever and swelling, or cold symptoms along the circulation of the meridian.

74 Principal Indications The points on the meridian are mainly used to treat the disease of the head, face, five sense organs and throat; febrile disease; other disease in the regions along the circulation of this meridian.

75 4.2.3 Points

76 (1) Shangyang (LI 1) LOCATION On the radial side of the index finger, about 0.1 cun posterior to corner of the nail.

77 INDICATIONS Sore throat, toothache, deafness, numbness of fingers, febrile diseases, syncope. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly 0.1 cun, or prick the point to cause bleeding. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Jing-(well) Point of the Large Intestine Meridian of Hand-Yangming.

78 (2) Erjian (LI 2) LOCATION On the radial side of the second finger, distal to the metacarpo- phalangeal joint, at the junction of the red and white skin. The point is located when a loose fist is made.

79 INDICATIONS Epistaxis, toothache, disease of the eye, wry mouth, febrile disease. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly 0.3 cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Ying-(Spring) Point of the Large Intestine Meridian of Hand-Yangming.

80 (3) Sanjian (LI 3) LOCATION When a loose fist is made, the point is on the radial side of the index finger, posterior to the 2nd metacarpal joint or above the small head of the 2nd metacarpal bone.

81 INDICATIONS Ophthalmalgia, toothache, sore throat, fever, fullness of the abdomen, borborygmus, redness and swelling of fingers and the dorsum of the hand. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Shu-(Stream) Point of the Large Intestine Meridian of Hand- Yangming.

82 (4) Hegu (LI 4) LOCATION On the dorsum of the hand, between the 1st and 2nd metacarpal bones, in the middle of the 2nd metacarpal bone on the radial side.

83 INDICATIONS Headache, redness, swelling and pain of the eye, nasal diseases, deafness, toothache, trismus, deviation of the mouth and eye, sore throat, mumps, abdominal pain, constipation, anhidrosis, hidrosis, dysentery, dystocia, amenorrhea.

84 METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. Acupuncture and moxibustion are contraindicated in pregnant women. REMARKS Yuan-(Primary) Point of the Large Intestine Meridian of Hand-Yangming.

85 (5) Yangxi (LI 5) LOCATION On the radial end of the dorsal crease of the wrist. When the thumb is held up, it is in the depression between the tendons of m. extensor pollicis longus and brevis

86 INDICATIONS Tinnitus, deafness, redness, swelling and pain of the eye, toothache, weakness of the wrist. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Jing-(River) Point of the Large Intestine Meridian of Hand-Yangming.

87 (10) Shousanli (LI 10) LOCATION On the radial side of the dorsal surface of the forearm and on the line connecting Yangxi (LI 5) and Quchi (LI 11) and external humeral epicondylitis.

88 INDICATIONS Toothache and swelling of the neck, crampy pain in the upper arm, abdominal pain and diarrhea. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

89 (11) Quchi (LI 11) LOCATION When the elbow is flexed to form a right angle, the point is at the midpoint of the line joining the lateral end of the transverse cubital crease and the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.

90 INDICATIONS Sore throat, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, edema, dizziness, eczema, continuous residual fever after febrile disease, hemiparalysis, swelling and pain of the hand and arm. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS He-(Sea) Point of the Large Intestine Meridian of Hand- Yangming.

91 (14) Binao(LI 14) LOCATION On the line joining Quchi (LI 11) and Jianyu (LI 15) 7 cun above Quchi (LI 11), superior to the insertion of m. deltoideus.

92 INDICATIONS Pain in the shoulder and arm, spasmodic rigidity of the neck, diseases of the eye, scrofula. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly or obliquely cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

93 (15) Jianyu (LI 15) LOCATION Antero-interior to the acromion, between the acromion and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, at the center of the upper portion of m. deltoideus. When the arm is in abduction at 90, there are two depressions on the shoulder. The point is in the anterior depression.

94 INDICATIONS Pain in the shoulder and arm, toothache, urticaria due to wind-heat, scrofula, numbness of the upper extremities. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

95 (18) Futu (LI 18) LOCATION 3 cun lateral to Adam's apple, between the sternal head and clavicular head of m. sternocleido- mastoideus.

96 INDICATIONS Cough, asthma, sore throat, scrofula, goiter. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

97 Yingxiang(LI 20) LOCATION 0.5 cun lateral to the midpoint of the lateral border of ala nasi, in the nasolabial groove.

98 INDICATIONS Nasal diseases, wry mouth, lockjaw. METHOD Puncture obliquely or subcutaneously cun; scar-producing moxibustion is not advisable.

99 4.3 The Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming and its Points The Meridian

100 The circulation of the Meridian The Stomach Meridian of Foot- Yangming starts from the lateral side of ala nasi. It ascends to the bridge of the nose, where it meets the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang.

101 Turning downwards along the lateral side of the nose, it enters the upper gum. Reemerging, it curves round the lips and descends to meet Ren Meridian at the mentolabial groove- Chengjiang (RN 24).

102 Then it runs posterolaterally across the lower portion of the cheek at Daying (ST 5). Winding along the angle of the mandible Jiache (ST 6), it ascends in front of the ear and traverses Shangguan (GB 3) of the Gallbladder Meridian of Foot-Shaoyang. Then it follows the anterior hairline and reaches the forehead.Jiache (ST 6)

103 The facial branch emerging in front of Daying (ST 5) runs downwards to Renying (ST 9). From there it goes along the throat and enters the supraclavicular fossa. Descending, it passes through the diaphragm, enters the stomach, its pertaining organ, and connects with the spleen.Renying (ST 9)

104 The straight portion of the meridian arising from the supraclavicular fossa runs downward passing through the nipple. It descends by the umbilicus and enters Qichong (ST 30) on the lateral side of the lower abdomen. The branch from the lower orifice of the stomach descends inside the abdomen and joins the previous portion of the meridian at Qichong (ST 30).Qichong (ST 30)

105 Further running downwards, traversing Biguan(ST 31), and further through Femur-Futu (ST 32), it reaches the knee. From there, it continues downwards along the anterior border of the lateral aspect of the tibia, passes through the dorsum of the foot, and reaches the lateral side of the tip of the 2nd toe.Biguan(ST 31), Futu (ST 32),

106 The tibial branch emerges from Zusanli (ST 36), 3 cun below the knee, and enters the lateral side of the middle toe. The branch from the dorsum of the foot rises from Chongyang (ST 42) and terminates at the medial side of the tip of the great toe, where it links with the Spleen Meridian of Foot- Taiyin. Zusanli (ST 36) Chongyang (ST 42)

107 1

108 Main Pathological Manifestations Borborygmus, abdominal distention, edema, stomachache, vomiting or polyorexia, thirst, sore throat, epistaxis, chest pain, knee and patella as well as in other positions along the circulation of the meridian, febrile diseases and mania, etc.

109 Principal Indications The points on the meridian are mainly used to treat the diseases of stomach and intestines, pain in the head, face, eye, nose and mouth; toothache; mental illnesses; other diseases in the regions along the circulation of this meridian.

110 4.2 The Points

111 (2) Sibai (ST 2) LOCATION With the eyes looking straight forward, directly below the pupil, the point is in the depression at the infraorbital foramen.

112 INDICATIONS Redness, pain and itching of the eye, corneal opacity, twitching of eyelids, deviation of the mouth and eye, pain in the face. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly or obliquely cun.

113 (3) Juliao (ST 3) LOCATION On the face, directly below the pupil, on the level of the lower border of nasal ala, beside the nasolabial groove.

114 INDICATIONS INDICATIONS Deviation of the mouth and eye, epistaxis, toothache and swelling of the lips and cheek. METHOD METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

115 (4) Dicang (ST 4) LOCATION 0.4 cun lateral to the angle of the mouth, directly below Juliao (ST 3).

116 INDICATIONS Wry mouth, salivation, twitching of eyelids. METHOD Puncture subcutaneously 1-2 cun with the tip of the needle directed towards Jiache (ST 6). Moxibustion is applicable.

117 (6) Jiache (ST 6) LOCATION In the depression one finger-breadth anterior and superior to the angle of the mandible where m. masseter attaches at the prominence of the muscle when the teeth are clenched.

118 INDICATIONS Wry mouth, toothache, swelling of the cheek, trismus. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun, or subcutaneously cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

119 (7) Xiaguan (ST 7) LOCATION At the lower border of the zygomatic arch, in the depression anterior to the condyloid process of the mandible. This point is located when the mouth is closed.

120 INDICATIONS Deafness, tinnitus, trismus, deviation of the mouth and eye, toothache. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

121 (8) Touwei (ST 8) LOCATION 0.5 cun directly above the hairline at the corner of the forehead.

122 INDICATIONS Headache, blurred vision, twitching of eyelids, lacrimation. METHOD Puncture cun subcutaneously. REMARKS The Crossing Point of the Stomach Meridian of Foot- Yangming, the Gallbladder Meridian of Foot-Shaoyang and Yangwei Meridian.

123 (9) Renying (ST 9) LOCATION 1.5 cun lateral to Adam's apple, just behind the common carotid artery, on the anterior border of m. sternocleido- mastoideus.

124 INDICATIONS Sore throat, scrofula, goiter, asthma, hypertension. METHOD Keeping away from the common carotid artery, puncture perpendicularly cun.

125 (21) Liangmen (ST 21) LOCATION On the upper abdomen, 4 cun above the umbilicus, 2 cun lateral to the anterior median line.

126 INDICATIONS Gastric pain, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal distension, diarrhea. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

127 MEANING Tian, heaven; shu, pivot. The region above the navel is considered as heaven, pertaining to Yang, while the region below the navel is earth, pertaining to Yin. The point is on the center of the umbilicus.

128 (25) Tianshu (ST 25) LOCATION 2 cun lateral to the umbilicus.

129 INDICATIONS Abdominal distension, borborygmus, pain around the umbilicus, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal mass, dysentery, irregular menstruation. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Front-Mu Point of the large intestine.

130 (29) Guilai (ST 29) LOCATION On the lower abdomen, 4 cun below umbilicus, 2 cun lateral to the anterior median line.

131 INDICATIONS Abdominal pain, hernia, irregular menstruation, leukorrhagia, spermatorrhea, impotence, prolapse of the uterus. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

132 (33) Yinshi (ST 33) LOCATION On the anterior side of the thigh and on the line connecting the anteriosuperior iliac spine and the superiolateral corner of patella, 3 cun above this corner.

133 INDICATIONS Flaccidity and arthralgia in the leg and knee, dyscinesia of the knee joint and distending pain in the abdomen. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

134 (34) Liangqiu (ST 34) LOCATION On the line connecting the anterior superior iliac spine and lateral border of the patella, 2 cun above the lateral superior border of the patella.

135 INDICATIONS Pain and numbness of the knee and leg, gastric pain, breast abscess, paralysis of the lower extremities. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Xi-(Cleft) Point of the Stomach Meridian of Foot- Yangming.

136 (35) Dubi (ST 35) LOCATION When the knee is flexed, the point is at the lower border of the patella, in the depression lateral to the patellar ligament (See Fig. 25).

137 INDICATIONS Pain, numbness and motor impairment of the knee, beriberi. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

138 (36) Zusanli (ST 36) LOCATION 3 cun below Dubi (ST 35), one finger-breadth from the anterior crest of the tibia.

139 INDICATIONS Gastric pain, abdominal distension, vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, emaciation due to general deficiency, constipation, acute appendicitis, numbness and pain of the lower extremities, edema, manic depressive psychosis. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS (1) He-(Sea) Point of the Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming.(2) This point, an important health-giving one, has tonification effect.

140 (37) Shangjuxu (ST 37) LOCATION 3 cun below Zusanli (ST 36).

141 INDICATIONS Borborygmus, abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, acute appendicitis, muscular atrophy, numbness, pain and flaccidity of the lower extremities. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS The lower He-(Sea) Point of the large intestine.

142 MEANING Tiao, strip; kou, space. The point is in the strip space between the fibula and tibia.

143 (38) Tiaokou (ST 38) LOCATION 2 cun below Shangjuxu (ST 37).

144 INDICATIONS Numbness, soreness and pain of the knees and legs, systremma, swelling of the dorsum of the foot, flaccid paralysis of the foot, pain of the shoulder and arm. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable.

145 (39) Xiajuxu (ST 39) LOCATION 3 cun below Shangjuxu (ST 37).

146 INDICATIONS INDICATIONS Lower abdominal pain, bloody and purulent stool, backache, pain in the testicle, numbness, muscular atrophy, pain and motor impairment of the lower extremities. METHOD METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS REMARKS The lower He-(Sea) Point of the Small Intestine Meridian.

147 (40) Fenglong (ST 40) LOCATION 8 cun superior to the external malleolus, 1 cun lateral to Tiaokou (ST 38).

148 INDICATIONS Headache, productive cough, constipation, muscular atrophy, flaccidity, pain and paralysis of lower extremities, manic- depressive psychosis, epilepsy, edema, dizziness. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Luo-(Connection) Point of the Stomach Meridian of Foot- Yangming.

149 MEANING Jie, separation; xi, stream. Xi refers to a minor depression on the body surface. The point is in the anterior articular depression of the ankle joint.

150 (41) Jiexi (ST 41) LOCATION On the dorsum of the foot, at the midpoint of the transverse crease of the ankle joint, in the depression between the tendons of m. extensor helices longus and digitorum longus.

151 INDICATIONS Headache, dizziness, abdominal distension, pain of the ankle joint, muscular atrophy, motor impairment, pain and paralysis of the lower extremities. METHOD Puncture perpendicularly cun. Moxibustion is applicable. REMARKS Jing-(River) Point of the Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming.


Download ppt "GENERAL INTRODUCTION OF POINTS 3.1 Definition of Points Points (acupoints) are the places through which Qi of Zang-fu organs and meridians is transported."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google