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Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory. Iconic Memory What is the evidence? Subjective experience Objective measurements Judge duration of a light.

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Presentation on theme: "Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory. Iconic Memory What is the evidence? Subjective experience Objective measurements Judge duration of a light."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory

2 Iconic Memory What is the evidence? Subjective experience Objective measurements Judge duration of a light Interference Sperling’s (1960) work capacity decay (forgetting)

3 Echoic Memory What is the evidence? Interference Darwin, Turvey & Crowder’s (1972) work capacity (auditory span of apprehension) decay (forgetting) Modality Effect (in terminal list positions) Though there are problems for echoic memory

4 Info SENSORYSENSORY STORESSTORES

5 SENSORYSENSORY STORESSTORES Short-term Memory

6 Info SENSORYSENSORY STORESSTORES Short-term Memory Long- term Memory

7 Info Short-term Memory Long- term Memory

8 Demo

9 Bottleneck

10 Info Short-term Memory Long- term Memory

11 Info Primary Memory Secondary Memory Waugh & Norman (1965) Rehearsal Note: Terms consistent with those used by W. James (1890) Forgetting

12 Info SENSORYSENSORY STORESSTORES Short-term Memory Control processes Long- term Memory Atkinson & Shiffrin (1971) Forgetting Response output

13 Primary MemorySecondary Memory Short-term StoreLong-term Store Short-term MemoryLong-term Memory Immediate Memory (Miller, 1956)

14 Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities Forgetting Serial position curve An approach to measurement Dissociations

15 Quick Demo

16 Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities STM  2 bits Chunking (recoding) in STM LTM - - huge, don’t know whether we can max out

17 Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities STM  2 bits Chunking (recoding) in STM LTM - - huge, don’t know whether we can max out Retention of info (forgetting) STM - - about 30 s LTM - - relatively permanent (one view) (can remember some things a very long time)

18 Refer back to demo

19 P(r) Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position

20 P(r) Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position Primacy Recency

21 P(r) Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position Primacy and middle Recency Recall from LTM Recall from STM

22 Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities Serial position curve An approach to measurement Dissociations

23 Serial position curve An approach to measurement How do you know whether an item has been recalled from STM or LTM? Tulving and Colotla (1970) method count number of trials between study position and recall position (intratrial retention interval, ITRI) If ITRI  7, item has been recalled from STM If ITRI > 7, item has been recalled from LTM

24 Study Position aunt cat eye lace lid sap sun led sore red gap flu Recall Position flu red sore gap aunt cat lace

25 Study Position aunt cat eye lace lid sap sun led sore red gap flu Recall Position flu red sore aunt cat gap lid ITRI  7, STM; flu: 0, red: 3, sore: 5, gap: 6 ITRI > 7, LTM; aunt: 14, cat: 14, lid: 13

26 Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities Serial position curve An approach to measurement Dissociations

27 Logic of a dissociation Try to find out whether there is more than one thing (e.g., memory store or memory process) Water and mountain example

28

29 How can you find out whether there is one body of water or two bodies of water?

30 Do something to the water on the left – does it influence all of the water or just the water on the left?

31 Influence all of the water (in same way), then conclude one body of water. Influence only the water on the left, then conclude two bodies of water.

32 Let’s say you do something to the water on left (  water level) and it affects only the water on the left. Conclusion: Two bodies of water. What do you do if you want to be really sure about your conclusion?

33 Let’s say you do something to the water on left and it affects only the water on the left. Conclusion: Two bodies of water. What do you do if you want to be really sure about your conclusion? Also do something to water on right (make ripples) and see what happens.

34 Dissociation Employ a manipulation of some type Performance in one condition changes but performance in another condition does not.

35 Dissociation Employ a manipulation of some type Performance in one condition changes but performance in another condition does not. In water example, left body of water changes (e.g., water level gets higher) but right body does not (e.g., water level doesn’t change)—dissociation. If do something else (make ripples) to the right body of water at the same time and the right body changes (ripples) but the left body of water does not (no ripples)—dissociation.

36 Dissociation Apply this logic to the serial position curve

37 Dissociation Apply this logic to the serial position curve Conduct some manipulation If whole curve changes in same way, then conclude: just one type of memory or memory store If one part of curve changes but another part does not change, then conclude: more than one type of memory or memory store (e.g., two memory stores)

38 Manipulation #1 Presentation rate Fast vs. slow

39 P(r) Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position and Presentation Rate List Position Slow presentation Fast presentation

40 Manipulation #1 Presentation rate Fast vs. slow dissociation affect primacy and middle positions but not recency positions

41 Manipulation #1 Presentation rate Fast vs. slow dissociation affect primacy and middle parts but not recency part Conclusion: Two different types of memory

42 Manipulation #1 Recall delay (retention interval) Immediate vs. delayed recall

43 P(r) Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position and Recall Delay List Position Immediate recall Delayed recall

44 P(r) Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position and Recall Delay List Position Immediate recall Delayed recall (10 s) Delayed recall (30 s)

45 Manipulation #1 Retention Interval Immediate vs. delayed dissociation affect recency positions but not primacy and middle positions

46 Manipulation #2 Retention Interval Immediate vs. delayed dissociation affect recency postitions but not primacy and middle positions Conclusion: Two different types of memory

47 Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities Forgetting Serial position curve An approach to measurement Dissociations

48 Have a good day!


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