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Sexually Transmitted Infections

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Presentation on theme: "Sexually Transmitted Infections"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sexually Transmitted Infections

2 STI’s or STD’s Infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact There are more than 25 known STI’s, many of which are difficult to track bc ppl who have them do not exhibit symptoms Other cases are not reported bc ppl do not seek treatment due to shame, fear, or ignorance

3 Widespread among teens
Approx 15 million ppl contract 1 or more STI’s every year, ¼ of these new cases are in teens Currently > 65 million have incurable STI Y? many STI’s have no symptoms or don’t ever show up, others have a lengthy delay b/t infection and symptoms

4 Sexually Active Teens at a higher risk bc
Engaging in Sexual acts w/o protection Using alcohol or other drugs bc they cause inhibitions to lower Being sexually active with more than one person at a time or over time Choosing high-risk partners who have a history of being sexually active

5 More reasons… Choosing a high-risk partner who have a history of Intravenous Drug Use Choosing a partner who seems to be low risk but really isn't

6 Most common STI’s in US Human Papillomavirus, HPV – a virus that causes genital warts and warts on other parts of the body Believed to be the most commonly contracted of all the STI’s Many cases go unreported & unnoticed, approx 5.5 million ppl contract ea. Year Approx 20 million already have it

7 HPV cont’d Most easily recognized symptom is genital warts (venereal warts) are soft, moist, pink or red swellings that appear on the genitals Grow in clusters spread into large masses Over 100 types of HPV, 30 of which are transmitted thru oral, anal, & vaginal sexual contact Certain types linked to cervical cancer, including some which are associated with cancers of the vulva, penis and anus

8 HPV found in Females – if present genital warts are found on the vulva, in the vagina, on the cervix, or around the anus Males – if present genital warts are found on the penis, scrotum, groin, thigh or around the anus Genital warts found only rarely in the mouth or throat

9 HPV Commonly diagnosed by an exam of genital warts
May disappear by themselves, or removed by laser, being frozen, burned or cut off Doesn’t eliminate the virus, however Will recur AND the virus remains in the body for life

10 Chlamydia An STI that is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis
Most commonly reported bacterial STI in US, & most commonly reported infectious disease Approx 2 million curr. infected, 3 million become infected ea. year 40 % of reported cases ppl yrs old

11 MORE Chlamydia Despite being easily cured, one of the most dangerous, bc it easily goes undiagnosed 75% of women, n 50% of male with it have NO symptoms, but can spread it If symptoms do occur, usually appear within 1-3 weeks of sexual contact with an infected person

12 Diagnosis of Chlamydia
Made by testing a specimen collected from infected site for bacteria More recent test involves checking a urine sample for bacteria If diagnosed with Chlamydia, antibiotics can easily CURE the infection

13 Chlamydia symptoms Females – early stages small % develop an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating Males – may have a discharge from the penis and a burning sensation when urinating 40 % of females with untreated Chlamydia will develop Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

14 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
PID – a painful infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries Permanent damage to these structures can result, along with severe pelvic pain, infertility, and increased likelihood of ectopic pregnancy 3-5 times as likely to be infected with HIV if exposed to it, if you have an active Chlamydia infection

15 Gonorrhea An STI caused by bacterium Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, a bacteria that live in warm, moist areas of the body. 650,000 reported new cases each year, it is an extremely common infectious disease

16 Gonorrhea Teens & young adults have the highest incidences of gonorrhea Females ages highest reported rate Males ages highest reported rate Thrives in mucous membranes of the cervix, uterus & fallopian tubes in females, the urethra in females & males; & also in the mouth, throat, and anus in females and males

17 Gonorrhea symptoms Most males will show some signs when infected
Usually appear 2- 5 days after infection, but can also take up to 30 days Burning sensation when urinating, yellowish-white discharge from penis, sometimes painful or swollen testicles

18 Gonorrhea symptoms Females it can go unnoticed bc rarely show symptoms
Early symptoms go unnoticed bc they are mild and mistaken for something else Burning sensation when urinating, yellow vaginal discharge that may be tinged with blood

19 Gonorrhea symptoms Rectal infection – anal discharge, itching, soreness, and bleeding, as well as painful bowel movements – MALE & FEMALE Throat infections causes few symptoms If untreated can lead to PID in females, and epididymitis in males – inflammation of the testes – can cause sterility Treated with antibiotics

20 Herpes 2 types – simplex type 1 & simplex type 2
HSV-1 causes cold sores – blisters on the mouth and lips of infected ppl. HSV-2 causes genital herpes

21 HSV-1 Very common n the US, but Not considered a STI
Virus can e spread thru saliva to another person when lesions are present HSV-1 infection can occur on the genitals following oral-genital contact with a person who has a cold sore

22 HSV-2 45 million ppl. in US curr. infected - 1 million new cases each year 1 in 4 females and 1 in 5 males have the virus The # of teens and young adults with HSV-2 is increasing dramatically Spread from open sores during sexual contact, but it also can be released when lesions are not present

23 HSV-2 Person with frequently has no symptoms
If they do occur, it is usually within two weeks of exposure to the virus and consists of an outbreak of blisters on or around the genitals or rectum Some may get a fever or swollen glands After blisters break, painful lesions remain and may take 2-4 weeks to heal

24 HSV-2 Within a few weeks another outbreak may occur, usually less severe than the 1st May have 4-5 episodes in the first year, and the fewer as the years go by Once you contract HSV-2, you have it for the remainder of your life Are antiviral medications to control the duration and severity of episodes, but not rid the body of the virus

25 HSV-1 & HSV-2 Anyone who has an active episode of either virus should avoid touching the lesion; careful personal hygiene, including hand-washing, does help in preventing the spread of herpes to other ppl and other areas of one’s body

26 Hepatitis B HBV is a viral STI that attacks the liver and can cause extreme illness and death Transmitted when blood or other body fluids from an infected person enter the body of another Spread through sexual activity as well, drug users who share needles from an infected person Tattoo's or body piercings‘ where instruments are not sterilized or inks are used over

27 Hepatitis B symptoms Jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, joint pain & loss of appetite Can be treated with drugs-effective in 40% of individuals Vaccine available since 1982, given to children from birth to 18

28 Hepatitis C Virus, blood-borne infection
Can lead to chronic liver disease, liver cancer, & liver failure Asymptomatic – progresses slowly Transmitted thru sexual contact and any direct contact with contaminated blood NO CURE for hepatitis C

29 Syphilis STI caused by the bacterium Treponema Pallidum, and it progresses in stages Spread by direct contact with a chancre, a painless sore that appears early, or with the infectious rash that appears later Transmitted thru sexual activity

30 Stages of Syphilis Untreated syphilis progresses thru 3 stages
Primary stage days after infection – a small, firm, round sore called a chancre appears where bacterium entered the body Sore is painless & lasts 3-6 weeks can disappear without treatment

31 Stages of Syphilis Secondary stage – an infectious rash of rough, red or reddish-brown spots appears on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet Flulike symptoms, hair loss, & weight loss can occur. Rash can disappear without treatment

32 Stages of Syphilis Late Stage – organism last in the body, damaging organs including brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, & joints Symptoms include loss of muscle coordination, paralysis, blindness, and dementia. Can lead to death

33 Diagnosis of Syphilis Blood test or laboratory exam of material from primary chancre or secondary rash Easily cured with antibiotics – but once damage to internal organs occurs, there is no way to repair the damage

34 Vaginitis Many types of vaginitis, inflammation of the vagina caused by various organisms Only 2 however are transmitted sexually, both infections are treated with the prescription drug metronidazole Trichomonasis and Bacterial Vaginosis

35 Trichomonasis An STI caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, affects both males and females Infected males – rarely have symptoms – irritation inside the penis, mild discharge, or slight burning after urinating or ejaculation

36 Trichomonasis Infected females – 5-28 days after exposure symptoms appear – foamy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor, can also cause genital irritation & itching, and discomfort during intercourse & urination

37 Bacterial Vaginosis - BV
An STI caused by an imbalance of bacteria normally found in the vagina – affects only females Little is known about the cause, but having intercourse with a new partner and douching may be contributing factors

38 Bacterial Vaginosis - BV
Symptoms, when present include white or gray vagina discharge with a strong odor as well as itching and burning around the vagina BV increases risk of gonorrhea may lead to PID

39 Pubic Lice Also known as “crabs” tiny parasitic insects that infest in the genital area of humans. Spread thru sexual contact, and in rare circumstances from infested bed linens, towels, and clothing since lice can live for a short time away from their host

40 Symptoms of Pubic Lice Main – intense itching
Usually live in pubic hair but can also live in the coarse hair of legs, armpits, mustaches, beards, eyebrows, and eyelashes Lice that infect a persons head are NOT pubic lice

41 Treatment of Pubic Lice
Medicated shampoos OTC and Dr.’s Prescription Shampoos are harsh and should not be used on eyebrows or eyelashes – have a special ointment that will not damage the eyes by prescription only

42 Scabies An STI infestation of the skin with microscopic mites called Sarcoptes Scabiei Spread thru sharing of infested bedding & clothing and thru prolonged skin-2-skin contact CAN NOT be transmitted by shaking someone’s hand

43 Symptoms of Scabies Appear 4-6 weeks after contact, a pimplelike rash, particularly b/t fingers and in skin folds on the body Also on the penis, breast, and shoulder blades Rash causes severe itching, sores can be infected from scratching Fewer than 10 mites are usually present on an infected person, making diagnosis difficult

44 Treatment of Scabies Special lotions are available and everyone living in the same household as the infected person should get treatment as well at the same time

45 General Treatment of STI’s
Follow Dr.’s orders for treatment and finish all medication prescribed. Never stop taking med’s bc symptoms went away Notify everyone with whom he or she has had sexual contact Remember that abstinence only 100% effective

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