Influencing Behavior: The Human Animal Chapters 9-11
Analyze these ads. How are the advertisers attempting to influence readers to purchase the product? You will have 45 seconds to write down your thoughts for each ad.
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Skinner Operant Conditioning What does this have to do with consumer behavior?
Quote… All we need to know in order to describe and explain behavior is this: actions followed by good outcomes are likely to recur, and actions followed by bad outcomes are less likely to recur. -- Skinner (1953)
Key Terms Positive reinforcement Response becomes more likely after a reward Negative reinforcement Response becomes more likely after the termination of an aversive stimulus Not punishment! (punishment decreases the likelihood of behavior) Punishment Response becomes less likely when it results in the administration of an undesirable consequence or termination of a positive consequence Extinction Response becomes less likely after it repeatedly fails to desired outcome Related idea: Learned helplessness Shaping Initially reinforce actions that only approach the desired response Gradually reinforce responses that come closer and closer to desired response Skinner Example; Example 2 – Training Jack to Roll Over Skinner ExampleExample 2 – Training Jack to Roll Over Vicarious Learning (or Modeling) We learn “response-consequence” contingencies by observing others Bandura’s classic study (modeling aggression)
Key Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reward given each time desired response is performed (e.g., lever presses) Fixed Ratio A reward is given after a fixed number of responses (every 2 presses) Leads to a high and steady level of responding Fixed Interval A reward is given after first desired response occurs after a fixed time interval (e.g., every 2 minutes) Scallop pattern; responding speeds up as end of time interval approaches Variable Ratio A reward is given after a variable number of responses (sometimes 2 presses, sometimes 5, sometimes 1) Leads to highly persistent responding; very hard to extinguish
Before Skinner… Thorndike and Watson Instrumental and Classical Conditioning Zimbardo on Thorndike’s Law of Effect and Little Albert (classical & instrumental conditioning) Edward Thorndike John Watson Skinner vs. Watson
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What does this have to do with CB? Marketers use a variety of principles of reinforcement to elicit the desire response from consumers