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Cultural Awareness Project

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1 Cultural Awareness Project
Identify the cultural/ethnic/religious groups represented in your community. Research the following information concerning each of the groups identified:  major health concepts  beliefs in the causes of illness  types of traditional healers utilized  methods of treatment  response to pain  beliefs and practices surrounding births  beliefs and practices surrounding deaths  healthcare beliefs  special symbols, books, and religious practices Present your findings to the class.

2 Cultural Diversity in Health Care

3 Culture Definition: A set of __, __, __, __, __, __, __, __ of a group of people How do we get them? ___, ____, ____ Constant change

4 Ethnicity Classification of people based on their _ or _ Examples:
African Asian European American Hispanic American Middle Eastern, Arabic American Native American

5 Race Classification of people based on their __ or __ characteristics
Involves multiple cultures and ethnic groups

6 Cultural Diversity Differences based on ____, ____, & ____ Melting Pot
Should we consider it when providing healthcare? Holistic care?

7 Holistic Care Should be developed to include the cultural diversity of America 3 Aspects of Well-being: 1. 2. 3. Examples: Chiropractic, acupuncture, meditation, natural diet & herbs

8 Areas of Cultural Diversity
Where does it come from? Family Organization Language Personal Space Eye Contact Gestures Healthcare beliefs Spirituality Religion Impact belief about birth, death, health, illness and healthcare

9 Varies Based on Cultural Background
Health Varies Based on Cultural Background

10 World Health Organization
A state of complete __, __, and __ well-being, not merely the __ of disease

11 South African Harmony with nature Harmony of mind, body, and spirit

12 Asian Physical and spiritual harmony with nature
Balance of yin and yang

13 European Personal responsibility with diet, rest, exercise, and prevention

14 Hispanic Good luck Reward from God Balance between hot and cold forces

15 Middle Eastern/Arabic
Spiritual Causes Cleanliness

16 Healthful Hints from Long Ago
“A sassafras root carried in the pocket guards against illness.” (superstition of Old Saint Simons) “Asafetida worn on a string around the neck protects a child from many diseases, and a buckeye carried in the pocket protects against rheumatism.” (Blue Ridge and Great Smokey Mts.)

17 “ A single, pierced nutmeg, worn around the neck on a string, will protect you from boils, croup, body lice, and various lung diseases.” (New England) “A well-ventilated bedroom will prevent morning headaches and lassitude.” (1914 Almanac)

18 Illness _____ functioning of a body’s system or systems
___ vary based on cultural/ethnic background

19 South African Spirits/demons Conflicts in life God’s punishment

20 Asian Imbalance of yin and yang Supernatural forces
Unhealthy environment

21 European Sin Outside sources: microorganisms, toxins

22 Hispanic Sins Fright Evil Eye Envy Imbalance between hot and cold

23 Middle Eastern/Arab Sins Evil Eye Spiritual causes

24 Native American Supernatural forces Violation of a taboo
Imbalance between man and nature

25 Folk Remedies Beliefs and practices ethnically similar
Religion plays a role in perception of, interpretation of, and behavior in health and illness Women are usually the prime caregivers Can create delay in seeking professional help

26 Preventions Jewish: camphor around the neck in winter in a small cloth bag to prevent measles and scarlet fever Black and Native Americans: blackstrap molasses Black Africans (Ethiopia): eat hot & sour foods i.e. lemons, fresh garlic, pepper

27 Preventions Germans: no sweets at meals, drink glass of water at meals, cod-liver oil, plenty of milk, spring tonic (sulfured molasses) Islam: dress properly for the season & weather, keep feet from getting wet in the rain

28 Preventions: Irish Clean out bowels with senna for 8 days
Spring tonic of sulfured molasses Onions under the bed to keep nasal passages clear Bag of camphor around the neck during flu season

29 Preventions: Irish Never go to bed with wet hair
Don’t look in the mirror at night & close closet doors (prevents evil spirits) Eat lots of oily food Take Father John’s Medicine every so often

30 Preventions: Italian Garlic cloves strung on a piece of string around neck of infants and children to prevent colds and “evil” stares Red ribbon around neck of infant does the same thing Never wash or bathe during period

31 Preventions: Italian Never wash hair before going outdoors or at night
Keep a pair of open scissors under mattress of crib to prevent “evil” in newborn Wrap a bandage around the baby from the waist to the feet for 1st 6 months to prevent bowlegs

32 Home Treatments: Jewish
Sore throat: find salted herring, wrap it in a towel, put it around the neck, let it stay there overnight, gargle with salt water Boils: fry chopped onions, make a compress and apply to the infections

33 Home Treatments: Blacks/Native Americans
Bloody nose: place keys on chain around neck Sore throat: suck yolks out of egg shell, honey and lemon, baking soda, salt , warm water, onions around the neck

34 Home Treatments: Black African
Evil Eye: put some kind of plant root on fire and make the man who has the evil eye smile and the man talks about his illness

35 Home Treatments: Germans
Coughs: honey & vinegar; boiled onion water, honey, & lemon; hot water & Vicks Swollen glands/mumps: put pepper on salt pork and tie around the neck Earache: few drops of warm milk in the ear, laxatives when needed

36 Home Treatments: Germans
Sty: cold tea-leaf compresses Fever: mix whiskey, water, & lemon juice to drink before bed (causes person to sweat and break fever) Constipation: Ivory soap suppositories

37 Home Treatments: Islam
Sore throat: gargle with vinegar and water Indigestion: baking soda and water Sore muscles: alcohol and water Rashes: apply corn starch

38 Home Treatments: Irish
See doctor only in an emergency Earache: heat salt, put in stocking behind ear Fever: spirits of niter on a dry sugar cube Colds: hot lemonade and a tablespoon of whiskey; egg whites; ipecac

39 Home Treatments: Irish
Coughs: linseed poultice on chest; flaxseed poultice on back; red flannel cloth soaked in hot water and placed on chest all night Menstrual cramps: hot milk sprinkled with ginger, glass of warm wine, hot-water bottle on stomach

40 Home Treatments: Irish
Nausea: castor oil, hot ginger ale, cup of hot boiled water Sore throat: paint throat with iodine, honey and lemon, Karo syrup; paint with kerosene oil with rag then tie sock around the neck; paint with iodine or Mercurochrome and gargle with salt water, honey melted Vicks

41 Home Treatments: Italian
Chicken soup for everything Boils: cooked oatmeal wrapped in a cloth (steaming hot) and applied to drain pus Headache: kerchief with ice in it wrapped around the head Cramps: crème de menthe

42 Home Treatments: Italian
Acne: apply baby’s urine To build up blood: eggnog with brandy; Marsala wine and milk Backache: place a silver dollar on the sore area and light a match to it, while the match is burning put a glass over the silver dollar and slightly lift the glass, this causes suction which lifts the pain out

43 Healthcare Providers’ Culture
Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness, Second Edition, p.70

44 Beliefs “Standardized definitions of health and illness
“The omnipotence (unlimited power) of technology”

45 Practices “The maintenance of health and the prevention of disease through such mechanisms as the avoidance of stress and the use of immunizations” “Annual physical examinations and diagnostic procedures such as Pap smears”

46 Habits “Charting” “The constant use of jargon”
“ Use of a systematic approach and problem-solving methodology”

47 Likes “Promptness” “Neatness and organization” “Compliance”

48 Dislikes “Tardiness” “Disorderliness and disorganization”

49 Customs “Professional deference and adherence to the ‘pecking order’ found in autocratic and bureaucratic systems”

50 Customs “Handwashing”

51 Customs “Employment of certain procedures attending birth and death”

52 Rituals “The physical examination” “The surgical procedure”
“Limiting visitors and visiting hours”

53 Cultural Beliefs Concerning Epidemiology and Pain
Medical culture is in direct opposition sometimes Bacteria/viruses/carcinogens/pollutants versus “soul loss”/”spirit possession”/voodoo/witchcraft Free, open expression of feelings versus never revealing true feelings

54 Examples of Cultural Clashes
“Mr. Smith in room 222 is the ideal patient. He never has a single complaint.” Are you sure he has no complaints or is it his cultural influence not to be a bother?

55 Examples of Cultural Clashes
“Mrs. Cohen in room 223 is a real complainer. She is constantly asking for pain medication and putting on her light.” Is she really in pain or is it her cultural programming concerning dealing with pain?

56 Examples of Cultural Clashes
“Mr. Chen in room 225 says nothing. I often wonder what he is feeling.” What is really happening with Mr. Chen?

57 Healthcare Providers Must change to accommodate other cultural beliefs and behaviors towards health and illness

58 Religion and Healing Vital role in perception of health and illness
Rites surrounding birth and death Diet

59 Traditional Etiology: Evil Eye
Power of eye strikes victim Injury, illness, misfortune is sudden Person with evil eye may not know it Victim may not know source of evil Prevented or cured by rituals/symbols, removal of spell or evil agent Explains sickness and misfortune

60 Traditional Methods of Prevention

61 Protective Objects Amulets Bangles Talismans

62 Protective Substances
Garlic Onions Chachayotel 1000 year old eggs Kosher foods

63 Protective Religious Practices
Social, moral, dietary practices Burning candles Rituals of redemption Prayer

64 Examples of Saints for Protection
Blessing of the Throats on St. Blaise Day Virgin of Guadalupe St. Anthony of Padua: barren women St. Odilla: blindness Our Lady of Lourdes: bodily ills

65 Beliefs Affecting Therapy
Use of healers with divine powers Natural products: herbs, berries Purgatives Blood-letting Removal of person with evil eye Avoidance of provocation of envy

66 Forms of Spiritual Healing
Inner healing Physical healing Deliverance or exorcism Auric healing Pilgrimages

67 Healthcare Providers Must Be Aware of the Multitude of Sources Outside of Mainstream Medicine!
Embrace Diversity in Medicine. Teach Tolerance to Healthcare Providers!

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