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An Optimality-Theoretic account of Sa-insertion in Japanese Shin-ichiro Sano (Graduate Student, Sophia Univ. )

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Presentation on theme: "An Optimality-Theoretic account of Sa-insertion in Japanese Shin-ichiro Sano (Graduate Student, Sophia Univ. )"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Optimality-Theoretic account of Sa-insertion in Japanese Shin-ichiro Sano (Graduate Student, Sophia Univ. ) shinichirosano@gmail.com

2 2 Sa-insertion Sa-insertion: variation of causatives in Japanese Formation of causatives in Japanese: attaching causative suffix (as, ase) to verb stems Standard causative:V - ase Sa-insertion: V - as-ase

3 3 Examples (causative) Standard causative Watasi-ga Taroo-ni sore-o yar-ase-ru. I-Nom Taro-Dat it-Acc do-Cause Sa-insertion *Watasi-ga Taroo-ni sore-o yar-as-ase-ru. I-Nom Taro-Dat it-Acc do-Cause-Cause ‘ I let Taro do it. ’

4 4 Examples (honorific) Standard causative Watasi-ga sore-o yar-ase-teitadaku. I-Nom it-Acc do-Cause-benefactive Sa-insertion Watasi-ga sore-o yar-as-ase-teitadaku. I-Nom it-Acc do-Cause-Cause-benefactive ‘ I will do it. ’ (honorific) causativehonorific Standard causative++ Sa-insertion - +

5 5 Quantitative analysis Corpus: On-line full-text database of the minutes of the Diet Sampling: by birth-year → 81 members from Tokyo Table 1. The rate of Sa-insertion in all causatives # Sa-insertion317 Standard causatives4,708 rate of Sa-insertion (%)6.31

6 6 Chronological change of Sa-insertion Pseudo R^2=0.096

7 7 Summary of quantitative analysis Sa-insertion: is first observed in 1949. does not contain the sequence sasa. Some Sa-insertion is observed (gradually increasing) until the 1980s. After the 1980s, it suddenly exploded. ↓ is in the beginning of a Language change. The change will proceed in an S-curve fashion.

8 8 Double causative Okada (2003): Sa-insertion is a double causative. The meaning is not double causative but honorific. Double causative Double causative is not allowed in Japanese. (Shibatani 1973, among others) → suppressed to a single causative V - as - ase → V - ase Variation: suppressed → Standard causatives unsuppressed → Sa-insertion

9 9 2 types of Japanese Verbs (Bloch 1946) Consonant verbs (e.g. hasir- ‘ run ’, yar- ‘ do ’ ) Vowel verbs (e.g. mi- ‘ see ’, tabe- ‘ eat ’ ) Sa-insertion is restricted to Consonant verbs. Standard causativeSa-insertion Consonant verbyar-aseyar-as-ase Vowel verbtabe-sase*tabe-sa-sase

10 10 OT analysis *Double causative Double causative is suppressed to a single causative. OCP (morph): No identical morphological categories are adjacent. Double causative is blocked by OCP (morph) and single causative surfaces. Input: /yar-as-ase/OCP (morph) a. ya.ra.sa.se*! ☞ b. ya.ra.se

11 11 Paradigm Contrast Contrast between causative and honorific (reduces functional load) ParContrast (Paradigm Contrast, Ito and Mester 2004): The cells of a paradigm are pair-wise phonologically distinct. OCP (morph) ≫ ParContrast: Standard causative → ParContrast ≫ OCP (morph): Sa-insertion Form and Content - 2 to 2 Candidate paradigms for /yar-as-ase/ ParContrastOCP (morph) ☞ a. causative: ya.ra.se honorific: ya.ra.sa.se * b. causative: honorific: *! ya.ra.se

12 12 *sasa Sa-insertion does not contain the sequence sasa. OCP (μ) No identical moras are adjacent. Candidate paradigms for /das-as-ase/ OCP (μ)ParContrastOCP (morph) a. causative: da.sa.se honorific: da.sa.sa.se*!* ☞ b. causative: da.sa.se honorific: da.sa.se *

13 13 Sa-insertion – consonant verbs Sa-insertion is restricted to consonant verbs. Any Sa-insertion with vowel verbs contains sasa. → phonological reason (not lexical or morphological) Candidate paradigms for /tabe-sas-ase/ OCP (μ)ParContrastOCP (morph) a. causative: ta.be.sa.se honorific: ta.be.sa.sa.se*!* ☞ b. causative: ta.be.sa.se honorific: ta.be.sa.se *

14 14 Allomorph Correspondence Paradigm optimization AlloCorr (Allomorph Correspondence, Ito and Mester 2004): Morphs in a relation of allomorphy are identical. Form and Content - 1 to 1 Candidate paradigms for /yar-/ and /tabe-/ OCP (μ) ParContrastAlloCorrOCP (morph) ☞ a. consonant verb: ya.ra.sa.se vowel verb: ta.be.sa.se ** b. consonant verb: ya.ra.se vowel verb: ta.be.sa.se ****!

15 15 Language Change Change of the ranking: OCP (morph) ≫ ParContrast, AlloCorr → ParContrast, AlloCorr ≫ OCP (morph) Partially ordered grammar: OCP (morph), ParContrast OCP (morph) ≫ ParContrast, AlloCorr → Standard caus. AlloCorr ParContrast, AlloCorr ≫ OCP (morph) → Sa-insertion Initial stage (a) Middle stage (a) + (c) Final stage (c) OCP (morph) ≫ ParContrast, AlloCorr ParContrast, AlloCorr, OCP (morph) ParContrast, AlloCorr ≫ OCP (morph) Standard causative: 100% Sa-insertion: 0% Standard causative: 50% Sa-insertion: 50% Standard causative: 0% Sa-insertion: 100%

16 16 Conclusion Sa-insertion - Language change (initial stage) Contrast and Paradigm optimization Standard causativeSa-insertion Contrast:Form 1, Content 2 Form 2, Content 2 ParaOptim:Form 2, Content 1Form 1, Content 1 → change of ranking OCP (morph) ≫ ParContrast, AlloCorr Paradigm optimization in Ra-deletion (variation in passives) (Ito and Mester 2004) → Global change in Japanese voice system


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