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Sexually transmitted diseases: chlamydia & gonorrhea Mirela Grdović Mentor: A. Žmegač Horvat This presentation will probably involve audience discussion,

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Presentation on theme: "Sexually transmitted diseases: chlamydia & gonorrhea Mirela Grdović Mentor: A. Žmegač Horvat This presentation will probably involve audience discussion,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sexually transmitted diseases: chlamydia & gonorrhea Mirela Grdović Mentor: A. Žmegač Horvat This presentation will probably involve audience discussion, which will create action items. Use PowerPoint to keep track of these action items during your presentation In Slide Show, click on the right mouse button Select “Meeting Minder” Select the “Action Items” tab Type in action items as they come up Click OK to dismiss this box This will automatically create an Action Item slide at the end of your presentation with your points entered.

2 Sexually transmitted disease (STD), Sexually transmitted infection (STI), Venereal disease (VD) illness that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral and anal sex some STIs can be transmitted via IV drug needles, childbirth or breastfeeding

3 STD statistics major public health concern in both industrialised and developing countries WHO: in 1996 more than 1 million people infected daily 60% of infections occur in young people (<25 years) more frequent in 14 to19-year-old girls than boys (2:1), equalizes by age 20 STIs among sexually active adolescent girls: chlamydia (10-25%), gonorrhea (3-18%) STIs among adolescent boys: chlamydia (9-11%), gonorrhea (2-3%)

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5 General risk factors being sexually active starting sexual activity at an early age having high-risk sex currently having an STD having a history of an STD having multiple sex partners using alcohol or recreational drugs injecting drugs being young being female being African-American having sex with men meeting people in public places or online for sex

6 Common signs/symptoms of STIs itching around vagina and/or discharge from vagina discharge from penis pain during sex or when urinating pain in pelvic area sore throat in people who have oral sex pain in or around anus for people who have anal sex chancre sores (painless red sores) on genital area, anus, tounge and/or throat

7 scaly rash on palms and soles dark urine, loose, light-colored stools, yellow eyes and skin small blisters on genital area swollen glands, fever, body aches unusual infections, unexplained fatigue, night sweats and weight loss soft, flesh-colored warts around genital area

8 Chlamydia STI caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis primarily targets cells of mucous membranes including urethra, vagina, cervix and endometrium (mouth and throat) one of most commonly reported bacterial STDs

9 Facts and statistics very common STD highest chlamydia rate in women between age 15 and 24 lower rate in men highest rate in black women between 15 and 19 (lack of access to healthcare and distrust of the healthcare system) 4.5 times higher in Hispanics than in whites and 2.9 times higher in American Indians than in whites

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11 Symptoms and signs - appear between 1 and 3 weeks after exposure (may not emerge until much later) -“silent disease” % asymptomatic women

12 Women minor increase in vaginal discharge cystitis need to urinate more frequently, pain whilst passing urine pain during sexual intercourse or bleeding after sex mild lower abdominal pains irregular menstrual bleeding painful swelling and irritation in the eyes

13 Men more likely to notice symptoms than women white/cloudy and watery discharge from penis burning sensation and/or pain when passing urine painful swelling and irritation in the eyes

14 How is chlamydia transmitted? by unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex with someone who is infected from mother to baby during vaginal childbirth by transferring the infection on fingers from the genitals to the eyes (rare)

15 Diagnosis of chlamydia urine sample swab taken from vagina swab taken from opening of the urethra at the tip of the penis

16 Treatment short course of antibiotics: azithromycin, doxycycline or erythromycin one-time dose taken daily or multiple times a day for 5-10 days resolves within one to two weeks sexual abstinence during that period

17 Complications Women Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - higher risk of ectopic pregnancy, premature birth, infertility Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) - eye or lung infection Cervicitis - yellowish vaginal discharge and pain during sex - deep pelvic pain and backache

18 Men Epididymitis - infertility Urethritis - yellow pus-like discharge at the tip of the penis - kidney problems

19 Men & Women Reiter´s syndrome - inflammation of eyes and joints, rash on genitals and soles Appendicitis

20 Other health problems HIV other STIs chronic pelvic pain prostatitis rectal inflammation eye infections infections in newborns

21 Gonorrhea STI caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrheoae infects cervix, urethra, rectum, anus and throat one of the most common STDs 62 million cases occur each year (women are more affected) easily curable untreated >>PID, infertility, meningitis, septicemia

22 Symptoms Women change in vaginal discharge - yellow or greenish color, strong smell burning sensation or pain whilst passing urine irritation and/or discharge from the anus

23 Men white or yellow discharge from the penis burning sensation or pain whilst passing urine irritation and/or discharge from the anus

24 How is gonorrhea passed on? through penetrative sex, including: -vaginal sex -anal sex -oral sex

25 Diagnosis & Treatment swab taken from any infected area - cervix, urethra, anus or throat women - internal pelvic examination swab taken from the rectum/throat antibiotics in tablet, liquid or injection form sexual abstinence during the treatment period

26 Complications Women PID>>higher risk of ectopic pregnancy or premature birth gonoccocal eye infection in babies (acquired through vaginal childbirth) Men painful inflammation of testicles and prostate gland>>epididymitis - infertility narrowing of urethra or abscesses (pain and problems whilst urinating)

27 STD prevention using condoms mutual monogamy limiting the number of sex partners talking with your partner getting regular screenings for STDs using spermicides - not recommended sexual abstinence until partner has been treated avoid douching

28 Quiz Q1 You can have an STD without symptoms. T Q2 Chlamydia shows symptoms straight away. F Q3 Using condoms gives complete protection from STDs. F Q4 Being tested for an STD can be painful and embarrassing. F Q5 Gonorrhea left untreated can cause infertility. T Q6 Having PID increases the risk of an ectopic pregnancy. T

29 Q7 STDs can be passed on from mother to child. T Q8 Women are more likely to notice chlamydia symptoms than men. F Q9 45% of women infected with chlamydia are asymptomatic. F Q10 Untreated chlamydia infection doesn´t cause any complications. F Q11 Best ways to avoid getting an STD a)monogamous relationship b)getting tested before having sex for the first time c)using a condom every time you have sex d)sexual abstinence d) b) a) c)

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