Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

DISEASES OF WATERFOWL PARASITES –PROTOZOANS blood parasites –e.g. Trypanosoma - intermediate hosts intestinal parasites –e.g. Wenyonella - high host specificity.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "DISEASES OF WATERFOWL PARASITES –PROTOZOANS blood parasites –e.g. Trypanosoma - intermediate hosts intestinal parasites –e.g. Wenyonella - high host specificity."— Presentation transcript:

1 DISEASES OF WATERFOWL PARASITES –PROTOZOANS blood parasites –e.g. Trypanosoma - intermediate hosts intestinal parasites –e.g. Wenyonella - high host specificity sarcocystis (breast muscle) –affects mostly adults

2

3 Left: Sarcocystis in mallard breast muscle Right: Leg muscle of a black duck

4

5 –HELMINTHS Trematoda (flukes) Cestoda (tape worms) Nematoda (round worms) Acanthocephala (spiny-headed worms –EXTERNAL Arthropods (louse) –blood sucking Annelids (leeches)

6 –CONCLUSIONS: PARASITES Problem Only When –At extreme concentration –Birds are in poor body condition to begin with –Can Be Present In Healthy Birds »Esp. Coccidia + spiny-headed worms + feather louse –Control Not Necessary

7 BACTERIAL –AVIAN CHOLERA CIRCULATORY SYSTEM HEART LESIONS FECAL AND NASAL DISCHARGE SPREADS IN WATER PASSED TO DOMESTICS AND REVERSE KILLS FAST Pinhead sized hemorrhages along fatty areas of the heart of cholera infected bird

8

9

10 Thickened yellowish fluid in the intestines of this cholera infected bird contains millions of bacteria that will contaminate the envrionment as the carcass decomposes or is scavenged

11 –BOTULISM – TYPE C #1 KILLER INGESTED IN FOOD MOSTLY IN DABBLERS ESP. PINTAILS “TYPE E” IN MERGANSERS IN ONE STUDY FLOODED AG. LAND IS PROBLEM –CAN’T FLY –LIMBER NECK AND CAN’T WALK –NO EMACIATION –MAY TRY TO USE WINGS TO SWIM

12

13 Several thousand toxic maggots can be produced by a single carcass Waterfowl and other birds feed on the maggots as evidenced by their presence in this gizzard of a duck that died from botulism

14

15

16 Birds dying from botulism seem to line up in rows that represent the receding water levels as they died

17 Paralysis of the inner eyelid is a common sign in botulinum infected birds

18 Although possible, treatment of botulism is generally considered too expensive

19 –OTHER BACTERIAL DISEASES TUBERCULOSIS SALMONELLA –MOSTLY DOMESTICS –NOT A BIG PROBLEM

20 VIRAL –DUCK VIRUS ENTERITIS (DVE) RELATIVELY RECENTLY DISCOVERED KILLED >40,000 IN 1973 AT LAKE ANDES IN S.D. ESP. IN HIGH DENSITY POP’S KILLS ALL AGES EQUALLY ESP. BLACKS, MALLARDS, TEAL PHOTO PHOBIA PROLAPSED PENIS NO EMACIATION

21 BROWN DISCHARGE FROM THE BILL, BLOOD-STAINED, OR EVEN BLOOD DRIPPING FROM THE BILL IS SEEN IN SOME DVE CASES; AND BLOOD STAINING OF THE VENT AREA (BELOW)

22 “COLD SORES” UNDER THE TONGUE MAY ALSO BE SEEN IN DVE INFECTED BIRDS

23

24 Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota, 1973; 40,000 mallards died of DVE (duck plague)

25 FUNGUS ASPERGILLOSIS INHALES SPORES FROM MOLDY HAY, ETC HITS RESPIRATORY TRACT KILLS A FEW HERE AND THERE REGULARLY SLOW DEATH - EMACIATION “cheesy” fungal plaques in the lung and air sacs of a bird with aspergillosis

26 “bread mold” fungal mat is totally involving the air sac adjacent to the heart of this bird (left). At right, a wood duck duckling’s lung shows the dark red “studded” or granular appearance characteristic of acute aspergillosis or “brooder pneumonia”

27

28 CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF WATERFOWL DISEASES GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR CONTROL –IDENTIFY - DIAGNOSTIC LAB SET PRIORITIES –CONSIDER SPECIES –CONSIDER MAN –CONSIDER LIVESTOCK CONTROL –SANITATION »BURN CARCASSES »KILL AND REMOVE SICK »DRAIN INFECTED WATER OR FLUSH WITH FRESH

29 Sanitation measures may require personnel and equipment on an emergency basis

30 One should consider local conditions before employing the use of an all terrain vehicle to retrieve dead or dying waterfowl

31 Portable incinerators may be used to dispose of diseased carcasses.

32 Carcasses and other contaminated material should be burned, burried, or both.

33 CONFINE AND TREAT SICK (E.G., BOTULISM) DISPERSE HEALTHY MASS VACCINATION STERILIZE WATER PREVENT SCAVENGING PREVENT UNNATURAL WATERFOWL CONCENTRATIONS

34 CONTROL CHOLERA SANITATION – COLLECT AND BURN –EGGS –NESTS –CARCASSES –BURN VEGETATION AND AG. LAND –SPRAY WATER WITH CRESYLIC COMPOUND –OTHERS AS FOR GENERAL

35 MANIPULATION OF H 2 O DRAIN IF POSSIBLE AVOID OVER-WINTER IN MIGRATION AREAS (DRAIN EACH YEAR)

36 BOTULISM CONTROL DUCK RESCUE –NOT PRACTICAL SANITATION WATER MANIPULATION –MAINTAIN 18-24" AT DIKES –FLUSH WITH FRESH –DRAIN IN SOME INSTANCES

37 end


Download ppt "DISEASES OF WATERFOWL PARASITES –PROTOZOANS blood parasites –e.g. Trypanosoma - intermediate hosts intestinal parasites –e.g. Wenyonella - high host specificity."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google