2Muscular Strength and Endurance The maximum amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert against an opposing force.Term to KnowPeople with high levels of muscular strength and endurance are able to perform daily tasks more efficiently. There are two types of muscular strength.
3Muscular Strength and Endurance Absolute muscular strengthThe maximum force you are able to exert regardless of size, age, or weight.Term to KnowAbsolute muscular strength is the first type of muscular strength.A person able to lift 100 pounds is stronger in absolute muscular strength than a person able to lift only 80 pounds.
4Muscular Strength and Endurance Relative muscular strengthRelative muscular strength is the maximum force you are able to exert in relation to your body weight.Term to KnowRelative muscular strength is the second type of muscular strength.It is more important than absolute muscular strength.
5Muscular Strength and Endurance Consider this example:Jim weighs 125 pounds and can lift 130 pounds during a weight training exercise.Tom weighs 160 pounds and can lift 150 pounds on the same exercise.Tom is stronger in the absolute sense, but Jim is stronger in the relative sense because he exerts more strength per pound of body weight.
6Muscular Strength and Endurance Here is the formula for calculating relative muscular strength:Weight Lifted ÷ Body Weight = Relative Muscular StrengthJim130 lbs ÷ 125 lbs = 1.04Tom150 lbs ÷ 160 lbs = 0.93
7Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscular enduranceThe ability of the same muscle or muscle group to contract for an extended period of time without undue fatigue.Term to KnowMuscular endurance is measured by the amount of resistance (or weight) and the number of repetitions (or “reps”).A person who can properly lift 75 pounds for 15 reps has greater muscular endurance than a person of the same gender who can only do 10 reps with the same amount of weight.
8Muscular Strength and Endurance Relative muscular enduranceThe maximum number of times you can repeatedly perform a resistance activity in relation to your body weight.Term to KnowAs with muscular strength, good health and fitness depend more on relative muscular endurance than on absolute endurance.
9Resistance Training and Overload According to the overload principle, to improve a muscle’s strength or endurance, you must first overload that muscle.In resistance training, overloading means putting more stress, in the form of weight or resistance, on a muscle than it is accustomed to handling.
10Resistance Training and Overload Progressive resistanceThe continued systematic increase of muscle workload by the addition of more weights or resistance.Term to KnowAs your muscles gradually adjust to the increased stress, you need employ progressive resistance to increase the workload further and make the muscles stronger.
11Resistance Training and Overload There are five components of progressive resistance training:weight trainingweight liftingbodybuildingstrength trainingrehabilitation
12Your Muscles and Their Functions The routine movements you make each day require little conscious thought but involve the complex interaction of many different muscles and muscle groups.All body movement depend on muscles.
13A special type of striated tissue that forms the wall of the heart. Types of MusclesCardiac muscleA special type of striated tissue that forms the wall of the heart.Term to KnowYour heart is the most important muscle in your body.Contraction of cardiac muscle is involuntary.
14Types of MusclesSmooth musclesMuscles responsible for the movements of the internal organs, such as the intestines, the bronchi of the lungs, and bladder.Term to KnowThe smooth muscles work without a person’s conscious control.
15Muscles attached to bones that cause body movement. Types of MusclesSkeletal musclesMuscles attached to bones that cause body movement.Term to KnowSkeletal muscles are voluntary—that is, you consciously control their movement.
16Types of MusclesResistance training has little effect on involuntary muscles.
17Types of MusclesContractionThe shortening of a muscle.ExtensionThe stretching of a muscle.Terms to KnowContractionThe shortening of a muscle.Terms to KnowSkeletal muscles work together to produce two complementary, or opposing, actions: contraction and extension.
18The shortening of a muscle. Types of MusclesDynamic contractionThe shortening of a muscle.Terms to KnowOne type of muscle contraction is dynamic contraction.Sometimes called isotonic contraction, this is a type of muscle contraction that occurs when the resistance force is moveable, such as a barbell.
19Types of MusclesStatic contractionSometimes called isometric contraction, a type of muscle contraction that occurs absent of any significant movement.Terms to KnowA second kind of muscle contraction is static contraction.Flexing the muscle in your upper arm is an example of a static contraction.
20Pathways that deliver messages from the brain to the other body parts. Types of MusclesNervesPathways that deliver messages from the brain to the other body parts.Terms to KnowFor a muscle to contract, it must receive a signal from the brain.This signal is carried by nerves.
21The specific structure in the muscle that receives nerve signals. Types of MusclesMuscle fiberThe specific structure in the muscle that receives nerve signals.Terms to KnowThe muscle fiber is a long thin strand that receives nerve signals.Bundles of muscle fibers account for most of a muscle’s mass.
22Types of MusclesSkeletal muscles are connected to the bones by means of fibrous cords of soft tissue called tendons.Bones are connected to one another by bands of tissue called ligaments.
23How and Why Muscles Grow Scientists do not fully understand exactly how and why resistance training builds muscles.Several theories have emerged.
24How and Why Muscles Grow Muscle hyperplasiaAn increase in the number of muscle fibers.Terms to KnowSome experts believe that muscles get larger during weight training due to muscle hyperplasia.
25How and Why Muscles Grow HypertrophyA thickening of existing muscle fibersTerms to KnowOther researchers contend that a person is born with his or her full number of muscle fibers.According to this view, muscle growth is due to hypertrophy.
26How and Why Muscles Get Stronger Factors that affect muscle strengthProper trainingNerve functionHeredityGood NutritionMuscle sizeNerve function
27How and Why Muscles Get Stronger Lesser factors that influence the development of muscular strengthConsistent training habitsLevel of strengthIntensity of trainingLength of training program
28Microscopic rips in the muscle fiber and/or surrounding tissues. Why Muscles Get SoreMicrotearsMicroscopic rips in the muscle fiber and/or surrounding tissues.Terms to KnowOne theory about why muscles get sore is that microtears occur during greater-than-normal resistance.
29Why Muscles Get SoreA second theory about why muscles get sore is that during intense exercise, a muscle may not receive all of the oxygen it needs.A third explanation is that waste products accumulate around muscles during intense exercise, increasing pressure on sensory nerves.
30Why Muscles Get Sore To relieve muscle soreness: Perform a proper warm-up and cooldown.Do a lighter workout if pain is excessive.Drink plenty of water and eat nutritious meals regularly.Give the muscles rest before reworking them.
31Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear Using equipment safely is an important aspect of safety in the weight room.Resistance training is performed using a variety of methods and equipment.
32Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear Free weightsA term applied collectively to dumbbells and barbells, as well as plates and clips.Term to KnowFree weights are called “free” weights because of the unlimited direction and movement capabilities of this equipment.
34Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear A dumbbell is a short bar with weights at both ends, designed to be lifted with one hand.A barbell is a long, metal bar with weights at both ends, designed to be lifted with both hands.
35Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear The weights placed on a barbell or dumbbell are referred to as plates.Plates are fasted to the bar using clips and collars.
36Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear SpotterA partner who can assist with the safe handling of weights and offer encouragement during a training session.Term to KnowWhen using free weights, it is vital to have a spotter.
37Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear Weight machinesMechanical devices that move weights up and down using a system of cables and pulleys.Term to KnowMost weight machines target a single muscle area. They require little or no balance on the part of the user.
38Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear Exercise bandsElastic bands of tubing made of latex that are used to develop muscular strength and endurance.Term to KnowExercise bands are a low-cost alternative to free weights and weight machines.
39Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear Plyometric exercisesA quick, powerful muscular movement that requires the muscle to be prestretched just before a quick contraction.Term to KnowMany plyometric exercises require jumping, leaping, and bounding.They can place stress on tendons, so they are not recommended for beginners.
40Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear Calisthenic exercisesExercises that create resistance by using your body weight.Term to KnowCalisthenic exercises are low-level resistance activities that include such well-known exercises as pull-ups, push-ups, abdominal curl-ups, and jumping jacks.
41Resistance-Training Gear Remember these tips when choosing clothing and footwear for strength training:It should be nonbinding to allow for a full range of motion.It should keep you at a comfortable temperature.It should be free of parts that could become tangled in the equipment.It should fit properly.
42Resistance-Training Gear Always wear properly fitted footwear, designed to give you good arch support and provide traction.
43Resistance-Training Gear Weight-training glovesGloves that prevent blisters and calluses from forming on your palms.Term to KnowWeight training gloves will improve your grip and protect your hands.
44Resistance-Training Gear Weight-training beltsBelts that protect your lower back and stomach when you lift heavy weights.Term to KnowWeight-training belts stabilize the spine.
45Resistance-Training Gear Straps and wraps are canvas-like strips that give additional support to joints.They are wrapped around your wrist and then twisted around a bar.