Background Leading to Problem Bulimia How do men get an disorder like bulimia? What is a Horse Jockey? About the sport and how bulimia plays a part.
Clear Statement of Problem Effects of Bulimia on male horse jockeys
Cited Sources Caulfield, Michael J. and Karageorghis, Costas I.(2008)'Psychological effects of rapid weight loss and attitudes towards eating among professional jockeys', Journal of Sports Sciences,26:9,877 — 883 Baum, Antonia. (2006). Eating disorders in the male athlete. Sports Medicine, 36(1): 1-6 Hall, L., Leigh, C. (1999) Bulimia: a guide to recovery Kirkpatrick, J., Caldwell, P. (2001) Eating disorders.
Restate Problem Effects of Bulimia on male horse jockeys
Connection to Health Effect Physical signs and symptoms of bulimia Calluses or scars on the knuckles or hands from sticking fingers down the throat to induce vomiting. Puffy “chipmunk” cheeks caused by repeated vomiting. Teeth Discoloration - from exposure to stomach acid when throwing up. Teeth may be yellow Frequent variations in weight - Weight may fluctuate by 10 pounds or more due to alternating episodes of bingeing and purging.
Connection to Health Effect Dehydration Weight gain Abdominal pain, bloating Swelling of the hands and feet Chronic sore throat, hoarseness Broken blood vessels in the eyes Swollen cheeks and salivary glands Weakness and dizziness Tooth decay and mouth sores Acid reflux or ulcers Ruptured stomach or esophagus Chronic constipation from laxative abuse
Cited Sources Suzanne Barston, Melinda Smith, M.A., and Jeanne Segal, Ph.D., contributed to this article. Last modified on: 3/3/08. “Bulimia Nervosa - Signs, Symptoms, Treatment, and Help”. http://www.helpguide.org/mental/bulimia_signs_symptoms_causes_treatment.htm http://www.helpguide.org/mental/bulimia_signs_symptoms_causes_treatment.htm Irina Webster. :The Long Term Effects of Bulimia Nervosa”. 2008 Street directory. The Health Issues Program. http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/47330/lose_weight/long_term_effects_o f_bulimia_nervosa.html Jane Kirby. “Dieting Jockeys risk eating disorders”. March 10, 2008. http://news.scotsman.com/anorexia/Dieting-jockeys-risk-eating-disorders.3859401.jp http://news.scotsman.com/anorexia/Dieting-jockeys-risk-eating-disorders.3859401.jp Video Clip: Compliments of MTV- I Want the Perfect Body Part 2 Episode 20. http://www.mtv.com/videos/misc/208166/complete-change-of-life.jhtml#id=1581175
Connect Effect/Impact & Solutions Jockey’s receive their assigned weight from a racing secretary at the track they are racing. In the U.S. the limits are often under 120 lbs. The limit at the Kentucky Derby is 126 lbs The average American male weighs over 190 lbs Their weight is directly related to their weight, so they will so practically anything to achieve the assigned weight. Ex: Purging or “flipping” as the jockey’s call it, sitting in saunas, plastic exercise suits, stimulant drugs, Many tracks have “heaving bowls” for purging 30% of jockeys purge to achieve their goal weight.
Variety of Approach/Specificity Increase the minimum weight limit for the jockeys. However, after being discussed, the people in the jockey industry seem to care more about the horses rather than the jockey’s themselves Give jockeys some type of psychological support as they are trying to lose the weight. Provide eating programs for healthier weight loss.
Based on Literature Increase the minimum weight limit for both Jockey and horse Medical Treatment (Antidepressant) Nutritional Adjustment (Registered dietician) Social Support (With the help of family and friend) Psychotherapy: - Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy - Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Therapy
Process of Identifying Best Patients receiving medication in combination with psychological treatment experienced greater improvement in binge eating and depression than did patients receiving placebo and psychological treatment. (BT Walsh et al.) Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy has been found to be superior to other psychotherapies in reducing bulimic symptoms.(Peterson CB, Mitchell JE.)
Impact of Solution on Problem Jockeys can be benefited with the support from psychiatrist and dietician. If they are given registered dietician, they can loose weight in a healthy way. Therapist can change the way they think and can alter their behavioral pattern. Jockeys will be in lesser risk of starvation and dehydration and will be able to live healthy.
Cited Sources WS Agras, EM Rossiter, B Arnow, JA Schneider, CF Telch, SD Raeburn, B Bruce, M Perl and LM Koran. Pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral treatment for bulimia nervosa: a controlled comparison. American Journal of Psychiatry 1992. 149:82-87 http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/149/1/82 BT Walsh, GT Wilson, KL Loeb, MJ Devlin, KM Pike, SP Roose, J Fleiss and C Waternaux. Medication and psychotherapy in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry 1997. 154:523-531 http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/154/4/523 Peterson CB, Mitchell JE. J Clin Psychol. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatment of eating disorders: a review of research findings. 1999 Jun. 55(6):685-97. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10445860 Matthew Tiemeyer. Eating Disorders: Getting the Help You Need http://eatingdisorders.about.com/od/resourcesandreviews/u/treatment.htm Matthew Tiemeyer. Eating Disorder Treatment. Updated. September 23, 2008 http://eatingdisorders.about.com/od/treatmentstrategies/a/edtreatment.htm Matthew Tiemeyer. Therapy for Bulimia Speeds Recovery. Updated: October 16, 2007 http://eatingdisorders.about.com/od/whatisbulimianervosa/a/bulimiatherapy.htm
Effect of Problem on health Effects on physical health Extreme weight loss BMI reduces below 17.5 Stunted growth Swollen saliva glands Endocrine disorder Impotence in males
What if not addressed? If not addressed symptoms can get worse and the body could show signs of starvation and dehydration. If still not treated possible death
Possible Solutions Bring a certified dietitian to work on losing weight in a healthy and effective manner. Increase the weight of both the horse and rider Provide one-on-one therapy sessions taking the Cognitive Behavioral Approach
Selected Solution Anticipated Outcome Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is a form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the important role of thinking in how we feel and what we do. One on one therapy sessions with jockeys who feel they need help. I anticipate that if enough jockeys start seeking help the problem can become large enough to create awareness of this system.
Cited Sources Rosenbaum, Dr. Michael, and Dr. Rex Gatto. "What is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy." NACBT Online Headquarters. 5 Apr. 2007. NACBT. 30 Nov. 2008.http://www.nacbt.org/whatiscbt.htm Let's Talk Facts About: Eating Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, 2005 Health Consequences of Eating Disorders, Copyright 2006 by the National Eating Disorders Association
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