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Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions: Risks and Responsibilities.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions: Risks and Responsibilities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions: Risks and Responsibilities

2 Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions - Risk Factors Disease-causing agents = pathogensDisease-causing agents = pathogens Epidemics = widespread outbreak of a disease in a community/regionEpidemics = widespread outbreak of a disease in a community/region Virulent = invading organism’s ability to resist treatmentVirulent = invading organism’s ability to resist treatment Mulitfactorial Disease = caused by several factorsMulitfactorial Disease = caused by several factors host (weakened) + susceptible (agent for disease present)host (weakened) + susceptible (agent for disease present)

3 Risk Factors - You Can’t Control Heredity - parent’s longevity and you diabetes / CHD Chromosomal Disorders Aging - after 40 more susceptible to disease Environmental Conditions - harmful elements (drugs, chemicals, sanitation, pollution) Immunolgical competence

4 Risk Factors You Can Control Disease varies with socioeconomic status, culture, geographic location…. etc,etc Disease varies with socioeconomic status, culture, geographic location…. etc,etc.StressNutrition Physical Inactivity Substance Abuse High Risk Behaviours - you get the idea!!!!

5 *disease-producing organism the "attackers" The Pathogen’s Routes of Invasion *disease-producing organism the "attackers" Kissing / sexual relations / touching (direct or indirect)Kissing / sexual relations / touching (direct or indirect) Hands greatest source of transmissionHands greatest source of transmission Autoinoculate - spread disease from one body part to anotherAutoinoculate - spread disease from one body part to another

6 The Pathogen’s Routes of Invasion Airborne Contact sneezing / breathingsneezing / breathing Food-borne Infection E. coli bacteriaE. coli bacteriaAnimal-borne dogs/cats - bites / insects carried / fecesdogs/cats - bites / insects carried / fecesWater-borne drinking / washed fooddrinking / washed food Body - swimming / streamsBody - swimming / streams

7 Bacteria Bacteria single-celled organisms - plant-like / lacks chlorophyll most plentiful pathogen bacteria / causes disease by secreting toxins (poisonous). Three Types: CocciCocci BacilliBacilli SpirillaSpirilla 1000’s exist only approximately 100 cause disease in HUMANS1000’s exist only approximately 100 cause disease in HUMANS

8 Staphylococcal Infections: present on our skinpresent on our skin break in epidermis allows staphylococcal to invadebreak in epidermis allows staphylococcal to invade infected wounds / acneinfected wounds / acne strep throat (severe sore throat)strep throat (severe sore throat) scarlet fever, acute fever, sore throat, rashscarlet fever, acute fever, sore throat, rash rheumatic feverrheumatic fever Toxic Shock Syndrome?

9 Pneumonia: Pneumonia -bacterially caused….. chronic cough, chest pain, chills, high fever, fluid accumulation in lungs.chronic cough, chest pain, chills, high fever, fluid accumulation in lungs.

10 Legionnaire's Disease - bacterially generated disease airborne transmissionairborne transmission symptoms similar to those of pneumonia.symptoms similar to those of pneumonia. Commonly misdiagnosed and given wrong treatmentCommonly misdiagnosed and given wrong treatment

11 Tuberculosis: bacterial infiltration of respiratory systembacterial infiltration of respiratory system transmitted among people by breathing air infected by coughing or sneezingtransmitted among people by breathing air infected by coughing or sneezing symptoms:symptoms: persistent coughing, weight loss, fever, and spitting up bloodpersistent coughing, weight loss, fever, and spitting up blood High Risk - fighting disease / HIV - Related DiseasesHigh Risk - fighting disease / HIV - Related Diseases

12 Periodontal Diseases Diseases of tissues surrounding the teethDiseases of tissues surrounding the teeth 3/4 of adults over 35years3/4 of adults over 35years result of poor teeth brushing/flossingresult of poor teeth brushing/flossing not getting regular check ups at dentistnot getting regular check ups at dentist

13 Viruses minute parasitic microbes that live inside another cell 1/500th the size of bacteria1/500th the size of bacteria approx. 150 cause disease in humansapprox. 150 cause disease in humans consist of protein structure - DNA or RNAconsist of protein structure - DNA or RNA no capacity for cellular function (i.e. respiration/metabolism)no capacity for cellular function (i.e. respiration/metabolism) unable to reproduce on their own or outside the bodyunable to reproduce on their own or outside the body parasitic relationship within cells invadedparasitic relationship within cells invaded

14 Inject their DNA or RNA into Invaded Cell take over cell reproductive processtake over cell reproductive process instruct cells to produce new viral particlesinstruct cells to produce new viral particles viruses are released and enter other cellsviruses are released and enter other cells viruses cannot reproduce outside of living cells -viruses cannot reproduce outside of living cells - difficult to culture in lab  detection and study difficult difficult to culture in lab  detection and study difficult

15 Treatment treatment is difficult  viruses withstand heat/radiationtreatment is difficult  viruses withstand heat/radiation some have incubation periods of several yearssome have incubation periods of several years slow progression of symptoms.slow progression of symptoms. Interferon -Interferon - body’s protection against viruses

16 (always present to some degree) The Common Cold Endemic (always present to some degree) 100 + viruses cause it?100 + viruses cause it? Colds can be caught via contact air-borne droplets, touching, mucus membrane contactColds can be caught via contact air-borne droplets, touching, mucus membrane contact Hands - frequent contact of hands to mouth / nose

17 Treatment? Prevention Best Medicine! Keep Resistance levels high good nutritiongood nutrition physical activityphysical activity restrest stress reductionstress reduction Got a cold! (getting cold doesn’t make you sick!) bed rest / fluids / aspirinbed rest / fluids / aspirin most contagious first 24 hoursmost contagious first 24 hours must run course 7 to 10 daysmust run course 7 to 10 days

18 Influenza (FLU): Influenza (FLU) viral disorder of respiratory tract symptoms include aches, pains, nausea, fever, etc. 3 forms A - most virulent B - 2nd most virulent C - 3rd Concern for Older Adults

19 Infectious Mononucleosis: the "kissing disease” or "MONO" symptoms = sore throat, fever, headache, chills, and continuous sense of weakness;symptoms = sore throat, fever, headache, chills, and continuous sense of weakness; treatment: bed-rest, nutrition, and medications to control symptoms.treatment: bed-rest, nutrition, and medications to control symptoms.

20 virally induced inflammation of liver symptoms = fever, headache, nausea, and loss of appetite, jaundice, and diarrhea Hepatitis virally induced inflammation of liver symptoms = fever, headache, nausea, and loss of appetite, jaundice, and diarrhea. Hepatitis A "infectious hepatitis""infectious hepatitis" transmitted by fecal- oral route, bad hygienetransmitted by fecal- oral route, bad hygiene persons in contact with children in day- care settingspersons in contact with children in day- care settings persons who inject drugspersons who inject drugs

21 Hepatitis B: "serum hepatitis" transmitted by body fluids (blood, serum, saliva, semen, and vaginal fluids)transmitted by body fluids (blood, serum, saliva, semen, and vaginal fluids) also transmitted by needle stick, contact with needles (drug users), and sexual contactalso transmitted by needle stick, contact with needles (drug users), and sexual contact some patients may develop cirrhosis and/or cancer of the liver, and eventually deathsome patients may develop cirrhosis and/or cancer of the liver, and eventually death

22 Mumps: prior to 1968, fairly common among childrenprior to 1968, fairly common among children effective vaccine found in 1968effective vaccine found in 1968 incidence before 1968: 80/100,000incidence before 1968: 80/100,000 incidence in 1984: 2/100,000incidence in 1984: 2/100,000 greatest danger - sterility in men young adulthoodgreatest danger - sterility in men young adulthood hearing losshearing loss

23 Chicken Pox: Many children contract disease / then remains dormantMany children contract disease / then remains dormant skin eruptions that itch + blisterskin eruptions that itch + blister symptoms include fever, fatigue (17 days after exposure)symptoms include fever, fatigue (17 days after exposure) some lead to shinglessome lead to shingles

24 Measles viral disorder frequently affects young childrenviral disorder frequently affects young children German measles (rubella) is a milder viral infection transmitted by inhalationGerman measles (rubella) is a milder viral infection transmitted by inhalation can move into bloodstreamcan move into bloodstream causes a rashcauses a rash not serious, except for pregnant women and newbornsnot serious, except for pregnant women and newborns fetus in 1st trimester may be born blind, deaf, retarded, or with congenital heart defectsfetus in 1st trimester may be born blind, deaf, retarded, or with congenital heart defects

25 FUNGI single or multi-celled organismssingle or multi-celled organisms moldy breads, cheeses, and mushroomsmoldy breads, cheeses, and mushrooms (vaginal yeast infection), athlete's foot, ringworm, and jock itch(vaginal yeast infection), athlete's foot, ringworm, and jock itch treatment: keep infected area dry and clean, and treat with antifungal antibioticstreatment: keep infected area dry and clean, and treat with antifungal antibiotics

26 PROTOZOA single-celled microscopic animals that release enzymes and toxinssingle-celled microscopic animals that release enzymes and toxins destroying cells or interfering with their functiondestroying cells or interfering with their function tropical diseases (malaria)tropical diseases (malaria) treatment: relieve the symptoms, replace lost blood or fluid, and drug therapytreatment: relieve the symptoms, replace lost blood or fluid, and drug therapy

27 PARASITIC WORMS multi-cellular animals attack specific tissues/organs and compete with host for nutrient problem in developing countries entering the body via uncooked meats treat with drugs/surgery.

28 Your body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well Physical and Chemical Defenses Skin Sweat - enzymes that destroy microorganisms body pH levels (normal pH 7.0 can change) body temperature(fever) lining in the tracts of the body, trap / engulf cilia move particles out of body tears, nasal secretions, ear wax and others

29 The Immune System: Your Body Fights Back Antigens: invader causing immune response Antibodies:individually matched to specific antigens / work to destroy and/or lessen impact of antigen body recognizes size/shape of antigen White Blood Cells (lymphocytes): they protect against foreign agents; responsible of antigen-antibody response - Macrophages - phagocytic cell-eating cell

30 Protection B-lymphocytes (B-cells)B-lymphocytes (B-cells) T- lymphocytes (T-cells)T- lymphocytes (T-cells) Killer T - Cells directly attack infected or malignant cellsKiller T - Cells directly attack infected or malignant cells Memory B & T cells respond faster to the same pathogenMemory B & T cells respond faster to the same pathogen

31 Fever & Pain An increase in body temperature decreases the the efficacy of the pathogenAn increase in body temperature decreases the the efficacy of the pathogen Stimulates White Blood Cell productionStimulates White Blood Cell production High temperature and be dangerous to the hostHigh temperature and be dangerous to the host Pain (a warning signal) - persistent pain can be an indicator of diseasePain (a warning signal) - persistent pain can be an indicator of disease

32 Sexually Transmitted Infections STI’s - Infectious diseases transmitted via some form of intimate, usually sexual contactSTI’s - Infectious diseases transmitted via some form of intimate, usually sexual contact Modes of TransmissionModes of Transmission Use condoms / quality / check expiration dateUse condoms / quality / check expiration date

33 STIs Chlamydia - Bacterially caused STI of the urogenital tractChlamydia - Bacterially caused STI of the urogenital tract Conjunctivitis: Serious inflammation of the eye / pathogens / irritants (chlamydia)Conjunctivitis: Serious inflammation of the eye / pathogens / irritants (chlamydia) Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID) various infection of the female reproductive tractvarious infection of the female reproductive tract

34 STIs Gonorrhea - most common STI in Canada - if untreated can cause sterilityGonorrhea - most common STI in Canada - if untreated can cause sterility Syphilis - widespread, progresses through phases - if untreated serious resultsSyphilis - widespread, progresses through phases - if untreated serious results Chancre - sore at syphilis infection siteChancre - sore at syphilis infection site

35 STIs Public Lice (“crabs”) parasites that inhabit body areas….. Genitals Verneral Warts warts that appear in genital area, anus…..human papilloma viruses Vaginitis - set of symptoms characterized by vaginal itching, swelling, and burning

36 STIs Trichomoniasis - protozoan infection / foamy-yellowish discharge + unpleasant odor Genital Herpes -STI from herpes simplex virus type two Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) extremely virulent sexually transmitted disease / effects immune system Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) virus that causes AIDS

37 Noninfectious Diseases Respiratory Disorders Allergy-Induced Problems -occurs as the body attempts to rid the body of antigen/allergens Antibodies Histamines - dilate blood vessels / increase mucus secretions / produce allergy symptoms Hay Fever - chronic respiratory disorder - ragweed / pollen

38 Respiratory Disorders Asthma - chronic respiratory disorder - attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing spasmsAsthma - chronic respiratory disorder - attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing spasms Emphysema - respiratory disease / alveoli distend or rupture / dysfunctionalEmphysema - respiratory disease / alveoli distend or rupture / dysfunctional Chronic Bronchitis - respiratory disorder / bronchial tubes inflamed & swollen / functionChronic Bronchitis - respiratory disorder / bronchial tubes inflamed & swollen / function impaired

39 Neurological Disorders Headaches - almost everybody experiences them - usually not too badHeadaches - almost everybody experiences them - usually not too bad Tension Headache - muscle contractions or tension in neck or headTension Headache - muscle contractions or tension in neck or head stress, chemicals, sleep, menstruationstress, chemicals, sleep, menstruation relaxation, hot water treatments, “holistic treatments”relaxation, hot water treatments, “holistic treatments”

40 Neurological Disorders Migraine - localized headaches from alternating dilation & constriction of blood vesselsMigraine - localized headaches from alternating dilation & constriction of blood vessels Epilepsy - neurological disorder / abnormalEpilepsy - neurological disorder / abnormal

41 Sex-Related Disorders Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) - a series of physical and emotional symptoms that appear prior to their menstrual period Endometriosis:abnormal development of endometrial tissue outside the uterus resulting in serious side-effects Hysterectomy - Surgical Removal of the Uterus Fibrocystic Breast Condition common/noncancerous condition where breasts contain fibrous or liquid filled cysts

42 Digestion - Related Disorders Insulin hormone produced in pancreas / required for CHO metabolismInsulin - hormone produced in pancreas / required for CHO metabolism Diabetes - disease / pancreas can produce sufficient insulinDiabetes - disease / pancreas can produce sufficient insulin Hyperglycemia - High blood sugarHyperglycemia - High blood sugar Ulcerative colitis - inflammatory disorder / affects mucus membranes large intestines……with bloodyUlcerative colitis - inflammatory disorder / affects mucus membranes large intestines……with bloodydiarrhea

43 Digestion - Related Disorders Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) - nausea, gas, pain, or diarrhea / certain foodsIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) - nausea, gas, pain, or diarrhea / certain foods Diverticulosis - bulges in wall of intestines / irritation + infectionDiverticulosis - bulges in wall of intestines / irritation + infection Peptic ulcer - damage to stomach or intestine lining / juicesPeptic ulcer - damage to stomach or intestine lining / juices

44 Musculoskeletal Diseases Arthritis - painful inflammation of the jointsArthritis - painful inflammation of the joints Osteoarthritis - degeneration of bones and joints / progressive / “wear & tear”Osteoarthritis - degeneration of bones and joints / progressive / “wear & tear” Rheumatoid arthritis- serious inflammatory joint diseaseRheumatoid arthritis- serious inflammatory joint disease Lupus - immune system attacks body……antibodies destroy or injure organsLupus - immune system attacks body……antibodies destroy or injure organs Low Back Pain - age, body posture, body type, strength/fitness, psychological factors - occupational risksLow Back Pain - age, body posture, body type, strength/fitness, psychological factors - occupational risks

45 Musculoskeletal Diseases Low Back Pain - age, body posture, body type, strength/fitness, psychological factors - occupational risksLow Back Pain - age, body posture, body type, strength/fitness, psychological factors - occupational risks Prevention 90% from lumbar region - being careful, know proper technique and physically fit to perform liftsPrevention 90% from lumbar region - being careful, know proper technique and physically fit to perform lifts


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