5IntroductionSexually transmitted infections are most commonly broken into three main categories:Bacterial STIs, viral STIs and parasitic STIs.Among the most common bacterial STIs are chlamydia (also the most frequently found STI on college campuses), gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and syphilis.
6The most commonly seen viral STIs are herpes, genital warts (HPV), hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS, while trichomoniasis is the most frequent parasite.All types of infections can occur whether one engages in heterosexual or homosexual sexual behavior.
7Sexually Transmitted Infection Types of STIsChlamydiaGenital HerpesTrichomoniasisHuman Papilloma VirusGonorrheaSyphilis
8ChlamydiaChlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection.Chlamydia is known as a “silent” disease because about ¾ of infected women and ½ of infected men have no symptoms.
9Chlamydia — Rates by state: United States and outlying areas, 2004 Note: The total rate of chlamydia for the United States and outlying areas (Guam, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands) was per 100,000 population.
10Chlamydia Contraction Transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. SymptomsUsually no signs or symptomsLow back painNausea, fever, pain during intercourseDischarge from the genitalsBurning sensation when urinating
11Chlamydia Complication cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). Chronic pelvic pain and infertility.Complication for men are rareTreatmentEasily treated and cured with antibioticsSingle dose of azithromycin or a week of doxycycline (2 x daily).
12Chlamydia Prevention Abstain from sexual conduct Latex male condoms Annual screening test
13Genital Herpes Caused by Herpes Simplex virus type 1 and 2 Nationwide, at least 45 million people ages 12 and older (1 out of every 5) have had a genital HSV infection.
16Genital Herpes Contraction Sexual contact with someone who has HSV-2 Can occur from a partner who has no visible soreSymptomsMost people infected with HSV-2 are not aware of itSores, flu-like symptoms
17Genital Herpes Complications Recurrent painful genital sores Psychological distressFatal infections in babiesTreatmentsNo treatment that can cure herpesAntiviral medication can shorten and prevent outbreaks
18Genital Herpes Prevention Abstain from sexual contact Infection can still occur when infected site is covered by latex condomEven correct and consistent use of latex condoms cannot guarantee protection from genital herpes
19TrichomoniasisThe most common curable STI in young, sexually active womenEstimate of 7.4 million new cases among men and womenCaused by single cell protozoan
20Trichomoniasis Contraction Penis to vagina intercourse Vulva to vulva (genital area outside the vagina)Women can acquire the disease from infected man or women, but men usually contract it only from infected womenSymptomsMost have no signs or symptomsIrritation and itching of genital
21Trichomoniasis Complications Genital inflammation Treatments Cured by prescription drug
22Trichomoniasis Prevention Abstain from sexual contact Latex male condoms
23Human Papilloma VirusApproximately 20 million people are currently infected with HPVAt least 50% of sexually active men and women will have had HPVAbout 6.2 million Americans get a new HPV infection each year
25Human Papilloma Virus Contraction Spread primarily through genital contactSymptomsMost have no signs or symptomsGenital warts
26Human Papilloma Virus Complications Can lead to cervical cancer (in rare cases)TreatmentNo ‘cure’ for HPVIn women it usually goes away on its ownPap test usually comes back abnormal if you have HPVNo HPV test for men
27Human Papilloma Virus Prevention Abstain from sexual contact Infection can still occur when infected site is covered by latex condomEven correct and consistent use of latex condoms cannot guarantee protection from HPV
28Gonorrhea Cause by the bacterium Neisseria GonorrhoeaeMore than 700,000 people in US get new infections each yearOnly half the cases are reported
30Gonorrhea Contraction Spread through contact with the penis, vagina, mouth or anusEjaculation does not have to occur for it to be transmittedSymptomsSome have no symptoms at allBurning sensation when urinatingWhite, yellow, or green dischargeBladder or vaginal infection
31Gonorrhea Complications Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Can spread to bloodand jointsTreatmentSeveral antibiotics cancure gonorrheaSome have drug-resistant stains
32Gonorrhea Prevention Abstain from sexual contact Latex condoms When used consistently and correctly
33Syphilis Cause by bacterium Treponema pallidumBetween 2001 and 2002, cases increased 12.5%Infections are highest amongWomen: years oldMen: years old
35Syphilis Contraction Through direct contact from a syphilis sore SymptomsPrimary stageSingle sore called chancreSecondary stageSkin rash and mucous membrane lesionsLast stageSecondary symptoms disappearLatent-no signs or symptoms
38Syphilis Complications Sore throat, fever, patchy hair loss, headaches, muscle achesDamage to internal organsTreatmentEasy to cure at early stages (less than 1 year)Injection of penicillinWill not reverse any damage already done
39Syphilis Prevention Abstain from sexual contact Talk to partner about being testedCondoms lubricated with spermicideWashing genitals, urinating, or douching after sex
40Testing Where you can get tested How much does it cost? Planned ParenthoodAlachua County Health DepartmentUF Student Health Care CenterSante Fe Community College Health CenterHow much does it cost?Variable cost
41Confidentiality What are your rights? The patient has the right to be provided with appropriate privacy, including protection from access to their confidential information from the individuals who are not responsible for direct health care and by other staff working at the health care center.
42Counseling Centers Alachua County Crisis Center Shands Hospital LocationAlachua County Crisis CenterShands HospitalUF Counseling CenterCostVariable cost
43Cultural Beliefs Ethical and/ or moral beliefs Potential limitations due to cultural beliefs pertaining to the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are:Individuals are not allowed to use condom.Shame associated with using a contraceptive