Presentation on theme: "Foot and Mouth Disease Trina Johnson, Cari Ostrom, Carolyn Ritter, Craig Spray, and Lindsay Wilson."— Presentation transcript:
Foot and Mouth Disease Trina Johnson, Cari Ostrom, Carolyn Ritter, Craig Spray, and Lindsay Wilson
What is Foot and Mouth? Acute viral infectious diseaseAcute viral infectious disease Begins with fever, followed by the development of vesicles on mouth and feetBegins with fever, followed by the development of vesicles on mouth and feet Very infectious and spreads rapidlyVery infectious and spreads rapidly Wild and domesticated cloven hoofed animals are affectedWild and domesticated cloven hoofed animals are affected Rarely fatal, but pregnant animals often abort and dairy cattle may dry upRarely fatal, but pregnant animals often abort and dairy cattle may dry up
Universal Symptoms of Foot and Mouth Disease ShiveringShivering Tender and sore feetTender and sore feet Slobbering and smacking lipsSlobbering and smacking lips Blisters on hoof, feet, snout, or tongueBlisters on hoof, feet, snout, or tongue
Clinical disease and diagnosis All species of cloven-hoofed animals are susceptible to FMD, including domestic livestock and wild ungulates. Clinical signs are essentially similar in all species although the severity may vary.
Specific signs in Cattle Slobbering and smacking lipsSlobbering and smacking lips ShiveringShivering Tender and sore feetTender and sore feet Reduced milk yieldReduced milk yield Sores and blisters on feetSores and blisters on feet Raised body temperatureRaised body temperature
Specific signs in Sheep Sudden, severe lamenessSudden, severe lameness Lying down frequently and unwillingness to riseLying down frequently and unwillingness to rise Reluctance to moveReluctance to move Blisters found on the hoof, dental pad and sometimes tongueBlisters found on the hoof, dental pad and sometimes tongue
Specific signs in Swine Sudden lamenessSudden lameness Preference to lie downPreference to lie down Loud squeal and hobbling when set into motionLoud squeal and hobbling when set into motion Blisters may develop on snout, tongue and/or hoofBlisters may develop on snout, tongue and/or hoof
Important!! Swine Vesicular Disease has identical symptoms to FMD. Therefore anyone who sees blisters in pigs must report the sighting as suspected FMD, until laboratory tests prove otherwise.
How it’s spread! Although there are numerous ways this disease can be spread, three surface to the top.
Most predominant paths of transmission are….. Human interventionHuman intervention Animal to Animal contactAnimal to Animal contact Airborne transmissionAirborne transmission
Human intervention People wearing contaminated clothing, or footwearPeople wearing contaminated clothing, or footwear Using contaminated equipment I.e. veterinary tools, shovels, etc.Using contaminated equipment I.e. veterinary tools, shovels, etc. Contaminated vehicles traveling from farm to farmContaminated vehicles traveling from farm to farm Using contaminated facilities to house susceptible animalsUsing contaminated facilities to house susceptible animals
Animal to Animal contact Animals carrying the virus are introduced to susceptible herdsAnimals carrying the virus are introduced to susceptible herds Susceptible cows inseminated by infected bullsSusceptible cows inseminated by infected bulls Direct contact with infected wildlifeDirect contact with infected wildlife
Airborne transmission Through the air in aerosols from infected animalsThrough the air in aerosols from infected animals Birds can play a substantial role in transmission as wellBirds can play a substantial role in transmission as well
Ways to Control Foot and Mouth Disease VaccinationVaccination Surveillance programsSurveillance programs Quarantine proceduresQuarantine procedures Establishment of control zonesEstablishment of control zones Strict BiosecurityStrict Biosecurity Reporting of confirmed casesReporting of confirmed cases Using All-In/All-OutUsing All-In/All-Out Cleansing and disinfectionCleansing and disinfection –Over 250 approved disinfectants (www.ahda.org.uk/disinfectants.htm)
Vaccine Choice SafeSafe PotentPotent –Proven protection AppropriateAppropriate –Consult National or International Reference laboratory or a manufacturer about the most appropriate strain to use
Vaccine Strains Have Been Selected For Their: ImmunogenicityImmunogenicity Ability to grow well in tissue cultureAbility to grow well in tissue culture Broad antigenic spectrumBroad antigenic spectrum
Individual Herd Vaccination Reduces the morbidity in adultsReduces the morbidity in adults Reduces mortality in youngReduces mortality in young Reduces likelihood of incursionReduces likelihood of incursion Can reduce the severity and duration of the disease due to raising the herds immunity levelCan reduce the severity and duration of the disease due to raising the herds immunity level Combined with good biosecurity controlCombined with good biosecurity control
Advice to Farmers Keep Livestock separateKeep Livestock separate Deal with sheep lastDeal with sheep last Keep yourself cleanKeep yourself clean Keep the farm secureKeep the farm secure Keep unnecessary vehicles awayKeep unnecessary vehicles away Clean and disinfectClean and disinfect Avoid visiting other farmsAvoid visiting other farms Look for early signs of diseaseLook for early signs of disease
Eradication of FMD Slaughter and disposal is essential to eliminate the sourceSlaughter and disposal is essential to eliminate the source A rapid and complete elimination is necessaryA rapid and complete elimination is necessary
Movement controls Infected areaInfected area Protection zoneProtection zone Surveillance zoneSurveillance zone
Emergency Vaccine (Two Objectives) Dampening down vaccinationsDampening down vaccinations Protective emergency vaccinations to produce an immune beltProtective emergency vaccinations to produce an immune belt