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Respiratory System Biol 105 Lecture 18 Chapter 14.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System Biol 105 Lecture 18 Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory System Biol 105 Lecture 18 Chapter 14

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline - Respiratory System I.Function of the respiratory system II.Parts of the respiratory system III.Mechanics of breathing IV.Regulation of breathing V.Disorders of the respiratory system

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory system Function  The function of the respiratory system is to bring in oxygen to the body and remove carbon dioxide.

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Respiratory System Figure 14.1 Breathing moves air in and out of the lungs. External respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the blood. Internal respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and the body tissues. Gas transport moves oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the body tissues. Tissue Gas diffusion Oxygen transport Carbon dioxide transport Lungs

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. This type of tissue covers and lines body parts 1.Connective 2.Epithelial 3.Muscle 4.Nervous

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells. The cilia sweeps mucus, germs and debris toward the throat.  Mucas produced by goblet cells.  Smoking damages the ciliated cells 8-4 Cells lining respiratory tract

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Respiratory System Figure 14.4a

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Ciliated cells in respiratory tract

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Respiratory System Figure 14.3

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Respiratory System Figure 14.2 (1 of 2) Nasal cavity Produces mucus Filters, warms, and moistens air Olfaction Pharynx Passageway for air and food Sinuses Cavities in skull Lighten head Warm and moisten air Intercostal muscles Diaphragm Muscle sheet between chest and abdominal cavities with a role in breathing UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM RESPIRATORY MUSCLES Cause breathing Filters, warms, and moistens air Move ribs during breathing

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Respiratory System Figure 14.2 (2 of 2) Epiglottis Covers larynx during swallowing Bronchi Two branches of trachea that conduct air from trachea to each lung Bronchioles Narrow passageways to conduct air from bronchi to alveoli Lungs Structures that contain alveoli and air passageways Allow exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between atmosphere and blood Alveoli Microscopic chambers for gas exchange Trachea Connects larynx with bronchi leading to each lung Conducts air to and from bronchi Larynx Air passageway Prevents food and drink from entering lower respiratory system Produces voice LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Exchanges gases

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Functions: 1.filter 2.warm 3.moisten the air entering the lungs 4.smell 8-3 1. Nasal cavity

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Parts of the nasal cavity:  Mucus membranes - secrete sticky mucus to trap germs & debris.  Contains olfactory receptor cells for the sense of smell  Sinuses – air filled cavities, warm and moisten air 8-3 1. Nasal cavity

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Functions - is a passageway for air, liquids, and food. (swallowing begins here). Connects the nasal cavity to the esophagus and the larynx  Tonsils are found here – lymphatic tissue that protects against infection 8-4 2. Pharynx

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Functions 1. Connects the pharynx to the trachea 2. Contains vocal cords used to generate sound 3. Prevents food from entering lower respiratory tract 8-4 3. Larynx

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Structure made from cartilage  Epiglottis closes the trachea when swallowing 8-4 3. Larynx

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

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19  Windpipe held open by concentric rings of cartilage  Function – Connects the larynx to the bronchi. 8-4 4. Trachea

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Trachea leads to the bronchial tree:  Bronchi (bronchus)  Bronchioles  Alveoli (alveolus). 8-4 Bronchial Tree

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Respiratory System Figure 14.7

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Sacs at the end of the bronchioles, they are surrounded by blood capillaries.  Function: It is here that the oxygen diffuses across the membrane into the capillaries, and carbon dioxide goes from the capillaries to the inside of the lungs. 8-6 7. Alveoli

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Alveoli  Lungs - have about 300 million alveoli  The structure of the alveoli increases surface area of lung  For alveoli to function properly they are coated with phospholipid molecules called surfactant that keep them open

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Alveoli Figure 14.8

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Respiratory System Table 14.1 (1 of 2)

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Respiratory System Table 14.1 (2 of 2)

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. What cells secrete mucus 1.Cilliated columnar epi 2.goblet 3.Squamous epi 4.osteocytes

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The tube connecting the larynx to the primary bronchi is 1.pharynx 2.trachea 3.bronchioles 4.alveoli

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Common passageway for air, food and drink 1.pharynx 2.trachea 3.bronchioles 4.alveoli

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Conduct air from the trachea to the bronchioles 1.pharynx 2.trachea 3.bronchi 4.alveoli

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Gas exchange takes place here 1.pharynx 2.trachea 3.bronchioles 4.alveoli

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Which cavity is the lung located in? 1.Abdominal 2.Pericardial 3.Pleural 4.Dorsal

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Inhalation Figure 14.9a The lungs expand, and air moves in. The chest cavity increases in size, and pressure within the lungs decreases. Diaphragm contracts and flattens Diaphragm contracts Intercostal muscles contract Rib cage moves up and out Air flow Inhalation (a)

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Inhalation  When the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, the volume of the thoracic cavity increases, causing the pressure in the lungs to decrease  Inhalation is also called inspiration

35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Exhalation Figure 14.9b The lungs recoil, and air moves out. The chest cavity decreases in size, and pressure within the lungs increases. Diaphragm relaxes and moves upward Diaphragm relaxes Intercostal muscles relax Rib cage moves down and inward Air flow Exhalation (b)

36 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Exhalation  Exhalation = Expiration  When the same muscles relax, volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, pressure in the lungs increase

37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Air Volumes  The volume of air inhaled or exhaled during a normal breath is called the tidal volume  Tidal volume is usually around 500 ml  The volume of air moved into and out of the lungs is an indication of health

38 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Air Volumes  Inspiratory reserve volume = forced inhalation volume  Expiratory reserve volume = forced exhalation volume  Residual volume is the amount of air left in the lungs after forced exhalation  Vital capacity is the amount of air brought in and out of the lungs during forced breathing

39 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Air Volumes Figure 14.10 (1 of 2) 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Inspiratory reserve (forced inhalation) volume Vital capacity Expiratory reserve (forced exhalation) volume Residual volume Tidal volume Total lung capacity Lung Volume (ml)

40 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Remember that O 2 enters and CO 2 leaves the lungs = External respiration  Then O 2 and CO 2 is exchanged between the blood vessels and tissues = Internal Respiration  This gas exchange is due to diffusion 8-14 Gas Exchanges in the Body

41 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Oxygen is transported on Hemoglobin.  When Oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, then it is called Oxyhemoglobin 8-15 Oxygen Transport

42 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.CO 2 is transported dissolved in the plasma (10%) 2.CO 2 is bound to hemoglobin (20%) 3.CO 2 is converted to bicarbonate ions (70%) 8-14 Carbon Dioxide Transport

43 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 - 8-14 Bicarbonate ions Carbonic anhydrase

44 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Diffusion of Gasses: Alveoli and Capillaries Figure 14.11 (2 of 2)

45 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Diffusion of Gasses: Capillaries and Tissues Figure 14.11 (1 of 2)

46 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Normally we breath 12 - 15 ventilations per minute.  This rate is controlled by the medulla oblongata region of the brain. Nerves transmit signal to the diaphragm and muscles.  Chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata and arteries detect levels of CO 2 and O 2 in the blood, controlling the rate and depth of breathing. 8-12 Regulation of Breathing

47 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Common cold  Flu  Pneumonia  Strep Throat  Tuberculosis  Bronchitis  Asthma  Emphysema  Lung Cancer 8-16 Respiratory Disorders

48 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Disorders – Common Cold  The common cold - Caused by several types of viruses.  Symptoms: runny nose, sore throat, sneezing, nasal discharge  Treatment: rest and plenty of fluids  Prevention: wash your hands

49 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Disorders - Flu  The flu is caused by the Influenza viruses but there are many variants of these viruses  Symptoms: Similar to colds but appear suddenly and more severe. Usually have fever and chills, may have muscle aches, headache, and weakness.  Treatment and prevention – same as cold  Can take drugs to ease symptoms and antiviral medications may ease symptoms

50 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Disorders - Pneumonia  Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs that causes fluid to accumulate in the alveoli, reducing gas exchange  Usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection  Symptoms: fever, chills, chest pain, cough, shortness of breath.  Treatment depends on cause – bacteria can be treated with antibiotics.

51 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Disorders Strep throat  Strep throat is caused by Streptococcus bacteria  Can lead to rheumatic fever which can damage heart and kidney disease  Symptoms: Sore throat accompanied by swollen glands and fever  Treatment: antibiotics

52 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Disorders - Tuberculosis  Tuberculosis is caused by a bacteria = mycobacterium tuberculosis.  Bacteria spread through airborne transmission  Our body encapsulates the bacteria with a fibrous capsule made of connective tissue to try to protect itself, capsule is called tubercles

53 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Disorders - Tuberculosis  Symptoms: similar to flu, weight loss, tired, dry cough.  Treatment: Antibiotics must be taken for 6 months to 2 years – some people to stop early – leads to antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria

54 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Disorders - Bronchitis  Bronchitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchi  Caused by viruses, bacteria, or chemical irritation  Symptoms: Inflammation results in the production of excess mucus, which triggers a deep cough  Treatment: Depends on cause

55 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Disorders - Asthma  The smooth muscles surrounding the bronchi spasm – causing the bronchi to constrict, making it hard to breathe  Causes and triggers: allergies, colds, exercise, stress

56 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Disorders - Emphysema  Emphysema is caused by the destruction of alveoli, usually by smoking  Reduction in the surface area available for gas exchange and the increased dead air space results in shortness of breath  Treatment - no cure, can supplement with oxygen and drugs can dilate airways.

57 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Disorders - Emphysema Figure 14.14

58 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lung Cancer  Lung Cancer is the result of uncontrolled cell division forms a tumor  The smoke irritates the lining of the bronchi.  The cilia that normally function to clear dust and particles from the lungs are destroyed.  Often caused by inhaled carcinogens, including those found in tobacco smoke. Between 85 – 90% of lung cancer is from smoking.

59 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Lung cancer is more common in men, but as more women are smoking, the rate of lung cancer in women is rising. Women are more at risk  Many compounds in the smoke are cancer promoters, they trigger the progression of cancer in cells. 8-16 Lung Cancer

60 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  The 5-year survival rate is 13%. Smoking can cause cancers of other parts of the respiratory system. 8-16 Effects of Smoking

61 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Cigarette smoke contains CO, the fetal blood has a higher affinity for CO than the mothers blood, so CO builds up in the fetuses body.  Nicotine is also passed into the fetus, stimulating the developing nervous system.  Men smoking can damage the DNA in their sperm and pass genetic mutations to their offspring. 8-16 Effects of Smoking on Pregnancy

62 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

63 Lung Cancer Figure 14.15

64 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

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67 What is the smoking policy on campus? 1.You can smoke anywhere 2.You can smoke anywhere outside 3.You can smoke at designated spots 4.No smoking on campus

68 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Do you think smoking should be allowed on campus? 1.Yes 2.No

69 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Do you smoke? 1.Never 2.Used to, but quit 3.Smoke, but trying to quit 4.Smoke

70 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Important Concepts  Read Ch 15  What is the function of the respiratory system?  What is the location and function of the all the parts of the respiratory system?  What are the parts of the nasal cavity and their functions?  What are the parts of the larynx and their functions?

71 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Important Concepts  What cell types lines the trachea, what are their functions, be able to discus how smoking effects this tissue?  Where does the exchange of gases occur in the lungs?  What cavity contains the lungs?  What controls the rate of breathing?  Be able to discuss the mechanics of breathing?

72 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Important Concepts  How is oxygen carried in the blood?  How is carbon dioxide carried in the blood, know all the ways, and the which is the predominate mode? (You don’t need to know the chemical equation of bicarbonate formation)  What is the diaphragm and what is its function?

73 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Important Concepts  Be able to discuss the disorders of the respiratory system including the description, symptoms, cause, and treatments.  How does smoking effect pregnancy?

74 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Definitions  Goblet cells, sinuses, epiglottis, surfactant, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, Inhalation/inspiration, exhalation/expiration tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume, vital capacity, hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, chemoreceptors, tubercles, antibiotic resistant


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