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Ch. 4 Integumentary System: The Skin and Its Parts.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 4 Integumentary System: The Skin and Its Parts."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 4 Integumentary System: The Skin and Its Parts

2 Applied Learning Outcomes 1. Use terminology associated with the Integumentary system 2. Learn about skin structure, function, appendages, glands, and care 3. Understand the aging and pathology of the Integumentary system

3 Case Study Investigation – Ch. 4 You are observing an elderly woman who is seeing a personal trainer as part of her rehabilitation therapy. The woman was hospitalized for problems associated with obesity & high blood sugar. She is now going through an exercise program to helpb bring her back to health. While working out, one of her socks rolled down exposing the lower part of her leg. A glance at the side of her left leg, revealed a large, shiny, deep red

4 sore. The sore had a dark margin, like tanned skin. Parts of it looked as if you could see right through to the muscle. The woman saw your face reacting to the sore and kindly said, “Don’t worry about that, it doesn’t cause me any pain.” Part of the personal’s trainer’s responsibility is to pay attention to the pathology that can be worsened by the patient’s rehab. By the end of this chapter you will be asked to determine the possible problems causing this skin condition.

5 Human Skin Trivia  skin – largest organ in body (25sq.ft or 16% of your body weight)  lose an avg. of _____________ hairs/day  _____________________________  avg. scalp has ______________ hairs  shed _______ of skin/lifetime on avg. (1 layer every 24 hrs)  body loses 30,000–40,000__________/min  __________________of nerves in skin  blondes have more hair than brunettes

6 6 Did You Know? _________________ is the fear of hair. __________________ is the fear of haircuts.

7 7 Did You Know? Hair generally grows at a rate of approximately _____per day, or approximately _____per month.

8 8 Did You Know? Hair is naturally colored by pigment granules ____________in the cortex whereas dyed hair has melanin in the ____________ as well as the cortex.

9 The skin is the largest organ is in the body and is composed of: _________________ Nerve Hair __________ Skin ______________ Receptors Overview

10 ___________: qualities an organism is ____ with ex. Genes for making ________ only turn on in the upper tips of the fingers and toes ___________: ability of an organism’s genes to respond to ____________________ changes ex. calluses, _________, skin stretches as the body grows and shrinks back after a woman gives birth

11 Functions of Integumentary System _____________ - against environment (UV rays, microbes); and self-repairs cuts & burns _____ regulation – maintain homeostasis (blood vessels) ___________________– prevents water from flushing out important nutrients Sensation – ________________________ from the environment (receptors) __________________ - can receive O2, N2, medicine __________ excretion – can excrete CO2, urea, sweat Synthesis of Vitamin D – Vit. D helps maintain normal blood __________________ & phosphorus

12 3 Major Layers of the Skin 1._________________ a. __________________tissue (epithelial) b. strong & waterproof (keratin) 2._______________ a. dense connective tissue b. contains blood, sweat & oil glands 3. Hypodermis (subcutaneous) a. __________________ b.anchors skin (E & D) to underlying organs

13 Epidermis - get a new one every days - melanocytes (melanin cells) - keratocytes (keratin cells) Dermis - functional layer Hypodermis / Subcutaneous - adipose tissue Microscopic View

14 5 Layers of the Epidermis 1. Stratum ___________ (_______ cells & melanin which gives skin color) 2-4. middle layers (protein __________ provides strength) 5.stratum ___________________ (______________ & dividing cells ) OUTSIDE THE BODY***** DERMIS*****

15 Why don’t we bleed when we shave?? The epidermis is ________________, meaning it has no blood supply of its own. You only bleed if you cut deep enough to reach the _______________.

16 Dermis  __________________  finger-like projections of the dermis that 1.__________ epidermis & dermis 2.form ridges & grooves that create _________________  __________________ layer  contains ______________, sweat & oil glands, hair follicles, __________ fibers, _____________ endings & elastic fibers

17 Dermal papillae

18 Hypodermis (subcutaneous)  composed of ___________ tissue & elastic fibers  ___________skin to underlying fascia (tissue that covers muscles, skull & some organs)  major blood vessels & nerves branch upward into the dermis  absent/thin in eyelids, penis, scrotum, & nipples; responsible for increase in breasts & hips in females

19 Subcutaneous Injection  ideal site for rapid & relatively pain free absorption of injected material (i.e. insulin/ flu shot) using a _______________ needle

20 Concept Check Questions List 5 major components of the Integumentary system? 2. Distinguish between inherent and adaptive characteristics. Give an example of each. 3. List 5 main functions of the Integumentary system?

21 Concept Check Questions What are the 3 layers of skin from superficial to deep? 5. What kind of tissues can be found within each layer of skin? 6. How do the 5 layers of the epidermis differ? Be specific.

22 Concept Check Questions Why don’t we bleed when we shave usually? When would you see blood? 8. Why is the dermis considered the “functional” layer? 9. Where are dermal papillae found AND what 2 functions are they responsible for?

23  assist skin with its functions  glands  nerves  nails  hair Skin Appendages

24 Blood Vessels  ______________________ according to internal body temperature of body 1. warm body  blood flow ________  heat leaves 2. cold body  blood flow _________  heat stays 3. _____ evaporation  lowers body temperature

25  3 types of glands commonly found in skin 1.___________________ glands (wax) 2._____________________glands (oil) 3. sweat a. _________________________glands b. ________________________glands Glands

26  produce ___________ or ear wax that line ear canal  surrounded by small hairs  collects ____ & dust and _____________ of the ear Ceruminous Glands

27  attached to _______________________  produces _____________, an oily secretion  sebum _______________ hair and surface of skin to prevent them from drying out Sebaceous Glands

28 Sweat Glands  produces sweat through_____  2 types a) Apocrine:  responsible for ___________  found in groin, naval, armpits & areolae

29 Apocrine Sweat Glands  _____________________& taper off in activity in elders  secretions contain _________________ (play a role in courtship & social behavior)  dogs are notorious for sniffing these secretions  secretions are readily broken down by ______________  creates body odors

30 b) Eccrine:  found ____________; concentrated in armpits, forehead, palms & soles of feet  composed of salt & ________  activity, amount & distribution is __________________ determined

31  allow chemicals causing food odors leak out of the body  bacteria feed off nutrients in sweat  causing odors  _______________________ reduce amont of sweat produced by glands  reduce dampness & odors  (-) charged ingredients repel (-) charged sweat molecules Eccrine Sweat Glands

32 Nerves Sensory receptors:  ________________ information from the environment to the body  found in all skin layers; concentrated in dermis & fascia

33 Types of Sensory Receptors __________endings: detect __________ in the epidermis

34 Types of Sensory Receptors _________________corpuscles: in dermis detect ________ dermal papillae Also  Krause end bulbs (cold temp.)

35 Types of Sensory Receptors ________ corpuscles: deep in dermis & hypodermis detect strong _______________ (vibrations) also  Ruffini receptors

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37 Nails  nail root lies beneath cuticle (skin fold)  __________ in nail root move up, die & flatten  forms nail body  lunula- moon shaped whitish area  nails grow 1/8 in/mo. faster than toenails

38 Hair  each strand of hair grows from a hair follicle (inward protrussion of epidermis)  ________________(base of follicle) has its ______ blood & nerve supply  hair shaft - ________ hardened, keratinized stratum corneum-like cells

39 Layers of Hair  3 layers  cuticle, cortex & medulla  ___________  thin, colorless, _________ cortex & scales point toward tip; large in humans  ________  strength, ______ & texture  _________  only present in thick hair; small or non-exsitent in humans

40 Hair Structure The structure of hair has been compared to that of a pencil with the medulla being the ________, the cortex being the _________ and the cuticle being the __________ on the outside. Cuticle – outer coating composed of overlapping ______________ Cortex – protein-rich structure around the medulla that contains ____________ Medulla – central core (may be absent)

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42 Hair  color determined by ________________  amount & location determines color  genetically controlled  _____________muscle (smooth muscle) attachs to hair follicle  causes goosebumps (__________)

43 Drugs & Hair  capture many ____________ (drug/poison) that pass through blood  advantages: 1) goes back months not days 2) non-invasive, 3) holds up in court  disadvantages: 1) expensive, 2) takes time to get results

44 44 Stages of Hair Development: Root must be present in order to test hair evidence for DNA Anagen: ____________ Catagen: ___________ Telogen: ____________

45 Habits & Hair Loss hair loss is a slowing down of hair growth and replacement physical _______is a major cause of hair loss (childbirth, illness, injury, pregnancy, and too much exercise when body has to use its energy to cope with stress to places hair growth as a lower priority __________________________________(diets low in amino acids) increase in _______________________ tight braids or ponytails might also pull off hair faster than it can be replaced excessive ________________________ _______________________seems to accelerate growth

46 Concept Check Questions What are skin appendages? Provide 4 examples. 11. The dermis has the ability to regulate heat. Describe 3 ways the dermis does this. 12. What do ceruminous & sebaceous glands produce and how do these secretions differ in function?

47 Concept Check Questions Describe how appocrine & eccrine glands differ in location and what they secrete. 14. What is the general function of nerves/receptors in the skin? Name 3 & state what each detects. 15. Describe the differences btwn the 3 layers of hair.

48 16. Why doesn’t a hair cut hurt, but pulling a hair out of the head does? 17. What does the arrector pili muscle attach to and what’s its function? 18. What are the advantages & disadvantages of the testing hair samples for drugs? Concept Check Questions 16-18

49 Burns  causes skin to lose ability to maintain homeostasis  majority of burns  ____ exposure & cooking accidents  other causes  ___________, electricity, ______ & steam

50 Types of Burns  1 st Degree  ______________ damage; reddening and swelling  chemicals, steam, flame heat & mild sun exposure

51  2 nd Degree  __________________& dermal papillae damaged; blisters, fluid buildup, painful, _____________time;  longer exposure to previous factors Types of Burns

52  3 rd Degree  stratum germinativum ____________________________; dermis, adipose, muscle, nerve & bone damage;  ______________________to previous factors Types of Burns

53 ______________: method to determine extent of a burn injury

54 Skin pathology can be categorized as: ________________________ (diseases that progressively deteriorate skin) ________________________ (inherited; mutations) _________________________ (contagious, microorganisms) Wellness and Illness over the Life Span

55  ______________________(age spots)  sun exposure  __________________  skin inflammation caused by allergic rxn or irritant Degenerative Skin Disorders

56  _______________  has an underlying genetic component  moles  flat squamous- cell _______; heavily pigmented by melanocytes enough-sun-can-be-harmful-video.htm

57 Degenerative Skin Disorders  skin ________  soft, colored, knob- shaped tumors that grow out of skin (neck, armpits, body); surgery can easily remove

58 Genetic Skin Disorders  acne, cysts, boils  ________changes  causes overproduction of sebum around hair follicles  ________  inflammation of skin and increased skin cell production; dry, itchy; environmentally trigged??

59 Genetic Skin Disorders  port wine stains & spider veins  common __________  vitiligo  white ___________ on skin; decrease in _______ production (immune attack on melanocytes ???)

60 Infectious Skin Disorders  __________  caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; produces destructive secretions that erode and inflame skin

61 Infectious Skin Disorders  _______________  skin fungus that eats keratin rich materials  human papilloma virus (______)  group of viruses that cause various types of warts in humans

62 Aging of the Integumentary System  loss of head hair  graying/whitening of hair, decrease in sweating  excessive growth of hair, loss of fat  wrinkles; drying out of skin = decrease in oil Aging is due to: intrinsic factors (____________________; genetic, maturation, stress) extrinsic factors (__________________, contracting disease, pollution) lifestyle can accelerate aging

63 Concept Check Questions Explain how the 3 categories of skin burns differ? 20. According to the rules of nines, what % of my body would be burned if the anterior part of 1 leg, both sides of my right arm, and my head were burnt? 21. How do the 3 categories of skin disorders differ?

64 Concept Check Questions Describe 2 types of degenerative skin conditions. 23. Describe 2 types of genetic skin conditions. 24. How do the 2 major categories of skin aging differ?


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