Presentation on theme: "Integumentary System:"— Presentation transcript:
1Integumentary System: Ch. 4Integumentary System:The Skin and Its Parts
2Applied Learning Outcomes 1. Use terminology associated with the Integumentary system2. Learn about skin structure, function, appendages, glands, and care3. Understand the aging and pathology of the Integumentary system
3Case Study Investigation – Ch. 4 You are observing an elderly woman who is seeinga personal trainer as part of her rehabilitationtherapy. The woman was hospitalized forproblems associated with obesity &high blood sugar. She is now goingthrough an exercise program to helpbbring her back to health. Whileworking out, one of her socks rolleddown exposing the lower part of herleg. A glance at the side of her leftleg, revealed a large, shiny, deep red
4sore. The sore had a dark margin, like tanned skin. Parts of it looked as if you could see right throughto the muscle. The woman saw your face reactingto the sore and kindly said, “Don’t worry aboutthat, it doesn’t cause me any pain.”Part of the personal’s trainer’sresponsibility is to pay attention tothe pathology that can be worsenedby the patient’s rehab. By the endof this chapter you will be asked todetermine the possible problemscausing this skin condition.
5Human Skin Triviaskin – largest organ in body (25sq.ft or 16% of your body weight)lose an avg. of _____________ hairs/day_____________________________avg. scalp has ______________ hairsshed _______ of skin/lifetime on avg. (1 layer every 24 hrs)body loses 30,000–40,000__________/min__________________of nerves in skinblondes have more hair than brunettes
6Did You Know? _________________ is the fear of hair. __________________is the fear of haircuts.
7Did You Know?Hair generally grows at a rate of approximately _____per day, or approximately _____per month.
8Did You Know?Hair is naturally colored by pigment granules ____________in the cortex whereas dyed hair has melanin in the ____________ as well as the cortex.
9Overview The skin is the largest organ is in the body and is composed of:_________________NerveHair__________Skin______________Receptors
10Overview___________: qualities an organism is ____ withex. Genes for making ________ only turn on inthe upper tips of the fingers and toes___________: ability of an organism’s genes to respond to ____________________ changesex. calluses, _________, skin stretches as the body grows and shrinks back after a woman gives birth
11Functions of Integumentary System _____________ - against environment (UV rays, microbes); and self-repairs cuts & burns_____ regulation – maintain homeostasis (blood vessels)___________________– prevents water from flushing out important nutrientsSensation – ________________________ from the environment (receptors)__________________ - can receive O2, N2, medicine__________ excretion – can excrete CO2, urea, sweatSynthesis of Vitamin D – Vit. D helps maintain normal blood __________________ & phosphorus
123 Major Layers of the Skin _________________a. __________________tissue (epithelial)b. strong & waterproof (keratin)_______________a. dense connective tissueb. contains blood, sweat& oil glands3. Hypodermis (subcutaneous)a. __________________anchors skin (E & D)to underlying organs
13Microscopic View Epidermis - get a new one every 25-45 days - melanocytes (melanin cells)- keratocytes (keratin cells)Dermis- functional layerHypodermis / Subcutaneous- adipose tissueMicroscopic View
145 Layers of the Epidermis OUTSIDE THE BODY*****1. Stratum ___________(_______ cells & melaninwhich gives skin color)2-4. middle layers(protein __________provides strength)stratum___________________(______________ & dividing cells)DERMIS*****
15Why don’t we bleed when we shave?? The epidermis is ________________, meaning it has no blood supply of its own.You only bleed if you cut deep enough to reach the _______________.
18Hypodermis (subcutaneous) composed of ___________ tissue & elastic fibers___________skin to underlying fascia (tissue that covers muscles, skull & some organs)major blood vessels & nerves branch upward into the dermisabsent/thin in eyelids, penis, scrotum, & nipples; responsible for increase in breasts & hips in females
19Subcutaneous Injection ideal site for rapid & relatively pain free absorption of injected material (i.e. insulin/flu shot)using a_______________needle
20Concept Check Questions 1-3 1. List 5 major components of the Integumentarysystem?2. Distinguish between inherent and adaptivecharacteristics. Give an example of each.3. List 5 main functions of the Integumentary
21Concept Check Questions 4-6 4. What are the 3 layers of skin from superficial todeep?5. What kind of tissues can be found within eachlayer of skin?6. How do the 5 layers of the epidermis differ? Bespecific.
22Concept Check Questions 7-9 7. Why don’t we bleed when we shave usually?When would you see blood?8. Why is the dermis considered the “functional”layer?9. Where are dermal papillae found AND what 2functions are they responsible for?
23Skin Appendages assist skin with its functions glands nerves nails hair
24Blood Vessels______________________ according to internal body temperature of body1. warm body blood flow ________ heat leaves2. cold bodyblood flow _________heat stays3. _____ evaporation lowers bodytemperature
25Glands 3 types of glands commonly found in skin ___________________ glands (wax)_____________________glands (oil)3. sweata. _________________________glandsb. ________________________glands
26Ceruminous Glands produce ___________ or ear wax that line ear canal surroundedby small hairscollects ____& dust and_____________of the ear
27Sebaceous Glands attached to _______________________ produces _____________, an oily secretionsebum _______________ hair and surface of skin toprevent themfrom dryingout
29Apocrine Sweat Glands_____________________& taper off in activity in elderssecretions contain _________________ (play a role in courtship & social behavior)dogs are notorious for sniffing these secretionssecretions are readily broken down by ______________ creates body odors
30b) Eccrine: found ____________; concentrated in armpits, forehead, palms& soles of feetcomposed of salt& ________ activity,amount & distributionis __________________determined
31Eccrine Sweat Glandsallow chemicals causing food odors leak out of the bodybacteria feed off nutrients in sweat causing odors_______________________ reduce amont of sweat produced by glands reduce dampness & odors(-) charged ingredients repel (-) charged sweat molecules
32Nerves Sensory receptors: ________________ information from the environmentto the bodyfound inall skin layers;concentratedin dermis &fascia
33Types of Sensory Receptors __________endings:detect __________in the epidermis
34Types of Sensory Receptors _________________corpuscles:in dermisdetect________dermalpapillaeAlso Krause end bulbs (cold temp.)
35Types of Sensory Receptors ________ corpuscles:deep in dermis &hypodermisdetect strong_______________(vibrations)also Ruffinireceptors
37Nails nail root lies beneath cuticle (skin fold) __________ in nail root move up, die & flatten formsnail bodylunula- moonshaped whitish areanails grow 1/8 in/mo.faster than toenails
38Haireach strand of hair grows from a hair follicle (inward protrussion of epidermis)________________(baseof follicle) has its ______blood & nerve supplyhair shaft - ________hardened, keratinizedstratum corneum-likecells
39Layers of Hair 3 layers cuticle, cortex & medulla ___________ thin, colorless, _________ cortex & scales point toward tip; large in humans________ strength, ______& texture_________only present inthick hair; smallor non-exsitent in humans
40Hair StructureCuticle – outer coating composed of overlapping ______________Cortex – protein-rich structure around the medulla that contains ____________Medulla – central core (may be absent)The structure of hair has been compared to that of a pencil with the medulla being the ________, the cortex being the _________ and the cuticle being the __________ on the outside.
42Hair color determined by ________________ amount & location determines color genetically controlled_____________muscle(smooth muscle) attachsto hair follicle causesgoosebumps (__________)
43Drugs & Hair capture many ____________ (drug/poison) that pass through bloodadvantages: 1) goesback months not days2) non-invasive, 3) holdsup in courtdisadvantages: 1)expensive, 2) takes timeto get results
44Stages of Hair Development: Root must be present in order to test hair evidence for DNAAnagen: ____________Catagen: ___________Telogen: ____________
45Habits & Hair Loss hair loss is a slowing down of hair growth and replacementphysical _______is a major cause of hair loss (childbirth,illness, injury, pregnancy, and too much exercisewhen body has to use its energy to cope with stress toplaces hair growth as a lower priority__________________________________(diets low in amino acids)increase in _______________________tight braids or ponytails might also pull off hair fasterthan it can be replacedexcessive _______________________________________________seems to accelerate growth
46Concept Check Questions 10-12 10. What are skin appendages? Provide 4 examples.11. The dermis has the ability to regulate heat.Describe 3 ways the dermis does this.12. What do ceruminous & sebaceous glands produceand how do these secretions differ in function?
47Concept Check Questions 13-15 13. Describe how appocrine & eccrine glands differ inlocation and what they secrete.14. What is the general function of nerves/receptorsin the skin? Name 3 & state what each detects.15. Describe the differences btwn the 3 layers of hair.
48Concept Check Questions 16-18 16. Why doesn’t a hair cut hurt, but pulling a hairout of the head does?17. What does the arrector pili muscle attach to andwhat’s its function?18. What are the advantages & disadvantages of thetesting hair samples for drugs?
49causes skin to lose ability to maintain homeostasis majority of Burnscauses skin to lose ability to maintain homeostasismajority ofburns ____exposure &cooking accidentsother causes___________,electricity, ______& steam
501st Degree ______________ damage; reddening and swelling Types of Burns1st Degree ______________ damage; reddening and swellingchemicals, steam, flameheat & mild sun exposure
51Types of Burns2nd Degree __________________& dermal papillae damaged; blisters, fluid buildup, painful, _____________time; longer exposure to previous factors
52Types of Burns3rd Degree stratum germinativum ____________________________; dermis, adipose, muscle, nerve & bone damage; ______________________to previous factors
53______________: method to determine extent of a burn injury
54Wellness and Illness over the Life Span Skin pathology can be categorized as:________________________(diseases that progressively deteriorate skin)(inherited; mutations)_________________________(contagious, microorganisms)Intrinsic: aging caused by the natural decline of cellsExtrinsic: aging caused by environmental factors (disease, pollution, sun exposure)Degenerative: refers to diseases that progressively deteriorate tissues-examples include skin cancer, moles, skin tagsGenetic disorders include acne, psoriasis, spider veinsInfectious diseases include impetigo, ringworm, warts
59Genetic Skin Disorders port wine stains& spider veins common __________vitiligo white___________ on skin;decrease in _______production (immuneattack on melanocytes???)
60Infectious Skin Disorders __________ caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; produces destructive secretions that erode and inflame skin
61Infectious Skin Disorders _______________ skin fungus that eats keratin rich materialshuman papillomavirus (______) group of viruses that causevarious types of warts inhumans
62Aging of the Integumentary System Aging is due to:intrinsic factors(____________________; genetic, maturation, stress)extrinsic factors(__________________, contracting disease, pollution)lifestyle can accelerate agingloss of head hairgraying/whitening of hair, decrease in sweatingexcessive growth of hair, loss of fatwrinkles; drying out of skin = decrease in oil
63Concept Check Questions 19 - 21 19. Explain how the 3 categories of skin burns differ?20. According to the rules of nines, what % of mybody would be burned if the anterior part of 1 leg,both sides of my right arm, and my head were burnt?21. How do the 3 categories of skin disorders differ?
64Concept Check Questions 22-24 22. Describe 2 types of degenerative skin conditions.23. Describe 2 types of genetic skin conditions.24. How do the 2 major categories of skin agingdiffer?