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© K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version 1.2 1 This booklet contains many, but not all, of the grammar points you need to know for Standard Grade French.

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Presentation on theme: "© K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version 1.2 1 This booklet contains many, but not all, of the grammar points you need to know for Standard Grade French."— Presentation transcript:

1 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version This booklet contains many, but not all, of the grammar points you need to know for Standard Grade French. If you can get your head round most of the stuff in here, you’ll be on the way to a good grade at Standard Grade. There is also a section with useful phrases in it. When you are preparing a piece of writing or speaking to do, think of that section as being like one of the old Super Mario games: the more bulbs (or flowers, or whatever) you can add to your collection, the more points. The more of these phrases you can get in, the more impressive your piece will be.

2 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version A, An (Indefinite Articles)3The Infinitive41 The (Definite Articles)4Sentence Structure46 Some, Of, From (Partitive Articles)5“Pringle” verbs (using more than one verb at once)51 I, You, He… (Pronouns)6Know, Can, Do54 At, To, Flavours & Fillings7Reflexive Verbs55 And, Or, But, Because… (Conjunctions)8The Immediate Future (I am going to….)60 Etre (= to be)9The Perfect Tense (Passé Composé)61 Avoir (= to have)11The Simple Future (I will….)68 Aller (= to go)13The Imperfect Tense (I was doing….)70 Faire (= to do, to make)15The Conditional Tense ( I would do my homework if…)71 ER Verbs17Useful Phrases for Speaking & Writing72 IR Verbs19 RE Verbs21 My, Your, His, Her…. (Possessive Adjectives)23 Time, and Time Expressions (incl weeks, months etc24 Seasons31 Months of the Year32 Town & Country (“In” and “To”)33 There is/there are/there was… (Il y a)34 No, never, nothing… (Negatives)35 I like it/I love it/I don’t like…37 Opinions40

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60 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version There are two ways of talking about the future in English: Tonight, I will eat pizza I am going Tonight I am going to eat pizza. In English, this is called the ‘Immediate’ Future Immediate Future The Immediate Future is dead easy. All you need is The verb aller (= to go) The Infinitive (= bit you find in the Dictionary) of the verb you’re going to use Je vais danser I’m going to dance Nous allons bricoler We are going to do some DIY Tu vas attendre ? Are you going to wait? Vous allez chanter Are you going to sing? Il va partir He is going to leave Ils vont se rappeler They are going to remember

61 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version Two ways of talking about the past in English (‘the perfect tense’): I ate I have eaten Only one way in French: [The equivalent of] I have eaten (J’ai mangé) Here’s How.... Use the right bit of avoir (J’ai, Tu as, Il a....etc) Use a past participle (in English, this often ends in –ed, like walked, worked...) For regular “ER” verbs (like donner) donner  donné For regular “IR” verbs (like finir) finir  fini For regular “RE” verbs (like attendre) attendre  attendu

62 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version ER verbs: e.g. donner (  é) IR verbs: e.g. finir (  i) RE verbs: e.g. attendre (  u) J’ai donné – I gaveJ’ai fini – I finishedJ’ai attendu – I waited Tu as donné – You gave Tu as fini – You finished Tu as attendu – You waited Il a donné – He gave Il a fini – He finished Il a attendu – He waited Nous avons donné – We gave Nous avons fini – We finished Nous avons attendu – We waited Vous avez donné – You (pl) gave Vous avez fini – You (pl) finished Vous avez attendu – You (pl) waited Ils ont donné – They gave Ils ont fini – They finished Ils ont attendu – They waited

63 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version There is a number of irregular verbs which don’t form their past participle according to a set rule. They need to be learned. The most common ones are... InfinitiveEnglishPast Participle avoirto havej’ai euI had/have had êtreto bej’ai étéI was/have been faireto do/makej’ai faitI made/did/have made/have done pouvoirto be ablej’ai puI could/have been able savoirto knowj’ai suI knew/have known boireto drinkj’ai buI drank/have drunk croireto believej’ai cruI believed/have believed connaîtreto know (a person)j’ai connuI knew/have known devoirto have toj’ai dûI had to/have had to

64 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version lireto readj’ai luI read/have read voirto seej’ai vuI saw/have seen vouloirto wantj’ai vouluI wanted/have wanted écrireto writej’ai écritI wrote/have written conduireto drivej’ai conduitI drove/have driven mettre*to put (on)j’ai misI put/have put prendre**to takej’ai prisI took/have taken * also compounds, e.g. permettre etc ** also compounds e.g. comprendre etc InfinitiveEnglishPast Participle

65 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version There is also a group of verbs, mainly to do with movement or change of state, which don’t use avoir, but use être instead. The past participle of these also has to ‘agree with’ (= match) the gender etc. of whoever was doing it (same as adjectives). Here’s how it works: Aller (= to go) Je vais – I goJe suis allé(e) [Add this if “I” am feminine] Tu vas – You goTu es allé(e) [Add this if addressing someone feminine] Il va – He goes; Elle va – She goesIl est allé; Elle est allée Nous allons – We goNous sommes allé(e)s [Add this if “we” are all feminine] Vous allez – You goVous êtes allé(e)s [Add this if “youse” are all feminine] Ils vont – they go; Elles vont – They (f only) go Ils sont allés; Elles sont allées

66 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version And here’s the list of verbs that use être instead of avoir. Remember them by DRAPER’S VAN MMT 13R MMT 13R

67 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version DescendreTo descend, go down ResterTo stay, remain ArriverTo arrive PartirTo leave, set off EntrerTo come in, enter RetournerTo turn round SortirTo go out VenirTo come AllerTo go NaîtreTo be born MonterTo climb, go up MourirTo die TomberTo fall 13 (there are 13 of these verbs, plus compunds like repartir and devenir) Reflexives (Reflexive verbs also use être and must agree with their subject) MMT 13R

68 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version Mostly, you can get away with using the ‘immediate’ future tense (aller +infinitive) when you want to talk about the future but you should at least be able to recognise the ‘simple’ future when you see or hear it. The ‘immediate’ future says, ‘I am going to eat pizza’; the ‘simple’ future says ‘I will eat pizza’. Here’s how you do it: Regular verbs: endings: Use the infinitive and add the following endings: ai Je mangerai as Tu mangeras a Il mangera ons Nous mangerons ez Vous mangerez ont Ils mangeront I’ve used an”ER” verb (manger) here. Regular “IR” and “RE” verbs work the same way, except that the “RE” verbs lose their “e”: Je rendrai Tu rendras…etc

69 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version There are, of course, a whole lot of irregular verbs that don’t follow those rules. In fact, they all use the same endings as the regular ones (-ai, -as, - a…etc), it’s the stem that is different. Here are some common ones: Être – Je serai – I will be Avoir – J’aurai – I will have Aller – J’irai – I will go Faire – Je ferai – I will do/make Pouvoir – Je pourrai – I will be able Venir – Je viendrai – I will come There are more….but you’ll need to look them up elsewhere.!

70 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version The Imperfect Tense is used: To talk about the past, and particularly – To say what used to happen (I used to go swimming every morning) To say what was happening when something else happened (While I was watching TV, a mouse ran across the room) Here’s how it works: Use the ‘nous’ form of the verb, and remove the ending (usually ‘ons’); this gives you the ‘nous’ stem. So: Nous travaillons  Nous travaill – endings: Add these endings: ais Je travaillais ions Nous travaillions ais Tu travaillais iez Vous travailliez ait Il travaillait aient Ils travaillaient And this works the same way for all verbs, except être, where the stem used is ét-, as in J’étais…, C’était… and so on

71 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version Used to say what will happen if something else happens first: If I won the lottery, I would buy a Porsche If Gretna won the World Cup I would be surprised Here’s how to do it: ‘simple future’ stem Use the ‘simple future’ stem (for most verbs, this is the infinitive, but remember there are some common irregulars) And the imperfect tense endings Like this: manger Je mangerais – I would eat…. manger Tu mangerais – You would eat…etc manger Il mangerait manger Nous mangerions manger Vous mangeriez manger Ils mangeraient Some common phrases using the conditional… Ce serait super – It would be great Il y aurait – There would have been…. J’aurais dû chanter – I would have had to sing

72 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version My suggestion is that, before starting on a piece of writing, or preparing for a speaking task, you have a quick look through this list and pick out half a dozen or more words or phrases that you think you might be able to work into whatever it is that you’re speaking or writing about. Good luck! 1 ÀTo, at 2 À ce moment mêmeAt that very moment 3 À la campagneIn the countryside 4 À la finIn the end 5 À la montagneIn the mountains 6 À ma grande surpriseTo my great surprise 7 AinsiThus 8 Ainsi queAs well as 9 AlorsSo, then 10 AssezQuite/enough

73 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version Au dessusAbove 12 AussiAlso 13 AvecWith 14 BrefIn short 15 C’estIt is 16 C’est à direThat’s to say 17 C’étaitIt was 18 ÇaThat 19 CarFor, because 20 Ce jour-là…..That day….. 21 Ce n’est pasIt’s not 22 Ce n’était pasIt wasn’t 23 Ce/Cet/CetteThis 34 CelaThat 25 CependantHowever 26 CesThese 27 Chez moiAt home 28 ContreAgainst 29 D’abordFirst of all 30 D’ailleursMoreover, besides

74 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version DansIn 32 DeOf, from 33 De toute façonIn any case 34 DedansInside 35 DehorsOutside 36 DéjàAlready 37 DerrièreBehind 38 DevantIn front of 39 DoncTherefore 40 Du moinsAt any rate 41 En effetIndeed, as a matter of fact 42 En faitIn fact 43 En généralIn general 44 En villeIn town 45 En-dessousBelow 46 EnfinAt last, in the end

75 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version EnsuiteNext, then 48 EntreBetween 49 Et…..etBoth…..and 50 FinalementFinally 51 HeureusementLuckily 52 Hier matinYesterday morning 53 IciHere 54 Il n’y a pasThere isn’t/there aren’t 55 Il n’y avait pasThere wasn’t/there weren’t 56 Il y aThere is/there are 57 Il y avaitThere was/there were 58 JamaisNever 59 Jusqu’àUntil/as far as 60 L’année dernièreLast year 61 LàThere 62 LorsqueWhen

76 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version MaisBut 64 MalgréIn spite of 65 MalheureusementUnfortunately 66 Moinsless 67 NaturellementNaturally, of course 68 NonNo 69 Nulle partNowhere 70 OuOr 71 OùWhere 72 OuiYes 73 ParBy, through 74 Par conséquentAs a result 75 Par contreOn the other hand 76 Par un beau jour d’étéOn a beautiful summer’s day 77 Parce queBecause 78 PartoutEverywhere 79 Pendant les vacancesDuring the holidays

77 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version PersonneNo-one 81 Peu importeIt matters little 82 Peut-êtreMaybe, perhaps 83 PlusMore 84 PourFor 85 PourtantHowever 86 PuisThen, next 87 QuandWhen 88 Quand mêmeAll the same 89 QueThan, as 90 Quelque choseSomething 91 Quelque partSomewhere 92 QuelquefoisSometimes 93 SansWithout 94 SiIf 95 SiYes (if contradicting) 96 Soit…..soitWhether….or….

78 © K of M Productions, 2007/8; Version SoudainSuddenly 98 SousUnder (also slang word for drunk!) 99 SurOn 100 SurtoutAbove all 101 Tandis queWhile, whereas 102 TardLate 103 TôtEarly 104 ToujoursAlways/still 105 ToutAll 106 Tout à coupAll of a sudden 107 Tout de suite aprèsImmediately afterwards 108 Un chien quelconqueSome dog or other 109 Un jour en hiverOne winter’s day 110 YThere

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