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Occupational Safety and Health. Global Estimates (Annually) 1.2 million work-related deaths 250 million accidents 160 million work-related diseases 4%

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Presentation on theme: "Occupational Safety and Health. Global Estimates (Annually) 1.2 million work-related deaths 250 million accidents 160 million work-related diseases 4%"— Presentation transcript:

1 Occupational Safety and Health

2 Global Estimates (Annually) 1.2 million work-related deaths 250 million accidents 160 million work-related diseases 4% of gross national product is lost

3 The cost of accidents and occupational diseases in EU-15 countries ranges between % of GNP (Gross National Product)* Investments of EU-25 countries in the science 1.86% GNP** Scale of accidents and incidents in occupation * Georgios Katalagarianakis (European Commision, DG Research), General Assembly of ETPIS, February 2007, Stuttgart. ** Eurostat, OECD.  One worker died every 2 hours  One worker became a victim of accident every 5 seconds  4900 fatalities occurred in 7.6 million accidents at work  4.9 million accidents resulted in more the 3 days of absence from work

4 The Costs of China's Modernization Industrial accidents and disasters are responsible for over one million casualties and the loss of six percent of GDP every year.

5 Occupational Injuries (Hong Kong) Acknowledgement to Hong Kong Occupational Safety and Health Council

6 Industrial Accidents (Hong Kong)

7 Occupational Diseases

8 Number of Confirmed Occupational Diseases in 2001

9 Terminology Safety - Control of accidental loss Accident - Any undesired circumstance which gives rise to all health or injury; damage to property, products or environment; production losses; or increased liabilities. Incident - all undesired circumstances & near miss which have the potential to cause accidents. near miss

10 Pyramid of accidents Serious injury Minor injury Properties damages Incidents (near miss)

11 What Causes Injuries? © Texas Workers’ Compensation Insurance Fund % 20% Unsafe Conditions 20% Acts of God 2% Unsafe Acts 78% UNSAFE CONDITIONSUNSAFE ACTS ACTS OF GOD

12 Cost of accidents Economic - insured & uninsured Legal - Civil & Criminal liability Social - Morale, Image ………..

13 Economic Cost $ 1 $ 1-3 $ 5-50 Insured cost Uninsured misc. cost Uninsured properties damage cost

14 Economic cost Uninsured Misc. : –Efficiency –Medical –Administration & Legal Uninsured properties damage –Damaged machinery & materials lost –Production down time –increased insurance premiums

15 Legal cost Criminal liability (fine & imprisonment) –Factory & Industrial Undertaking Ordinance –Occupational Safety & Health Ordinance –Other legislation Civil liability (compensation) –Law of contract –Law of tort

16 Social Cost Relation with employee (Morale) Business opportunity Public relation Social image

17 REMEMBER……………………….. No job is so important and No service is so urgent – that we cannot take time to perform our work safely. Accident Case Study

18 Unsafe Act or Unsafe Condition

19 Industrial safety: among major problems Industrial safety Running down of traditional energy sources Reliability of supply of energy sources Terrorism Global warming

20 BP accident in Texas City BP accident in Texas City (23 th March 2005)* * Richard Gowland (ETPIS Chairman), 1st ETPIS Mirror Group Meeting, European Council, March 2007, Brussels

21 BP accident in Texas City * Richard Gowland (ETPIS Chairman), 1st ETPIS Mirror Group Meeting, European Council, March 2007, Brussels 15 workers killed 170 people injured Extensive damage to the plant and nearby town Dailly Telegraph , “Funds turn screw” A group of 39 UK public sector pension funds are turning the screw on BP over the oil major’s safety failures. The Local Authority Person Fund Forum whose members have over 70

22 Gas Leakage at HKU Mishandling of acid in an open area Safety procedures have not been followed Loose supervision Evacuation enforced after the accident

23 HP water cleaning Workers not properly trained for the safe use of equipment Equipment malfunction Loose supervision & unclear working procedures Use of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment ) may help

24 Drainage Construction ( 星 島 日 報 報 道 ) 屯 門 掃 管 笏 路 一 個 水 務 署 鋪 設 排 水 渠 地 盤 , 昨 午 發 生 塌 泥 活 埋 工 人 慘 劇 。 兩 名 地 盤 雜 工 在 地 坑 中 工 作 時 , 疑 因 連 日 天 雨 沖 失 泥 土 , 逾 噸 重 的 沙 泥 突 然 蓋 下 , 其 中 一 人 及 時 走 避 , 另 一 人 則 不 幸 遭 活 埋 。 消 防 員 花 兩 小 時 才 將 其 挖 出 , 惟 已 告 回 天 乏 術 … 勞 工 處 人 員 事 後 到 場 調 查 , 發 現 地 坑 內 並 無 安 全 措 施 設 置 , 初 步 懷 疑 有 人 為 疏 忽 釀 成 意 外 , 但 真 正 原 因 仍 要 進 一 步 了 解 。 勞 工 處 人 員 表 示 , 一 般 情 況 下 , 地 盤 負 責 人 有 責 任 在 工 程 前 進 行 危 險 評 詁 , 顯 然 這 個 地 盤 無 進 行 此 項 工 作 。

25 Residence Building Site ( 星 島 日 報 報 道 ) 觀 塘 月 華 街 兩 個 月 前 造 成 一 死 兩 傷 的 簷 篷 倒 塌 意 外 , 引 起 各 方 關 注 。 屋 宇 署 調 查 報 告 指 出 , 意 外 是 由 於 拆 卸 非 法 鐵 籠 , 而 引 致 簷 篷 倒 塌 。 該 署 已 將 報 告 轉 交 律 政 司 考 慮 進 一 步 行 動 。 法 律 界 人 士 說 , 這 宗 個 案 將 涉 及 複 雜 的 訴 訟 程 序 , 但 有 關 單 位 業 主 及 承 建 商 , 均 可 能 面 對 入 獄 及 罰 款 的 刑 責 。 法 律 界 人 士 說 , 這 宗 意 外 將 會 涉 及 復 雜 的 訴 訟 程 序 , 業 主 作 為 僭 建 物 擁 有 人 , 一 定 要 承 擔 法 律 責 任

26 HAZARD AWARENESS

27 Identify unsafe acts and conditions –An unsafe act is something that a person habitually does that may result in an accident. – An unsafe condition is something about the physical environment that may present a danger. Determine the corrective actions –Safety shall take corrective action to eliminate the cause of nonconformities in order to prevent recurrence. Corrective action, and the response time to initiate such actions, shall be appropriate to the consequences of the nonconformities. Implement corrective actions –Administrative (through personnel, management, monitoring, limiting worker exposure, measuring performance, training and education, housekeeping and maintenance.) –Engineering (isolation of source, lockout procedure, design, process or procedural changes, monitoring and warning equipment, chemical or material substitution.) –PPE (body protection, fall protection.)

28 Can you find the hazard(s)?

29 Is there a Hazard?

30 How about now?

31 Common Workplace Hazards Fire and preventions Safety in Lifting Operations Machinery Safety Working at Heights Chemical Safety Electrical Safety Office

32 Fire combustible materials used for partitions, fixtures and furniture increase the fire loading in the premises. Due to the lack of proper maintenance and carelessness of staff, fire would be easily occurred. common causes of fire –smoking materials left unattended –use of flammable liquid and dangerous substances –electrical fire due to short circuit or overloading of electrical apparatuses –mishandling or naked flame (e.g. lighters, matches,candles etc) –arson –obstruction in means of escape

33 Fire Fire prevention –smoking materials –use of electrical equipment –use of flammable liquids –good housekeeping –maintenance of Fire Services Installation and Equipment (FSI)

34 Safety in Lifting operation Life appliance –crab, winch, teagle, pulley block, crane, sheerlegs, excavators, pile driver, pile extractor, dragline, aerial ropeway, aerial cable-way transporter, overhead runaway lifting gear –chain sling, ring, link, hook, plate clamp, shackle, swivel/eyebolt

35 Safety in Lifting operation causes of lifting accidents –lack of training –poor maintenance –correct plant and equipment not available –misuse of plant and equipment –hurry to get the job done

36 Machinery Safety Hazards associated with machines –traps –impact –contact –entanglement –ejection Provision of effective machine layout –spacing –lighting –cables and pipes –ergonomics

37 Machinery Safety machine layout –spacing : to facilitate access of operation, supervision, maintenance, adjustment and cleaning –lighting: general and local (for specific operations) –cable and pipes: to allow safe access and to avoid tripping, with sufficient headroom –ergonomics: provision of seating, correct placing of controls, positioning of operating stations and height of work tables

38 Working at Heights works at height - definition –any person who is working at a level liable to fall a distance more than 2 meters examples –fall of person due to collapse of scaffold or ladder –fall from height –fall from working platform, gangway, lift shaft and stairway –falling objects

39 Working at Heights provision of suitable measures –safe use of scaffold provision of working platform, gangways and runs provision of guard rails –safe use of ladders correct pitch (1 meter for every 4 m vertical height) when locate in doorway, have a man to look after the bottom of the ladder inspect ladder before use and regularly

40 Chemical Safety Classification of dangerous substances –explosive –harmful –flammable –toxic –corrosive –oxidizing –irritant

41 Chemical Safety Steps to reduce risk –labels on containers and receptacles –planning for chemical safety identification of the hazard to be controlled assessment of the risk control of the risk training of staff monitoring the effectiveness of the strategy necessary record-keeping

42 Electrical Safety Hazards –electrical shock –arc eyes –ignition of combustible materials –overheating and damage to equipment –electrical explosion causes –damaged insulation –inadequate systems of work –inadequate over current protection (e.g.. fuse, CB) –inadequate earthing –carelessness –loose contacts and connectors –unprotect connectors –poor maintenance and testing

43 Electrical Shock Received when current passes through the body Severity of the shock depends on: –Path of current through the body –Amount of current flowing through the body (Currents greater than 75 mA) –Length of time the body is in the circuit

44 Recognize the Hazards

45 Stay at least 10 feet away from overhead lines

46 Office – Potential Risk in office Visible Risk –Working with computer Occupational Safety and Health (Display Screen Equipment) Regulation –Personal Health Poor Working Condition –temperature, air quality, sound level, lighting Invisible –Work pressure

47 Common Office Safety and Health Hazards What’s Wrong Here?

48 VDT Work Positions in Office The following are important considerations when attempting to maintain neutral body postures while working at the computer workstation: Hands, wrists, and forearms are straight, in- line and roughly parallel to the floor. Head is level, or bent slightly forward, forward facing, and balanced. Generally it is in-line with the torso.Hands, wrists, and forearms are straight, in- line and roughly parallel to the floor. Head is level, or bent slightly forward, forward facing, and balanced. Generally it is in-line with the torso. Shoulders are relaxed and upper arms hang normally at the side of the body.Shoulders are relaxed and upper arms hang normally at the side of the body. Elbows stay in close to the body and are bent between 90 and 120 degrees.Elbows stay in close to the body and are bent between 90 and 120 degrees.

49 VDT Work Positions in Office The following are important considerations when attempting to maintain neutral body postures while working at the computer workstation: Feet are fully supported by floor or footrest.Feet are fully supported by floor or footrest. Back is fully supported with appropriate lumbar support when sitting vertical or leaning back slightly.Back is fully supported with appropriate lumbar support when sitting vertical or leaning back slightly. Thighs and hips are supported by a well- padded seat and generally parallel to the floor.Thighs and hips are supported by a well- padded seat and generally parallel to the floor. Knees are about the same height as the hips with the feet slightly forward.Knees are about the same height as the hips with the feet slightly forward.

50 Common Causes of Back Injuries Twisting at the waist while lifting or holding a heavy load... this frequently happens when using a shovel.

51 Common Causes of Back Injuries Lifting or carrying objects with awkward or odd shapes....

52 Common Causes of Back Injuries Sitting or standing too long in one position... Sitting can be very hard on the lower back...

53 Common Causes of Back Injuries It is also possible to injure your back slipping on a wet floor or ice...

54 Things You Can Do Minimize problems with your back by exercises that tone the muscles in your back, hips and thighs. Before beginning any exercise program, you should check with your doctor

55 Exercise! Exercise regularly, every other day. Warm up slowly... A brisk walk is a good way to warm up Inhale deeply before each repetition of an exercise and exhale when performing each repetition.

56

57

58 Safety Suggestions Safety can be achieved at reasonable cost Do it right at the first time or you have to pay more Safety is everyone ’ s responsibility Safety requires management support Safety is a culture & not just a movement

59 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)

60 Eye protection comes in different types. Goggles are designed for solid or liquid hazards that are airborne and in a quantity that there is a greater likelihood of contact with or near the eye. Safety eyeglasses with protective side shields are designed for eye protection when the hazard is more casual by nature and the hazard(s) is of low quantity and likelihood. EYE PROTECTION

61 Eyes may need protection from hazards other than those that include a physical contact with the eye. For example, UV light can cause permanent damage to vision. EYE PROTECTION

62 EYE / FACE PROTECTION For more severe hazards, full face protection is needed. Examples of this are heavy grinding and heavy spraying or splashing. The full face shield not only protects the eyes, but the entire facial area as well. The face shield affords extra protection against hazards involving temperature extremes or hazardous chemicals. Due to the wide opening on the sides and bottom of the face shield, protective eyewear must be worn along with the face shield.

63 HEAD PROTECTION Hard hats are necessary to protect workers against hazards that include falling objects and overhead hazards in general. There are different types of hard hats. Some hats are designed to protect only against bumps (low overhead hazards), while others afford protection against falling objects. Metal hard hats should not be worn when there is a potential for contact with anything electrical. Hard hats must conform with the requirements of ANSI Z Check the label on the hat for compliance with this standard.

64 FOOT PROTECTION Proper footwear can afford a level of protection for the feet and toes. Steel-toed boots or shoes protect toes against the crushing hazard of falling objects, such involved with pipe moving or heavy material handling. Rubber boots protect the feet against chemical hazards. For chemical hazards, check with your MSDS’. Footwear should also be selected based on protection from the walking/working surface. Construction sites with nails, or rough terrain including sharp rocks will require shoes or boots with sturdy, puncture-resistant soles.

65 Respiratory and hearing protection, if required, will be covered separately. A specific policy will be provided for each/either if the use of this protective equipment is required. OTHER PROTECTION

66 A Brief Guide to the Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance Purposes of the Ordinance General Duties of Employers Duties of Occupier of Premises Duties of Employees Duties of Person Responsible for a Workplace

67 Purposes of the Ordinance To ensure the safety and health of employees when they are at work; To prescribe measures that will make the workplaces of employees safer and healthier for them; To improve the safety and health standards applicable to certain hazardous processes, plant and substances used or kept in workplaces; And. To improve the safety and health aspects of working environments of employees.

68 General Duties of Employers Provide and maintain plant and system of work that are safe and without risks to health; Make arrangements for ensuring safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use, handling, storage or transport of plant or substances; Provide information, instruction, training and supervision as may be necessary to ensure the safety and health at work; Maintain workplace including the means of access to and egress from the workplace in a condition that is safe and without risks to health; And Provide and maintain workplace and working environment that are safe and without risks to health.

69 Duties of Occupier of Premises To ensure that the premises, the means of access to and egress from the premises and any plant or substances kept at the premises are safe and without risks to health.

70 Duties of Employees Take care for the safety and health of himself and of other persons who are at the workplace. Co-operate with employer or other person so far as may be necessary to enable safety and health requirements are complied with. do not damage or obstruct means of escape from a workplace. do not damage or interfere with fire safety measures. use the mechanical aid and protective equipment provided by the employer for use in manual handling operations and conform to the system of work and work practices established by the employer for these operations.

71 EMPLOYEE RIGHTS as far as possible, to have any risks to your health and safety properly controlled to be provided, free of charge, with any personal protective and safety equipment if you have reasonable concerns about your safety, to stop work and leave your work area, without being disciplined to tell your employer about any health and safety concerns you have to get in touch with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or your local authority if your employer won't listen to your concerns, without being disciplined to have rest breaks during the working day, to have time off from work during the working week, and to have annual paid holiday

72 EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES RESPONSIBILITY to comply with all policies and procedures RESPONSIBILITY to report all unsafe acts and conditions RESPONSIBILITY to be a team member - to assist others in compliance RESPONSIBILITY to offer suggestions that may have a positive impact on safety

73 Duties of Person Responsible for a Workplace Accident Prevention Fire Precautions Workplace Environments Hygiene at Workplaces First Aid at Workplaces Manual Handling Operations Risk assessment Preventive and protective measures

74 Penalty Employee –maximum fine of $50,000 and 6 months' imprisonment. The person responsible for a workplace –maximum fine of $200,000 and 12 months' imprisonment.


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