2Global Estimates (Annually) 1.2 million work-related deaths250 million accidents160 million work-related diseases4% of gross national product is lost
3Scale of accidents and incidents in occupation The cost of accidents and occupational diseases in EU-15 countries ranges between% of GNP (Gross National Product)*Investments of EU-25 countries in the science1.86% GNP**One worker died every 2 hoursOne worker became a victim of accident every 5 seconds4900 fatalities occurred in 7.6 million accidents at work4.9 million accidents resulted in more the 3 days of absence from work* Georgios Katalagarianakis (European Commision, DG Research), General Assembly of ETPIS, February 2007, Stuttgart.** Eurostat, OECD.
4The Costs of China's Modernization Industrial accidents and disasters are responsible for over one million casualties and the loss of six percent of GDP every year.
5Occupational Injuries (Hong Kong) Acknowledgement to Hong Kong Occupational Safety and Health Council
8Number of Confirmed Occupational Diseases in 2001
9Terminology Safety - Control of accidental loss Accident - Any undesired circumstance which gives rise to all health or injury; damage to property, products or environment; production losses; or increased liabilities.Incident - all undesired circumstances & near miss which have the potential to cause accidents.
10Pyramid of accidents Serious injury Minor injury Properties damages Incidents (near miss)
11What Causes Injuries? 20% 78 % UNSAFE CONDITIONS UNSAFE ACTS Acts ofGodUnsafe2%Conditions20%20%78 %UnsafeBelieve it or not only 2% of all accidents are caused by Acts of God; such as lightning etc.Unsafe conditions which accounts for 20% of all accidents includes items such as unguarded equipment, liquids on floors, frayed electrical cords etc.The majority of all accidents, 78 % are caused by Unsafe Acts or Unsafe Behaviors. The important thing to remember is that behaviors can be changed ----through trainingAn unsafe behaviors may include not implementing corrective actions in a timely fashion. Unsafe conditions are identified, but management does not act on correcting the hazard.Acts78%UNSAFE CONDITIONSUNSAFE ACTSACTS OF GODTexas Workers’ Compensation Insurance Fund 2001
19Industrial safety: among major problems Running down of traditional energy sourcesReliability of supply of energy sourcesTerrorismGlobal warming
20BP accident in Texas City (23th March 2005)* * Richard Gowland (ETPIS Chairman), 1st ETPIS Mirror Group Meeting, European Council, March 2007, Brussels
21BP accident in Texas City 15 workers killed170 people injuredExtensive damage to the plant and nearby townDailly Telegraph , “Funds turn screw”A group of 39 UK public sector pension funds are turning the screw on BP over the oil major’s safety failures. The Local Authority Person Fund Forum whose members have over 70* Richard Gowland (ETPIS Chairman), 1st ETPIS Mirror Group Meeting, European Council, March 2007, Brussels
22Gas Leakage at HKU Mishandling of acid in an open area Safety procedures have not been followedLoose supervisionEvacuation enforced after the accident
23HP water cleaningWorkers not properly trained for the safe use of equipmentEquipment malfunctionLoose supervision & unclear working proceduresUse of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment ) may help
27HAZARD AWARENESS Identify unsafe acts and conditions An unsafe act is something that a person habitually does that may result in an accident.An unsafe condition is something about the physical environment that may present a danger.Determine the corrective actionsSafety shall take corrective action to eliminate the cause of nonconformities in order to prevent recurrence. Corrective action, and the response time to initiate such actions, shall be appropriate to the consequences of the nonconformities.Implement corrective actionsAdministrative (through personnel, management, monitoring, limiting worker exposure, measuring performance, training and education, housekeeping and maintenance.)Engineering (isolation of source, lockout procedure, design, process or procedural changes, monitoring and warning equipment, chemical or material substitution.)PPE (body protection, fall protection.)For the next few slides, we would like to have some fun ---- lets have everyone in the audience be the Loss Prevention Consultant and pretend you are surveying or auditing a jobsite and with the intention of identifying the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions.Lets discuss the corrective actions that could be taken to eliminate the potential hazards.
28Can you find the hazard(s)? 423This is a lumber mill. Note the unguarded belt and pulley; the unguarded chain and sprocket; and the unguarded saw blade.1
31Common Workplace Hazards Fire and preventionsSafety in Lifting OperationsMachinery SafetyWorking at HeightsChemical SafetyElectrical SafetyOffice
32Firecombustible materials used for partitions, fixtures and furniture increase the fire loading in the premises. Due to the lack of proper maintenance and carelessness of staff, fire would be easily occurred.common causes of firesmoking materials left unattendeduse of flammable liquid and dangerous substanceselectrical fire due to short circuit or overloading of electrical apparatusesmishandling or naked flame (e.g. lighters, matches,candles etc)arsonobstruction in means of escape
33Fire Fire prevention smoking materials use of electrical equipment use of flammable liquidsgood housekeepingmaintenance of Fire Services Installation and Equipment (FSI)
35Safety in Lifting operation causes of lifting accidentslack of trainingpoor maintenancecorrect plant and equipment not availablemisuse of plant and equipmenthurry to get the job done
36Machinery Safety Hazards associated with machines trapsimpactcontactentanglementejectionProvision of effective machine layoutspacinglightingcables and pipesergonomics
37Machinery Safety machine layout spacing : to facilitate access of operation, supervision, maintenance, adjustment and cleaninglighting: general and local (for specific operations)cable and pipes: to allow safe access and to avoid tripping, with sufficient headroomergonomics: provision of seating, correct placing of controls, positioning of operating stations and height of work tables
38Working at Heights works at height - definition examples any person who is working at a level liable to fall a distance more than 2 metersexamplesfall of person due to collapse of scaffold or ladderfall from heightfall from working platform, gangway, lift shaft and stairwayfalling objects
39Working at Heights provision of suitable measures safe use of scaffold provision of working platform, gangways and runsprovision of guard railssafe use of ladderscorrect pitch (1 meter for every 4 m vertical height)when locate in doorway, have a man to look after the bottom of the ladderinspect ladder before use and regularly
40Chemical Safety Classification of dangerous substances explosive harmfulflammabletoxiccorrosiveoxidizingirritant
41Chemical Safety Steps to reduce risk labels on containers and receptaclesplanning for chemical safetyidentification of the hazard to be controlledassessment of the riskcontrol of the risktraining of staffmonitoring the effectiveness of the strategynecessary record-keeping
42Electrical Safety Hazards causes electrical shock damaged insulation arc eyesignition of combustible materialsoverheating and damage to equipmentelectrical explosioncausesdamaged insulationinadequate systems of workinadequate over current protection (e.g.. fuse, CB)inadequate earthingcarelessnessloose contacts and connectorsunprotect connectorspoor maintenance and testing
43Electrical Shock Received when current passes through the body Severity of the shock depends on:Path of current through the bodyAmount of current flowing through the body (Currents greater than 75 mA)Length of time the body is in the circuitA small current that passes through the trunk of the body (heart and lungs) is capable of causing severe injury or electrocution.Low voltages can be extremely dangerous because, all other factors being equal, the degree of injury increases the longer the body is in contact with the circuit.
45Stay at least 10 feet away from overhead lines Recognize the HazardsStay at least 10 feet away from overhead lines
46Office – Potential Risk in office Visible RiskWorking with computerOccupational Safety and Health (Display Screen Equipment) RegulationPersonal HealthPoor Working Conditiontemperature, air quality, sound level, lightingInvisibleWork pressure
47Common Office Safety and Health Hazards What’s Wrong Here?
48VDT Work Positions in Office The following are important considerations when attempting to maintain neutral body postures while working at the computer workstation:Hands, wrists, and forearms are straight, in-line and roughly parallel to the floor. Head is level, or bent slightly forward, forward facing, and balanced. Generally it is in-line with the torso.Shoulders are relaxed and upper arms hang normally at the side of the body.Elbows stay in close to the body and are bent between 90 and 120 degrees.
49VDT Work Positions in Office The following are important considerations when attempting to maintain neutral body postures while working at the computer workstation:Feet are fully supported by floor or footrest.Back is fully supported with appropriate lumbar support when sitting vertical or leaning back slightly.Thighs and hips are supported by a well-padded seat and generally parallel to the floor.Knees are about the same height as the hips with the feet slightly forward.
50Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesTwisting at thewaist whilelifting orholding a heavyload thisfrequently happenswhen using a shovel.*8##
51Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesLifting or carryingobjects with awkwardor odd shapes*10##
52Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesSitting or standing too long inone position ... Sitting can bevery hard on the lower back ...*12##
53Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesIt is also possibleto injure yourback slipping ona wet floor or ice . . .*13##
54*07/16/96Things You Can DoMinimize problems with your back by exercises that tone the muscles in your back, hips and thighs.Before beginning any exercise program, you should check with your doctor*18##
55Exercise! Exercise regularly, every other day. Warm up slowly A brisk walk is a good way to warm upInhale deeply before each repetition of an exercise and exhale when performing each repetition.
58Safety Suggestions Safety can be achieved at reasonable cost Do it right at the first time or you have to pay moreSafety is everyone’s responsibilitySafety requires management supportSafety is a culture & not just a movement
60EYE PROTECTIONEye protection comes in different types. Goggles are designed for solid or liquid hazards that are airborne and in a quantity that there is a greater likelihood of contact with or near the eye. Safety eyeglasses with protective side shields are designed for eye protection when the hazard is more casual by nature and the hazard(s) is of low quantity and likelihood.
61EYE PROTECTIONEyes may need protection from hazards other than those that include a physical contact with the eye. For example, UV light can cause permanent damage to vision.
62EYE / FACE PROTECTIONFor more severe hazards, full face protection is needed. Examples of this are heavy grinding and heavy spraying or splashing. The full face shield not only protects the eyes, but the entire facial area as well. The face shield affords extra protection against hazards involving temperature extremes or hazardous chemicals. Due to the wide opening on the sides and bottom of the face shield, protective eyewear must be worn along with the face shield.
63HEAD PROTECTIONHard hats are necessary to protect workers against hazards that include falling objects and overhead hazards in general. There are different types of hard hats. Some hats are designed to protect only against bumps (low overhead hazards), while others afford protection against falling objects. Metal hard hats should not be worn when there is a potential for contact with anything electrical. Hard hats must conform with the requirements of ANSI Z Check the label on the hat for compliance with this standard.
64FOOT PROTECTIONProper footwear can afford a level of protection for the feet and toes. Steel-toed boots or shoes protect toes against the crushing hazard of falling objects, such involved with pipe moving or heavy material handling. Rubber boots protect the feet against chemical hazards. For chemical hazards, check with your MSDS’.Footwear should also be selected based on protection from the walking/working surface. Construction sites with nails, or rough terrain including sharp rocks will require shoes or boots with sturdy, puncture-resistant soles.
65OTHER PROTECTIONRespiratory and hearing protection, if required, will be covered separately. A specific policy will be provided for each/either if the use of this protective equipment is required.
66A Brief Guide to the Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance Purposes of the OrdinanceGeneral Duties of EmployersDuties of Occupier of PremisesDuties of Employees Duties of Person Responsible for a Workplace
67Purposes of the Ordinance To ensure the safety and health of employees when they are at work;To prescribe measures that will make the workplaces of employees safer and healthier for them;To improve the safety and health standards applicable to certain hazardous processes, plant and substances used or kept in workplaces; And.To improve the safety and health aspects of working environments of employees.
68General Duties of Employers Provide and maintain plant and system of work that are safe and without risks to health;Make arrangements for ensuring safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use, handling, storage or transport of plant or substances;Provide information, instruction, training and supervision as may be necessary to ensure the safety and health at work;Maintain workplace including the means of access to and egress from the workplace in a condition that is safe and without risks to health; And Provide and maintain workplace and working environment that are safe and without risks to health.
69Duties of Occupier of Premises To ensure that the premises, the means of access to and egress from the premises and any plant or substances kept at the premises are safe and without risks to health.
70Duties of Employees Take care for the safety and health of himself and of other persons who are at the workplace.Co-operate with employer or other person so far as may be necessary to enable safety and health requirements are complied with.do not damage or obstruct means of escape from a workplace.do not damage or interfere with fire safety measures.use the mechanical aid and protective equipment provided by the employer for use in manual handling operations and conform to the system of work and work practices established by the employer for these operations.
71EMPLOYEE RIGHTSas far as possible, to have any risks to your health and safety properly controlledto be provided, free of charge, with any personal protective and safety equipmentif you have reasonable concerns about your safety, to stop work and leave your work area, without being disciplinedto tell your employer about any health and safety concerns you haveto get in touch with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or your local authority if your employer won't listen to your concerns, without being disciplinedto have rest breaks during the working day, to have time off from work during the working week, and to have annual paid holiday
72EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES RESPONSIBILITY to comply with all policies and proceduresRESPONSIBILITY to report all unsafe acts and conditionsRESPONSIBILITY to be a team member - to assist others in complianceRESPONSIBILITY to offer suggestions that may have a positive impact on safety
73Duties of Person Responsible for a Workplace Accident PreventionFire PrecautionsWorkplace EnvironmentsHygiene at WorkplacesFirst Aid at WorkplacesManual Handling OperationsRisk assessmentPreventive and protective measures
74Penalty Employee The person responsible for a workplace maximum fine of $50,000 and 6 months' imprisonment.The person responsible for a workplacemaximum fine of $200,000 and 12 months' imprisonment.