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K Wassily Kandinsky - Composition IV, 1911. Web Publishing using PL/SQL and Java Eric Grancher CERN (Geneva), IT/DB European Organization.

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Presentation on theme: "K Wassily Kandinsky - Composition IV, 1911. Web Publishing using PL/SQL and Java Eric Grancher CERN (Geneva), IT/DB European Organization."— Presentation transcript:

1 K Wassily Kandinsky - Composition IV, 1911

2 Web Publishing using PL/SQL and Java Eric Grancher CERN (Geneva), IT/DB European Organization for Nuclear Research EOUG 2000, paper 60

3 Plan About server side web applications, not to conclude Java (or PL/SQL) is better…  Introduction (what technology, where is it used ?)  Special features  Security features and pitfalls  Transaction handling  Manageability  Performance  Suggestions and Conclusion

4 The PL/SQL “cartridge”  The original method, since 1995  Has proven to be fast, reliable  Embraced a lot in the Oracle “community”, including CERN  Has almost not changed a lot for 5 years (transactions, file upload…)  Used  In Oracle Application Server  In WebDB  As the target for Designer Web generation

5 How the PL/SQL cartridge works  Based on Oracle PL/SQL stored objects  Few simple PL/SQL packages, the PL/SQL Web toolkit  OAS makes the mapping between the URL and the database account  Procedure is executed, it fills up a buffer, returns it and commits browser OAS /app1/plsql/pa.pr?l_a1_num=3 Net8 HTTP execute pa.pr(l_a1_num=>3); owa.get_page; commit; PACKAGE PA IS PROCEDURE PR(l_a1_num NUMBER); END; PL/SQL table …

6 PL/SQL example procedure t1 (p_a1_num number default 100) is cursor c is select t1,t2 from t where rownum < p_a1_num; begin htp.print(' '); htp.htmlopen; htp.headopen; htp.title(p_a1_num); htp.headclose; htp.bodyopen; for c1 in c loop htp.print(c1.t1||'--'||c1.t2); end loop; htp.bodyclose; htp.htmlclose; end; arguments specify DOCTYPE loop around the cursor

7 The Java techniques  Java introduced by Sun, object orientation, no pointer arithmetic, compilation into an OS neutral VM  Java2 Enterprise Edition, Java Servlet and Java Server Pages  Used in  “All” web servers, Oracle Application Server  Oracle iFS  The RDBMS itself (8.1.7)

8 How the Java techniques work  Server side Java execution  Java Server Pages and SQLJ are all “transformed” into plain Java code with JDBC access to the database, we will concentrate on Servlets  Java class writes to a stream that is sent back to the browser  Init, service/doGet/doPost and destroy “main” methods browser /app1/java/TestServlet HTTP HTML JDBC www listener & JVM

9 Standard Java Servlet code public class BasicServlet extends HttpServlet { public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { response.setContentType("text/html"); PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter (response.getOutputStream()); out.println(" "); out.println(" Title "); out.println(" some text in the body"); out.println(" "); out.flush(); } } arguments and output set MIME & get out send page to out

10 Java code with Oracle extensions public class BasicOracle extends HttpServlet { public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException{ ServletOutputStream out_str=response.getOutputStream(); out_str.println("Content-type: text/html"); out_str.println(); HtmlHead head = new HtmlHead("Title !"); HtmlBody body = new HtmlBody(); HtmlPage page = new HtmlPage(head, body); body.addItem(new SimpleItem("Some body text")); page.print(out_str); out_str.flush(); } } arguments and output set MIME & get out send page to out create page

11 Special features  Non HTML  Specify a non “ text/html ” mime-type like CSV = application/msexcel  Return “raw” data  Return XML data, to be handled by a local XSL preprocessor or used in another program  (Java only)  Non textual: images…  Networking access: , ftp…  LDAP access  Servlet chaining  External or remote processing (Enterprise Java Beans)

12 Security  Encryption, use of SSL at the listener level. With OAS4, no possibility to restrict access to an application to a set of TCP ports !  Access control  Before or within the application (simplicity vs. extensibility)  Source of users  configuration file  LDAP  Oracle users for the PL/SQL cartridge (WebDB 2.x)  Custom run-time protection with the PL/SQL cartridge (authorize function)  Pitfall with small vs. capital letters (PL/SQL cartridge)  good practice is to protect everything and “unprotect” the few URLs to be made more widely available /app1/plsql/private* = Basic(admin)/app1/plsql/ = Basic(admin) /app1/plsql/public* = IP(allip) /app1/plsql/priVate.admin !!!

13 Transaction and session handling  One of the biggest issues for a dynamic site: transaction, locking and contexts (session and application)  HTTP is basically stateless  one has to workaround  Solutions for context, inter web page communication  Hidden fields  Cookies  Servlet-only: place variables in the context  Application context  Session context (uses URL rewriting or cookies) HttpSession session = request.getSession (true); Integer ItemCount = (Integer) session.getValue("itemcount"); if (ItemCount == null) { ItemCount=new Integer (0); } else { ItemCount = new Integer(ItemCount.intValue()+1); } session.putValue("itemcount",ItemCount); get session reference retrieve the value put the value

14 Transactions  Pseudo locking can be implemented with the help of PL/SQL owa_opt_lock  Real transactions  PL/SQL can make use of declarative URLs with the transaction service, no control on the transaction, easy to setup but some issues with the session handling  JDBC/Java Transaction Service, programmatic approach, more code, more control Distributed Transaction Coordinator Application Instance

15 Manageability  Packaging systems  Packages in PL/SQL  Object Orientation, packages with Java  Coding conventions  Sun “Code Conventions”  PL/SQL reference books  N accounts architecture (data, API, logic, presentation…)  N tier architecture, for Java applications, place the Java logic in EJB  PL/SQL dependencies  make calls to PL/SQL stored procedures from Java

16 Performance  As usual, database design and SQL are the most common sources of the bottlenecks !  Use parameterized statements, avoid dynamic SQL  Java  place as much as possible in the init/destroy  Java  manage a connection pool, see JDBC 2.0  Java  use StringBuffer or the oracle.html classes  This is done by the PL/SQL cartridge “for free”

17 Performance tests MethodResponseThroughput PL/SQLreference J1 = DB connection within code + 776%- 23 % J2 = DB connection within init/destroy + 8%- 8% J3 = J2 using Oracle packages + 20 %- 394 % J4 = J2 using StringBuffer + 16 %- 24 % J5 = J2 using a PreparedStatement + 20 %+ 7%, size(code)=4* Relative times. Sun E450, RDBMS 8.1.6, OAS connections at the same time

18 Mixing technologies  Basic idea: “Avoid to use many different technologies, it makes more complex applications”… at least do it in a N tier architecture  Java as the presentation layer (JSP, Servlets) + database access in PL/SQL  Benefits of new features (session and application contexts, TCP connection like , binary types…)  PL/SQL dependencies  PL/SQL as the presentation layer + Java stored procedures to extend PL/SQL ( , TCP connections, specific functions…)  Easy management of code, simpler code  New features via the Java calls

19 Conclusions ?  Java techniques provide very interesting features (session context…), they still evolve very fast, Java2 EE, JDBC 2.0.  No need to rush on Servlets/Java Server Pages, PL/SQL programming is most of the time simpler, needs less tuning and is very well integrated with the database.  Servlet in the database  will help to have highly- performing, centrally maintained Java code. Some issues are opened, will you open your DB server through the firewall ?  Mixing Java and PL/SQL (dependencies) can be a solution. Keep access to database objects with PL/SQL.


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