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Morphology of flowering plants

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Presentation on theme: "Morphology of flowering plants"— Presentation transcript:

1 Morphology of flowering plants
Part 3 Safe hands

2 Corolla Polypetalous- (free)
Cruciform – 4 petals diagonally arranged- eg. Brassica Caryophyllaceous – 5 or more with long claws- Dianthus Rosaceous – Petals with short claws- Rosa Pailionaceious – Vexillum- pea, bean, gram Gamopetalous – (Fused) Campanulate- Bell shaped eg. Cucurbita, clerodendron. Hypocrateriform – with sort corolla tube- Nyctanthes. Infundibulum- (Funnel shaped)- Petunia Urceolate- Bryophyllum. Tubular- Sunflower. Rotate- Actinomorphic with wheel shaped corolla- Solanum Ligulatge- Zygomorphic , -tongue like strap – Ray florates. Spurred- Like in Delphinium. Bilabiate- Zygo. With two lips- Salvia. Gibboous- Pouch like outgrowth at base – Antirrhinum Personate- Zygo –with two lipped corolla- closed lipped. Antirrhium SAFE HANDS

3 Aestivation Valvate without overlapping Twisted/ contorted
5 or more with long claws- Dianthus c c c c c c SAFE HANDS

4 Imbricate Quincuntial One out one in other overlapped
two out two in other overlapped c c c c c c c c c c SAFE HANDS

5 Vexillary Descending imbricate c c c Keel SAFE HANDS

6 Vexillary Ascending imbricate c c c SAFE HANDS

7 Androecium Parts of androecium Numbers – Monandrous – ginger
Diandrous- adhatoda Triandrous- wheat Tetrandrous – Ocimum Pentandrous- Datura Hexandrous- Paddy Polyandrous- rose. Cohesion of stamens- Adalphy Monadelphous – Hibiscus Diadelphous – Two staminal tube- Pea Polyadulphous – Many bundles – Citrus. Syngenesious- Anthers fused but filaments free- Sunnflower Synandrous– Anthers & filaments are fused - Cucurbitaceae. SAFE HANDS

8 Attachment of filament of anthers
Adhesion of stamens- Adalphy Epiesepalous – Quisqualis indica Epipetalous – Solanum, Vinca Epiphyllous – Liliaceae Gynandrous – Stamen fused with carpel- gynstegium – through out fusion -Calatropis gynostemium- fused only at apex - Orchid Attachment of filament of anthers Basifixed – Datura. Dorsifixed – Passiflora Adnate- Nelumbo Versetile– Jowar. Types of connective Discrete – connective is narrow – Adhatoda Divaricate – Broad connective - Tilia Distractile- connective right angle to stalk – Salvia SAFE HANDS

9 Didynamous – 2 pair- 1pair is long other short- Ociumum
Length of the stamens Didynamous – 2 pair- 1pair is long other short- Ociumum Tetradynamous – 2 whorl of stamens- 2 in in outer whorl and 4 in inner whorl Polyadulphous – Many bundles – Citrus. Heteroanthy / heterostemony- different type on same flower Inserted stamen– Do not beyond the petals Exerted stamen – beyond the petals SAFE HANDS

10 Arrangement of the stamens
Haplostamonous – One whorl & alternate with petals- Solanum Diplostemonous – two whorls outer stamens alternate with petal- cassia Obdiplostemonous – two whorls – outer stamens are opposite to petals - citrus. Alterniptalous- - petunia Antipetalus- oppsite to petals- corrinader Alterniphyllous – alternate to sepals Antiphyllous – Opposite to sepals Polystemonous- More than two whorls, - Delphinium. Shape of anther- Reniform- Kidney shaped – Hibiscus Sagittate- arrow shaped - apocyanaceae Sinouous- lobed in S shaped- cucurbitaceae. SAFE HANDS

11 Haplostamonous – One whorl & alternate with petals- Solanum

12 Diplostemonous – two whorls outer stamens alternate with petal- cassia

13 Monothecous – one celled – 2 microsporangia.
Types of anther. Monothecous – one celled – 2 microsporangia. Dithecous – two celled – 4 microsporangia Structure of anther. Microcporogenesis. Pollen grain Dehiscence of anther- Longitudinal Transverse Valvular Porous Irregular Extrose Introse SAFE HANDS

14 Gynoecium Parts Position of ovary-
Types of ovary on the basis of number of carpel- Monocarpellary- Pea. Bicarpellary- Vinca. Tricarpellary – Onion. Tetracarpellary- Clarkia Petacarpellary- Hibiscus. Multicarpellary- Michelia. SAFE HANDS

15 Types of ovary on the basis of number of locules- Unilocular- Tridex.
Bilocular- Solanum. Trilocular – Allium. Tetralocular- Gossypium Petalocular- Hibiscus. Multilocular- Abutilon. Placentation- Marginal- along the ventral suture- Fabaceae Basal- on the floor- Helianthus. Axile – on the axis but partitioned- Hibiscus Free central- along the axis not partitioned- Dianthus Parietal- on inner side of ovary wall- Cucurbita. Style & stigma. SAFE HANDS

16 FRUIT Simple fruit Aggregate fruit Composite fruit
Development of fruit- Development of fruit wall- TYPES OF FRUITS Simple fruit Aggregate fruit Composite fruit SAFE HANDS

17 Simple fruit Dry fruits Succulent / Fleshy fruit Indehiscent Dehiscent
Schizocarpic SAFE HANDS

18 1. Indehiscent Dry fruits
Achene – One seeded, From monocarpellary ovary Seed coat is NOT fused with pericarp. Rosa, Mirabilis. Caryopsis – One seeded, From monocarpellary ovary Seed coat is fused with pericarp. Maize, Wheat. Cypsela – One seeded, bicarpellary, Unilocular, inferior ovary Seed coat is free from pericarp. Calyx hair like pappus Helianthus Samara– Similar to achene, Pericarp extend into wing Acer, Hiptage. Nut – Woody pericarp, One seeded, superior ovary Anacardium(Cashew nut), Chestnut. litchi SAFE HANDS

19 Indehiscent dry fruits


21 2. Dehiscent dry fruit Follicle – Monocarpellary open along ventral suture Delphinium Pod/ Legume – Superior Monocarpellary open along ventral and dorsal suture Pea. SAFE HANDS

22 2. Dehiscent dry fruit Siliqua – Superior, Bicarpellary, Superior, Syncarpous, Unilocular ovary with parietal placenta. Suture. Two carpel with false (Replum) septum Mustered Silcula – few seeded short broad & flat siliqua. capsella SAFE HANDS


24 2. Dehiscent dry fruit Capsule – From Superior, Multicarpellary, Syncarpous ovary with parietal Types of capsule on the basis of manner of dehiscence Capsule opening by lid Anagallis Capsule opening by pores - Papaver Loculocidal capsule – Split along dorsal sutures – separated in to valve with seed attached to it Gossipium Septicidal capsule– Split along edges and form valves Viola Septifrigal capsule– Split along edges and dorsal sutures, produce many valves leaving septum in middle with seed Datura. SAFE HANDS

25 2. Dehiscent dry fruit SAFE HANDS

26 3. Schizocarpic dry fruit
Closed fruit, More than one carpel, syncarpous ovary, when ripe divides in to Mericarp Lomentum - From monocarpellary, Unilocular superior ovary. Constricted pod Acacia, Mimosa. Carcerulus - From Bicarpellary, tetralocular superior ovary. Split into 4/more indehiscent parts- Ocimum, Salvia Regma- From tricarpellary,Syncarpous, axile placentation. Form 3 one seeded cocci – Euphorbia, Ricinus Cremocarp- From inferior , bicarpellary,Syncarpous, Bilocular. Form 2 mericarp cocci – Coriander Double samara- At maturity split in to 2 samara , Acer, Moringa SAFE HANDS


28 Succulent / Fleshy/ Baccate fruit
Fleshy, Indehiscent , Pericarp modified in to epi, meso and endocarp (a) Drupe – Hard endocarp, epicarp thin, mesocarp- Juicy Apricot, Coconut. (b) Berry – Many seeded, Epicarp- thin, Meso- fleshy endocarp may not be distinguishable from mesocarp Tomato, cucumber , orange (c) Pome – from inferior ovary, Multicarpellary, syncarpous, multilocular, axile placentation True fruit in false fruit, Epi & mesocarp with thalamus, endocarp thin cartilaginous. Apple (Pyrus), Pear. SAFE HANDS

29 Succulent / Fleshy/ Baccate fruit
(d) Pepo – from inferior ovary, Multicarpelllary, syncarpous , Unilocular ovary with parietal placentation. Fleshy thalamus Cucurbitaceae (e) Heperidium – From multiclocular superior ovary, Epi- thick attached to mesocarp. endocarp is membraneous, seperable, with juicy hair Lemon, Orange. (f) Amphisarca – from polycarpellary syncarpous, multilocular superior ovary. Hard epicarp, mucous around seed. elephant apple( Feronia), wood apple (aegle) (g) Balausta – Leathery exocarp, endorp membranous, seeds with juicy testa , persistent calyx. Pomegranate (Punica) SAFE HANDS



32 Aggregate fruit From Multicarpellary, apocarpous gynoecium, form fruitlets - etario (1) Etaerio of follicle – Each free carpel form fruitlets Michelia, Magnolia, Champaca, Calotropis, Aconitum (2) Etaerio of achenes – Narvelia, clematis, rose strawberry,lotus (3) Etaerio of drupes – Ruspberry. (4) Etaerio of berries– Annona (custard apple), Artobotrys. (5) Etaerio of samara– Liriodendron. (6) Etaerio of Nuts– Nelumbo. SAFE HANDS

33 From fusion of inflorescence.
Composite / multiple fruits From fusion of inflorescence. Sorosis – Catkin / spadix/ spikelet. Flower fused by succulent sepals Mulberry (catkin), Ananas (spadix), Jackfruit (spikelet) (ii) Syconus – Hypanthodium inflorescence form fruit. Fig, Morus Dorstenia (Coenanthium inflorescence) SAFE HANDS

34 Aggregate fruits SAFE HANDS

35 Composite fruits SAFE HANDS

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