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Chapter 5 Lipids: Fats, Phospholipids, and Sterols.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Lipids: Fats, Phospholipids, and Sterols."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Lipids: Fats, Phospholipids, and Sterols

2 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lipids Lipid is the chemical term for fat. Lipids contribute texture, taste, flavor and aroma to foods. Fats and oils contain 9 calories per gram. The typical American diet gets about 33% of its energy from fat.

3 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Visible and Hidden Fat on the Menu

4 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Types of Dietary Fat: Triglycerides Triglycerides are the major form of lipid in food and in the body. Triglycerides consist of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule. If only one fatty acid is attached to the glycerol it is called a monoglyceride.

5 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Visualizing Triglycerides and Fatty Acids

6 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Visualizing Triglycerides and Fatty Acids

7 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Fatty Acid Composition of Foods

8 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Trans Fatty Acids

9 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Trans Fatty Acids Trans fatty acids can be created by hydrogenation. Hydrogenation causes some double bonds to become saturated. Hydrogenated fats can be found in margarines, vegetable shortening and shelf- stable baked goods. Trans fatty acids have been shown to raise blood cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart disease.

10 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Essential Fatty Acids

11 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Phospholipids

12 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Phospholipids

13 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Phospholipids

14 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Cholesterol

15 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lipid Digestion

16 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Structure of Lipoprotein

17 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lipoproteins in the Body Lipoproteins are transport particles for water-insoluble lipids. Lipoproteins are created by combining water-insoluble lipids, phospholipids and proteins. Lipoproteins help transport triglycerides, cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins from the small intestine and stored lipids from the liver.

18 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Transporting Lipids through the Body

19 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Need for Lipids in the Body Most lipids in the body are triglycerides stored in adipose tissue. Deposits of adipose tissue help to define body shape, provide stored energy, insulate the body from temperature changes and protect internal organs against physical shock. Lipids in the body are important for lubricated body surfaces, such as the mucous membranes of the eyes.

20 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Need for Lipids in the Body Cholesterol is used to make several hormones, including estrogen and testosterone. PUFAs help to regulate blood pressure and blood clotting. Essential fatty acids are important for growth, skin integrity, fertility and the structure and function of cell membranes.

21 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Need for Lipids in the Body Eicosanoids are made from omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Eicosanoids help regulate blood clotting, blood pressure and immune function. Fatty acids and glycerol can be used to produce energy, in the form of ATP.

22 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lipids in Health and Disease: Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency If adequate amounts of essential fatty acids are not consumed, a deficiency can result. Symptoms include: dry, scaly skin, liver abnormalities, poor wound healing, growth failure in infants and impaired hearing and vision.

23 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lipids and Cardiovascular Disease Over 70 million Americans suffer from some form of cardiovascular disease. Studies show that diet and lifestyle affect the risk of developing cardiovascular disease Atherosclerosis is a disease in which lipids and fibrous materials are deposited in artery walls.

24 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lipids and Cardiovascular Disease

25 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. What’s Your Risk for Heart Disease?

26 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Food Pyramids and Heart Disease

27 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Food Pyramids and Heart Disease

28 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. MyPyramid and Healthy Heart Choices

29 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lipids on the Menu

30 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lipids on the Menu

31 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Reducing Heart Disease on the Menu Dietary factors that may help to reduce the risk of heart disease include: Consuming omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fats Consuming monounsaturated fats Consuming plant foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes Adequate intake of B vitamins Moderate alcohol consumption

32 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Reduced-Fat Foods and Fat Replacers Reduced-fat foods either have fat removed, have fat replaced or contain fats that cannot be digested or absorbed. Fat substitutes can be carbohydrate-, protein- or fat-based. Fat-based fat substitutes, such as Olestra (sucrose polyester) can reduce the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

33 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. What Should I Eat? Fats and Cholesterol Limit your intake of cholesterol, trans fat, and saturated fat Use low-fat dairy products. Trim the fat from your meat and serve chicken and fish but don’t eat the skin. Cut in half your usual amount of butter and use soft rather than stick margarine. Use beans instead of meat in your chili, soups, and casseroles. Increase the proportion of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats Use olive, peanut, or canola oil for cooking and salad dressing. Use corn, sunflower, or safflower oil for baking. Snack on nuts and seeds. Add olives and avocados to your salads. Up your omega-3 intake Bake flaxseeds into breads and sprinkle them on your cereal or yogurt. Add another serving of fatty fish, such as mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, tuna, or salmon, to your weekly menu. Have a leafy green vegetable with dinner. Add walnuts to your salad or cereal.

34 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. End of Chapter 5 Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein..


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