Presentation on theme: "Adrianna Machelska. Diseases of blood and hematopoietic system are less known but very important part of medical science. We encounter them every day,"— Presentation transcript:
Diseases of blood and hematopoietic system are less known but very important part of medical science. We encounter them every day, they range from relatively "soft" iron-deficiency anemia to a very malicious and dangerous leukemias.
* erythrocyte membrane defects *defects in enzymes of the blood *formation of abnormal hemoglobin *a malicious antibodies *their own antibodies *drugs *communicable diseases *chemical agents *physical factors
Anemia Anemia - is a decrease in number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. However, it can include decreased oxygen- binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin deficiency.
The most important and most common group of anemia is iron deficiency anemia. Constitute almost 80% of all anemias and relate mainly to women. The reason is the most blood loss (and the associated iron) due to chronic uterine bleeding (menstrual bleeding), gastrointestinal (mainly due to peptic ulcer disease), the urinary tract and other organs. Rarely it happens that we do not supply the body with iron in sufficient quantities (eg in the case of strict vegetarian diet), or that demand for this macroelement increases (during pregnancy, during lactation). Iron deficiency (related to the lost of red blood cells) is a deficiency anemia, which is also microcytic (blood cells are smaller) and hypochromic. Symptoms of anemia can be arranged in two groups.
The first symptoms are common to many types of anemias. Those are pale skin and mucous membranes, weakness, shortness of breath on exertion, headache. The second group are the symptoms of specific anemia. In the case of iron deficiency anemia is, for example, brittleness of hair and nail care, changes in the mucosa of the tongue, pharynx and esophagus that cause pain and burning sensation when swallowing and festers in the corners of the mouth.
* distorted, selective appetite (eg, clay, starch, chalk), sometimes ahead of anemia * pale skin and conjunctival mucosa * Roughness of the skin * loss of papillae * pain, burning and smoothing of the tongue * burning sensation in the mouth and esophagus * Plummer-Vinson syndrome * brittle hair and nails * weakness * fatigue * too long sleep
Anemia can be divided depending on the level of the blood. Anemia may therefore result from reduced production (red blood cells or hemoglobin), or as a result of increased breakdown of red blood cells, or because of their loss. The first group includes, inter alia, deficient anemia (iron deficiency or vitamin B12), hemolytic anemia in the second and the third posthemorrhagic anemia. Another popular use of average weight distribution of corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). The bigger it is, the cells are "more red". Therefore, we distinguish between hypochromic anemia. Anemia can also be differentiated depending on the size of normal cells, megaloblastic (enormous cells) and microcytic (very small cells). In the division that uses another found on the results of blood tests parameter: MCV, mean corpuscular volume ie.
* Shortness of breath * weakness * gastritis * burning, red tongue * neurological symptoms (in the case of vitamin B12 deficiency) * lack of mobility
In iron deficiency anemia leads to curative treatment. Most commonly, iron pills should be taken on an empty stomach for a few month to refill iron levels in the body. Vitamin C is essential for the proper absorption. During the therapy side effects may occur in the form of problems from the gastrointestinal tract, such as: * nausea * Vomiting * abdominal pain * diarrheas * dark stools
They are quite short and there are indications for discontinuation of the treatment. In the case of intolerance to oral medications, gastrointestinal bleeding, ulcerative colitis and in hemodialysis, doses of iron are administered intravenously. It also may be accompanied by the following side effects: * Pain and swelling at the injection site * joint pain and headaches * metallic taste * feeling of heat or fever * nausea * fainting * itching * anaphylactic shock