2The Heart 1 Your heart is an organ made of cardiac muscle tissue. The Circulatory System1The HeartYour heart is an organ made of cardiac muscle tissue.Your heart has four compartments called chambers.The two upper chambers are called the right and left atriumsThe two lower chambers are called the right and left ventricles
3The Circulatory System 1The HeartThe blood flows only in one direction from an atrium to a ventricle, then from a ventricle into a blood vessel.The septum = a wall that separates the two atriums or the two ventricles.It prevents blood from flowing in the wrong placeClick box to view movie.
4The Circulatory System 1The HeartScientist have divided the circulatory system into three sections – coronary circulation, pulmonary circulation, and systemic circulation.
5Heart rate and activity Activity causes your heart rate to increaseWhat does the mitochondria do?Mitochondria releases energy from food - sugarWhy does the heart have more mitochondria?The heart never stops workingand so it needs more energy
6The Circulatory System 1Systemic CirculationOxygen- rich blood moves to all of your organs and body tissues, except the heart and lungs, by systemic circulation, and oxygen-poor blood returns to the heart.
7The Circulatory System 1Systemic CirculationArteries carry oxygen-rich blood from your heart to the bodyNutrients and oxygen are delivered by blood to your body cells and carbon dioxide and wastes are removed.Finally, the blood returns to your heart in the veins
8The Circulatory System 1Coronary CirculationCoronary circulation, is the flow of blood to and from the tissue of the heart.A heart attack is when the coronary circulation is blocked.Oxygen and nutrients cannot reach all the cells of the heart
9Pulmonary Circulation The Circulatory System1Pulmonary CirculationA. Pulmonary circulation is the flow of blood :from the heart to lungs andback to the heart.
10Pulmonary Circulation The Circulatory System1Pulmonary Circulation
11Heart has four chambers Atri umsValve is a oneway passagein heartand veinVent ricles
12Foot Vein From Body – - To Body Blood flow inferior vena cava right atrium – right ventriclepulmonary artery – LUNGS - pulmonary vein- To Bodyleft atrium – left ventricle – aortaHearts own blood
19Foot Vein From Body – - To Body Blood flow inferior vena cava right atrium – right ventriclepulmonary artery – LUNGS - pulmonary vein- To Bodyleft atrium – left ventricle – aortaHearts own blood
20How Materials Move Through the Body The Circulatory System1How Materials Move Through the BodyMaterials are moved throughout your body by your cardiovascular system.The cardiovascular includes your heart, (kilometers of) blood vessels, and blood.
21How Materials Move Through the Body The Circulatory System1How Materials Move Through the BodyBlood vessels carry blood to every part of your body.Blood moves oxygen and nutrients to cells.Blood carries carbon dioxide and other wastes away from the cells.
22Blood is like a train- it carries good stuff to the cellsAND- it removes bad stuff
23BloodParts of BloodBlood is a tissue made of plasma, platelets and red and white blood cells.The liquid part of bloodis mostly water and is calledplasma.Nutrients, minerals, and oxygenare dissolved in plasma andcarried to cells.Cellular wastes are also carried in plasma
24Blood2Blood Cellshemoglobin is made of an iron compound that gives blood its red color.Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a molecule, that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide.
25Blood Cells 2 Platelets help clot blood. Platelets are irregularly shapedcell fragments
26At capillaries blood gives oxygen and nutrients to the tissues The Circulatory System1At capillaries blood gives oxygen and nutrients to the tissuesAt capillaries tissues gives carbon dioxide and waste products to the blood
27At capillaries blood gives oxygen and nutrients to the tissues The Circulatory SystemAt capillaries blood gives oxygen and nutrients to the tissuesAt capillaries tissues gives carbon dioxide and waste products to the blood
28Blood Vessels – Arteries The Circulatory System1Blood Vessels – ArteriesArteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
29Arteries 1 Each ventricle of the heart is connected to an artery. The Circulatory System1ArteriesEach ventricle of the heart is connected to an artery.Every time your heart contracts, blood is moved from your heart into arteries.The aorta is the largest artery.
30The Circulatory System 1VeinsVeins are the blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.Veins have oneway valves
31Veins 1 The superior vena cava returns blood from your head and neck. The Circulatory System1VeinsThe superior vena cava returns blood from your head and neck.The inferior vena cava returns blood from your abdomen and lower body.
32The Circulatory System 1CapillariesNutrients and oxygen move (diffuse) into body cells through the thin capillary walls.Waste materials and carbon dioxide leave (diffuse) from body cells into the capillaries.
33The Circulatory System 1CapillariesCapillaries are microscopic blood vessels that connect arteries and veins.Capillary walls are only one cell thick.
34Cardiovascular Disease The Circulatory System1Cardiovascular DiseaseAny disease that affects the cardiovascular system—the heart, blood vessels, and blood—can seriously affect the health of your entire body.Heart disease is the leading cause of death,
35Measuring Blood Pressure The Circulatory SystemMeasuring Blood Pressure
36The Circulatory System 1Blood PressureThe force of the blood on the walls of the blood vessels is called blood pressure.Blood pressure is:highest in arteriesandlowest in veins.
37Hypertension Hypertension or high blood pressure Diseases of the Circulatory SystemHypertensionHypertension or high blood pressureBlood pressure higher than normal puts extra strain on the heart.
38Diseases of the Circulatory System AtherosclerosisAtherosclerosis - fatty deposits build up on arterial walls.If a coronary artery is blocked, a heart attack can occur.
39Diseases of the Circulatory System 1Heart FailureHeart failure results when the heart cannot pump blood efficiently.
40Preventing Cardiovascular Disease The Circulatory SystemPreventing Cardiovascular DiseaseCardiovascular disease, can be preventedby following a good diet and exercise.Being over weight is associated with heart disease and high blood pressure.Large amounts of body fat force the heart to pump faster.
41Preventing Cardiovascular Disease The Circulatory System1Preventing Cardiovascular DiseaseHaving a regular program of exercise can help prevent tension and relieve stress.
42Preventing Cardiovascular Disease The Circulatory System1Preventing Cardiovascular DiseaseNot smoking is a major way to prevent cardiovasculardisease.Smoking causes the heart to beat faster and harder.
43Functions of Blood 2 Blood has four important functions. 1. Blood carries oxygen from your lungs to all your body cells. Your blood carries carbon dioxide to your lungs to be exhaled.2. Blood carries waste products from your cells to your kidneys to be removed.
44Blood2Functions of Blood3. Blood transports nutrients and other substances to your body cells.4. Cells and molecules in blood fight infections and help heal wounds.
45Blood2Parts of BloodBlood is a tissue made of plasma, platelets and red and white blood cells.
46Blood2Blood CellsWhite bloods cells fight bacteria, viruses, and other invaders of your body.These cells leave the blood through capillary walls and go into the tissues
47Blood2Blood CellsHere, they destroy bacteria and viruses and absorb dead cells.
48Blood2Blood ClottingWhen you cut yourself, platelets stick to the wound and release chemicals which produce fibrin.(Then substances called clotting factors carry out a series of chemical reactions.)
49Blood Clotting 2 Fibrin forms a sticky net of threadlike fibers This net traps escaping blood cells and plasmaand forms a clot.Skin cells begin the repair process under the scab (after the clot is in place and becomes hard)
50Blood Clotting Disease 2Blood Clotting DiseaseHemophilia is a genetic conditionIn Hemophilia people’s plasma lacks one of the clotting factors that begins the clotting process.A minor injury can be a life threatening problem.
51Diseases of Blood 2 Anemia is a common blood disease. In anemia red blood cells and body tissues can't get enough oxygen( and are unable to carry on their usual activities.)
52Blood2Diseases of BloodPersons with sickle-cell anemia have misshapen red blood cells.The sickle-shaped cells clog the capillaries of a person with this disease.Oxygen cannot reach tissues served by the capillaries, and wastes cannot be removed.
53Diseases of Blood 2 Leukemia is a disease of white blood cells. In Leukemia sick white blood cells are made in excessive numbers.The sick WBC cells do not fight infections well.They crowd out the normal cells in the bone marrow.
54Functions of the Respiratory System 16-3Functions of the Respiratory SystemBreathing is the movement of the chest that brings air into the lungs and removes waste gases.The air entering the lungs contains oxygen.It passes from the lungs into the circulatory system because there is less oxygen in blood when it enters the lungs than in cells of the lungs.
55Functions of the Respiratory System 16-3Functions of the Respiratory SystemThe chemical reaction is called cellular respiration.Carbon dioxide and water molecules are waste products of cellular respiration.
56Functions of the Respiratory System 16-3Functions of the Respiratory SystemBlood carries oxygen and glucose from digested food to individual cells.The oxygen delivered to the cells is used to release energy from glucose.
57Organs of the Respiratory System 3Organs of the Respiratory SystemThe respiratory system is made up of structures and organs that help move oxygeninto the body and waste gases out of the body.
58The Respiratory System 3PharynxWarmed, moist air then enters the pharynx which is a tubelike passageway for food, liquids, and air.When you swallow, your epiglottis folds down, allows food or liquids to enter you esophagus instead of your airway.
59The Respiratory System 3Larynx and TracheaThe larynx is the airway to which two pairs of horizontal folds of tissue, called vocal cords, are attached.Forcing air between the cords causes them to vibrate and produce sounds.
60Larynx and Trachea 3 From the larynx, air moves into the trachea The Respiratory System3Larynx and TracheaFrom the larynx, air moves into the tracheaStrong, C-shaped rings of cartilage prevent the trachea from collapsing.It is lined with mucous membranes and cilia.The mucous membranes trap dust, bacteria, and pollen.
61The Respiratory System 3Bronchi and the LungsAir is carried into your lungs by two short tubes called bronchi at the lower end of the trachea.Within the lungs, the bronchi branch into smaller and smaller tubes.
62Bronchi and the Lungs 3 The smallest tubes are called bronchioles The Respiratory System3Bronchi and the LungsThe smallest tubes are called bronchiolesAt the end of each bronchiole are clusters of tiny, thin-walled sacs called alveoli.
63The Respiratory System 3Bronchi and the LungsLungs are masses of alveoli arranged in grapelike clusters.The capillaries surround the alveoli like a net.
64The Respiratory System 3Bronchi and the LungsOxygen moves through the cell membranes of alveoli and through cell membranes of the capillaries into the blood.In blood, oxygen is picked up by hemoglobin, a molecule in red blood cells, and carried to all body cells.
65The Respiratory System 3Bronchi and the LungsIn the lungs, waste gases move through cell membranes from capillaries into alveoli.Then waste gases leave the body when you exhale.
66The Respiratory System 3Why do you breathe?Signals from your brain tell the muscles in your chest and abdomen to contract and relax.Carbon dioxide levels tell your lungs the speed up or slow down
67Why do you breathe? 3 You can hold your breath if you want to. The Respiratory System3Why do you breathe?You can hold your breath if you want to.Eventually, your brain will respond to the buildup of carbon dioxide in your blood and signal your chest and abdomen muscles to work automatically.You will breathe whether you want to or not.
68The Respiratory System 3Inhaling and ExhalingBreathing is partly the result of changes in volume and resulting air pressure.Your diaphragm contracts and relaxes, changing the volume of the chest, which helps move gases into and out of your lungs.
69Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory Systems 3Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory SystemsMany serious diseases are related to smoking.The chemical substances in tobacco—nicotine and tars—are poisons and can destroy cells.
71Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory Systems 3Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory SystemsEven if you are a nonsmoker, inhaling smoke from tobacco products—called second hand smoke—is unhealthy and has the potential to harm your respiratory system.
72The Respiratory System 3EmphysemaA disease in which the alveoli in the lungs enlarge is called emphysema.As a result, alveoli can’t push air out of the lungs, so less oxygen moves into the bloodstream.
73Respiratory Infections The Respiratory System3Respiratory InfectionsBacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms can cause infections that affect any of the organs of the respiratory system.The common cold usually affects the upper part of the respiratory system—from the nose to the pharynx.
74Respiratory Infections The Respiratory System3Respiratory InfectionsThe cold virus also can cause irritation and swelling in the larynx, trachea, and bronchi.The cilia that line the trachea and bronchi can be damaged.However, cilia usually heal rapidly.
75What is Asthma ?Cause – allergic reactionContraction of bronchiole tubes
76The Respiratory System 3AsthmaWhen a person has an asthma attack, the bronchial tubes contract quickly.Inhaling medicine that relaxes the bronchial tubes is the usual treatment for an asthma attack.Asthma can be an allergic reaction.An allergic reaction occurs when the body overreacts to a foreign substance.
77Asthma 3 asthma attack - the bronchial tubes contract quickly. The Respiratory System3Asthmaasthma attack - the bronchial tubes contract quickly.Inhaling medicine is the usual treatment for an asthma attack.Asthma can be an allergic reaction.An allergic reaction when the body overreacts to a foreign substance.