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Chapter 15 – 16 Circulation and Respiration.

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1 Chapter 15 – 16 Circulation and Respiration

2 The Heart 1 Your heart is an organ made of cardiac muscle tissue.
The Circulatory System 1 The Heart Your heart is an organ made of cardiac muscle tissue. Your heart has four compartments called chambers. The two upper chambers are called the right and left atriums The two lower chambers are called the right and left ventricles

3 The Circulatory System
1 The Heart The blood flows only in one direction from an atrium to a ventricle, then from a ventricle into a blood vessel. The septum = a wall that separates the two atriums or the two ventricles. It prevents blood from flowing in the wrong place Click box to view movie.

4 The Circulatory System
1 The Heart Scientist have divided the circulatory system into three sections – coronary circulation, pulmonary circulation, and systemic circulation.

5 Heart rate and activity
Activity causes your heart rate to increase What does the mitochondria do? Mitochondria releases energy from food - sugar Why does the heart have more mitochondria? The heart never stops working and so it needs more energy

6 The Circulatory System
1 Systemic Circulation Oxygen- rich blood moves to all of your organs and body tissues, except the heart and lungs, by systemic circulation, and oxygen-poor blood returns to the heart.

7 The Circulatory System
1 Systemic Circulation Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from your heart to the body Nutrients and oxygen are delivered by blood to your body cells and carbon dioxide and wastes are removed. Finally, the blood returns to your heart in the veins

8 The Circulatory System
1 Coronary Circulation Coronary circulation, is the flow of blood to and from the tissue of the heart. A heart attack is when the coronary circulation is blocked. Oxygen and nutrients cannot reach all the cells of the heart

9 Pulmonary Circulation
The Circulatory System 1 Pulmonary Circulation A. Pulmonary circulation is the flow of blood : from the heart to lungs and back to the heart.

10 Pulmonary Circulation
The Circulatory System 1 Pulmonary Circulation

11 Heart has four chambers
Atri ums Valve is a one way passage in heart and vein Vent ricles

12 Foot Vein From Body – - To Body Blood flow inferior vena cava
right atrium – right ventricle pulmonary artery – LUNGS - pulmonary vein - To Body left atrium – left ventricle – aorta Hearts own blood

13 Superior- above Right atrium Vena= vein right Inferior below

14 artery vein heart

15 P425 text What is this a model for? Why? me

16 The Circulatory System
1

17 Capillary – smallest vessel that connects arteries to veins
The Circulatory System Capillary – smallest vessel that connects arteries to veins O2 & nutrients Artery Nutrient rich, oxygen rich capillary Vein Waste and carbon dioxide Co2 & waste

18 White = tissue Skin, muscle, Heart,etc Nutrients and oxygen to tissue,
nutrients leaves capillary into tissues Waste and carbon dioxide, from tissue White = tissue Skin, muscle, Heart,etc

19 Foot Vein From Body – - To Body Blood flow inferior vena cava
right atrium – right ventricle pulmonary artery – LUNGS - pulmonary vein - To Body left atrium – left ventricle – aorta Hearts own blood

20 How Materials Move Through the Body
The Circulatory System 1 How Materials Move Through the Body Materials are moved throughout your body by your cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular includes your heart, (kilometers of) blood vessels, and blood.

21 How Materials Move Through the Body
The Circulatory System 1 How Materials Move Through the Body Blood vessels carry blood to every part of your body. Blood moves oxygen and nutrients to cells. Blood carries carbon dioxide and other wastes away from the cells.

22 Blood is like a train - it carries good stuff to the cells AND - it removes bad stuff

23 Blood Parts of Blood Blood is a tissue made of plasma, platelets and red and white blood cells. The liquid part of blood is mostly water and is called plasma. Nutrients, minerals, and oxygen are dissolved in plasma and carried to cells. Cellular wastes are also carried in plasma

24 Blood 2 Blood Cells hemoglobin is made of an iron compound that gives blood its red color. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a molecule, that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide.

25 Blood Cells 2 Platelets help clot blood. Platelets are
irregularly shaped cell fragments

26 At capillaries blood gives oxygen and nutrients to the tissues
The Circulatory System 1 At capillaries blood gives oxygen and nutrients to the tissues At capillaries tissues gives carbon dioxide and waste products to the blood

27 At capillaries blood gives oxygen and nutrients to the tissues
The Circulatory System At capillaries blood gives oxygen and nutrients to the tissues At capillaries tissues gives carbon dioxide and waste products to the blood

28 Blood Vessels – Arteries
The Circulatory System 1 Blood Vessels – Arteries Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

29 Arteries 1 Each ventricle of the heart is connected to an artery.
The Circulatory System 1 Arteries Each ventricle of the heart is connected to an artery. Every time your heart contracts, blood is moved from your heart into arteries. The aorta is the largest artery.

30 The Circulatory System
1 Veins Veins are the blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. Veins have one way valves

31 Veins 1 The superior vena cava returns blood from your head and neck.
The Circulatory System 1 Veins The superior vena cava returns blood from your head and neck. The inferior vena cava returns blood from your abdomen and lower body.

32 The Circulatory System
1 Capillaries Nutrients and oxygen move (diffuse) into body cells through the thin capillary walls. Waste materials and carbon dioxide leave (diffuse) from body cells into the capillaries.

33 The Circulatory System
1 Capillaries Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels that connect arteries and veins. Capillary walls are only one cell thick.

34 Cardiovascular Disease
The Circulatory System 1 Cardiovascular Disease Any disease that affects the cardiovascular system—the heart, blood vessels, and blood—can seriously affect the health of your entire body. Heart disease is the leading cause of death,

35 Measuring Blood Pressure
The Circulatory System Measuring Blood Pressure

36 The Circulatory System
1 Blood Pressure The force of the blood on the walls of the blood vessels is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is: highest in arteries and lowest in veins.

37 Hypertension Hypertension or high blood pressure
Diseases of the Circulatory System Hypertension Hypertension or high blood pressure Blood pressure higher than normal puts extra strain on the heart.

38 Diseases of the Circulatory System
Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis - fatty deposits build up on arterial walls. If a coronary artery is blocked, a heart attack can occur.

39 Diseases of the Circulatory System
1 Heart Failure Heart failure results when the heart cannot pump blood efficiently.

40 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease
The Circulatory System Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular disease, can be prevented by following a good diet and exercise. Being over weight is associated with heart disease and high blood pressure. Large amounts of body fat force the heart to pump faster.

41 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease
The Circulatory System 1 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Having a regular program of exercise can help prevent tension and relieve stress.

42 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease
The Circulatory System 1 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Not smoking is a major way to prevent cardiovascular disease. Smoking causes the heart to beat faster and harder.

43 Functions of Blood 2 Blood has four important functions.
1. Blood carries oxygen from your lungs to all your body cells. Your blood carries carbon dioxide to your lungs to be exhaled. 2. Blood carries waste products from your cells to your kidneys to be removed.

44 Blood 2 Functions of Blood 3. Blood transports nutrients and other substances to your body cells. 4. Cells and molecules in blood fight infections and help heal wounds.

45 Blood 2 Parts of Blood Blood is a tissue made of plasma, platelets and red and white blood cells.

46 Blood 2 Blood Cells White bloods cells fight bacteria, viruses, and other invaders of your body. These cells leave the blood through capillary walls and go into the tissues

47 Blood 2 Blood Cells Here, they destroy bacteria and viruses and absorb dead cells.

48 Blood 2 Blood Clotting When you cut yourself, platelets stick to the wound and release chemicals which produce fibrin. (Then substances called clotting factors carry out a series of chemical reactions.)

49 Blood Clotting 2 Fibrin forms a sticky net of threadlike fibers
This net traps escaping blood cells and plasma and forms a clot. Skin cells begin the repair process under the scab (after the clot is in place and becomes hard)

50 Blood Clotting Disease
2 Blood Clotting Disease Hemophilia is a genetic condition In Hemophilia people’s plasma lacks one of the clotting factors that begins the clotting process. A minor injury can be a life threatening problem.

51 Diseases of Blood 2 Anemia is a common blood disease.
In anemia red blood cells and body tissues can't get enough oxygen ( and are unable to carry on their usual activities.)

52 Blood 2 Diseases of Blood Persons with sickle-cell anemia have misshapen red blood cells. The sickle-shaped cells clog the capillaries of a person with this disease. Oxygen cannot reach tissues served by the capillaries, and wastes cannot be removed.

53 Diseases of Blood 2 Leukemia is a disease of white blood cells.
In Leukemia sick white blood cells are made in excessive numbers. The sick WBC cells do not fight infections well. They crowd out the normal cells in the bone marrow.

54 Functions of the Respiratory System
16-3 Functions of the Respiratory System Breathing is the movement of the chest that brings air into the lungs and removes waste gases. The air entering the lungs contains oxygen. It passes from the lungs into the circulatory system because there is less oxygen in blood when it enters the lungs than in cells of the lungs.

55 Functions of the Respiratory System
16-3 Functions of the Respiratory System The chemical reaction is called cellular respiration. Carbon dioxide and water molecules are waste products of cellular respiration.

56 Functions of the Respiratory System
16-3 Functions of the Respiratory System Blood carries oxygen and glucose from digested food to individual cells. The oxygen delivered to the cells is used to release energy from glucose.

57 Organs of the Respiratory System
3 Organs of the Respiratory System The respiratory system is made up of structures and organs that help move oxygen into the body and waste gases out of the body.

58 The Respiratory System
3 Pharynx Warmed, moist air then enters the pharynx which is a tubelike passageway for food, liquids, and air. When you swallow, your epiglottis folds down, allows food or liquids to enter you esophagus instead of your airway.

59 The Respiratory System
3 Larynx and Trachea The larynx is the airway to which two pairs of horizontal folds of tissue, called vocal cords, are attached. Forcing air between the cords causes them to vibrate and produce sounds.

60 Larynx and Trachea 3 From the larynx, air moves into the trachea
The Respiratory System 3 Larynx and Trachea From the larynx, air moves into the trachea Strong, C-shaped rings of cartilage prevent the trachea from collapsing. It is lined with mucous membranes and cilia. The mucous membranes trap dust, bacteria, and pollen.

61 The Respiratory System
3 Bronchi and the Lungs Air is carried into your lungs by two short tubes called bronchi at the lower end of the trachea. Within the lungs, the bronchi branch into smaller and smaller tubes.

62 Bronchi and the Lungs 3 The smallest tubes are called bronchioles
The Respiratory System 3 Bronchi and the Lungs The smallest tubes are called bronchioles At the end of each bronchiole are clusters of tiny, thin-walled sacs called alveoli.

63 The Respiratory System
3 Bronchi and the Lungs Lungs are masses of alveoli arranged in grapelike clusters. The capillaries surround the alveoli like a net.

64 The Respiratory System
3 Bronchi and the Lungs Oxygen moves through the cell membranes of alveoli and through cell membranes of the capillaries into the blood. In blood, oxygen is picked up by hemoglobin, a molecule in red blood cells, and carried to all body cells.

65 The Respiratory System
3 Bronchi and the Lungs In the lungs, waste gases move through cell membranes from capillaries into alveoli. Then waste gases leave the body when you exhale.

66 The Respiratory System
3 Why do you breathe? Signals from your brain tell the muscles in your chest and abdomen to contract and relax. Carbon dioxide levels tell your lungs the speed up or slow down

67 Why do you breathe? 3 You can hold your breath if you want to.
The Respiratory System 3 Why do you breathe? You can hold your breath if you want to. Eventually, your brain will respond to the buildup of carbon dioxide in your blood and signal your chest and abdomen muscles to work automatically. You will breathe whether you want to or not.

68 The Respiratory System
3 Inhaling and Exhaling Breathing is partly the result of changes in volume and resulting air pressure. Your diaphragm contracts and relaxes, changing the volume of the chest, which helps move gases into and out of your lungs.

69 Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory Systems
3 Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory Systems Many serious diseases are related to smoking. The chemical substances in tobacco—nicotine and tars—are poisons and can destroy cells.

70 Lower Respiratory Tract
trachea bronchi bronchiole alveoli

71 Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory Systems
3 Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory Systems Even if you are a nonsmoker, inhaling smoke from tobacco products—called second hand smoke—is unhealthy and has the potential to harm your respiratory system.

72 The Respiratory System
3 Emphysema A disease in which the alveoli in the lungs enlarge is called emphysema. As a result, alveoli can’t push air out of the lungs, so less oxygen moves into the bloodstream.

73 Respiratory Infections
The Respiratory System 3 Respiratory Infections Bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms can cause infections that affect any of the organs of the respiratory system. The common cold usually affects the upper part of the respiratory system—from the nose to the pharynx.

74 Respiratory Infections
The Respiratory System 3 Respiratory Infections The cold virus also can cause irritation and swelling in the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. The cilia that line the trachea and bronchi can be damaged. However, cilia usually heal rapidly.

75 What is Asthma ? Cause – allergic reaction Contraction of bronchiole tubes

76 The Respiratory System
3 Asthma When a person has an asthma attack, the bronchial tubes contract quickly. Inhaling medicine that relaxes the bronchial tubes is the usual treatment for an asthma attack. Asthma can be an allergic reaction. An allergic reaction occurs when the body overreacts to a foreign substance.

77 Asthma 3 asthma attack - the bronchial tubes contract quickly.
The Respiratory System 3 Asthma asthma attack - the bronchial tubes contract quickly. Inhaling medicine is the usual treatment for an asthma attack. Asthma can be an allergic reaction. An allergic reaction when the body overreacts to a foreign substance.


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