Physical Contraceptive Methods Male Contraceptive methods Female Contraceptive methods CondomFemale Condom VasectomyContraceptive sponge Diaphragm Cervical cap Intrauterine device(IUD) Shields The Patch NuvaRings
The Male Condom is a thin rubber sheath that prevents infection and pregnancy by stopping sperm from going into the vagina but a condom can break during intercourse. The female condom is a thin polyurethane sheath that contains two flexible rings. It offers protection against Sexually Transmitted Infections (such as HIV and AIDS), as well as preventing pregnancy. The sponge: Foam is placed into the woman's vagina using an applicator. It has two effects:kills or destroys sperm and blocks the man's fluids from entering the cervical canal, thus, stopping sperm from reaching the egg. However, It is not protective against HIV (the virus that causes AIDS The cervical cap:A cap shaped latex device. It is used with spermicide and is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix and form a barrier but it cannot be used during menstruation. A diaphragm is a rubber dome-shaped device which the woman places over her cervix & provide barrier to prevent sperm from entering the uterus. Using the diaphragm increases your risk for urinary tract and yeast infections. If left in for more than 48 hours, the diaphragm slightly increases risk for a serious infection called toxic shock syndrome. Ortho Evra patch delivers both estrogen and a progestin and this stops ovulation. Patches do not protect you from HIV or other infections. Use condoms if you may be at risk.. May cause spotting (mostly during the first few cycles Tubal ligation or vasectomy entails the cutting of the vas deferens or cutting and tying of the fallopian tubes which prevents sperms from reaching penis and oviducts incapable of transporting ova to become fertilized.
THE COMBINATION PILL: Birth control pills, also known as "The Pill," are a type of contraception in the form of small tablets. Combined birth control pills contain two hormones, an estrogen and a progestin. The estrogen and progestin prevent pregnancy by suppressing your pituitary gland, which stops the development and release of the egg in the ovary, called ovulation. By doing so, it mimics the negative feedback effects which occurs in the luteal phase of the cycle. The progestin also helps to prevent the sperm from reaching the egg and changes the lining of the uterus. The hormones thicken the secretions round your cervix – thus making it more difficult for sperm to get through. Also, they make the lining of your womb thinner, so that it is less receptive to an egg. With most brands, you take one pill every day for 21 days and then take nothing or a dummy pill that contains no hormones for the next seven. During this last week, your hormone levels drop off, causing you to get your period. When you've completed the 28-day cycle, you start a new pack of pills the very next day. If you start the pill on the first day of your period you will be protected from pregnancy immediately. You can also start the pill up to, and including, the fifth day of your period and you will be protected from pregnancy immediately.
The progesterone in birth control pills creates a thick cervical mucus making it difficult for sperm to reach the uterus. It also impedes an egg from attaching itself to the uterine lining (endometrium) because of changes in the cellular structure of the lining.
The Mini Pill This type of contraceptive pill contains only progestin and therefore has been dubbed "the mini-pill". While this pill may prevent ovulation, more often than not ovulation still occurs in women on the progestin-only pill. If the mini-pill does prevent ovulation, a woman is likely to stop having her period altogether. Instead, this method of contraception works by thickening the cervical mucus in order to stop sperm from meeting an egg. However, if the pill is not taken at the same time everyday, the effect on cervical mucus will decrease. Moreover, it is thought that the mini-pill may also work by thinning the lining of the uterus and preventing implantation from occurring. The progesterone makes the cervical mucous thicken. This mucous then acts as a plug which prevents the sperm from entering the uterus and fertilizing the egg.
DONE BY: Nada Daher & Daria Bathish Level: Grade 12 Life Science Presented to: Mohammad Majzoub School: Al Qualaa Secondary School SOURCES: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/birthcontrol.htm http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/contraceptive/016.html http://www.health.arizona.edu/health-topics.com http://google.com http://contraception.com/birth_control.php http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/health_medicine/birth_control/