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Childhood Diseases and Disorders Pathophysiology.

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Presentation on theme: "Childhood Diseases and Disorders Pathophysiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Childhood Diseases and Disorders Pathophysiology

2 Infectious Diseases  Viruses  Bacterial  Fungal  Parasitic

3 Viral Diseases

4 Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR)  Measles (Rubeola)  Highly contagious (incubation period is 7-14 days)  Symptoms include fever, inflammation of respiratory mucous membranes, rash, and spots in mouth called Koplik’s spots  Treatment is fluids, fever reducer, and rest  May cause encephalitis or meningitis or ear infections and conjunctivitis (pink eye)  Mumps  Affects parotid glands (one of the three salivary glands)  Spread by saliva with incubation period 16-18 but may be as long as 25 days  Blood test determines presence and symptoms are chills, swelling of glands, fever  Treatment is to treat symptoms  May cause orchitis (inflammation of testis) or nerve conduction deafness  Rubella (German Measles or three day measles)  Incubation period of 14-21 days  Symptoms like rubeola but lighter in color; also joint pain and lymph node involvement  Diagnosis through a blood test  May cause fetal problems or birth defects is pregnant women are exposed (80% chance in first 3 mos)


6 Varicella (Chicken Pox)/ Poliomyelitis  Varicella  Incubation of 10-21 days; caused by varicella-zoster  May have shingles as an adult  Symptoms include classic dew drop rose petal macular rash (vesicles)  Poliomyelitis  Incubation of 3-6 days for milder form, 7-21 for severe form  Spread through oral fecal routes  Headache, sore throat and then paralysis  Stool sample or throat cultures confirms diagnosis  Treatment is only supportive; physical therapy or respiratory ventilation may be needed

7 Chicken Pox Polio

8 Influenza/ Common Cold  Influenza  Symptoms are fever, headache, joint pain, runny nose, etc  No treatment except rest, hydration, nasal sprays  Common Cold (rhinovirus)  Symptoms are rhinitis  No treatment except rest, hydration, nasal sprays

9 Mononucleosis  Caused by Epstein-Barr virus  Spread through saliva  Symptoms happen 4-7 days after exposure  Diagnosis through blood test showing rise in WBC  Takes 3-4 weeks to recover and sports should be avoided for one month after to protect the spleen

10 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)  Caused by HIV virus  In 1980’s most children with the disease got it from infected blood because they were hemophiliacs and received transfusions. Today most get it from perinatal transmission  Some sexually active teens have the disease  2.1 million live with HIV  Time between HIV infection and AIDS is shorter in children and infants

11 Bacterial Diseases

12 Diphtheria / Pertussis  Diphtheria  Once had a fatality rate of 20% in 1920’s  Caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae  Produces a membranous coating of pharynx, nose, and sometimes tracheobronchial tree called exudate with proteins and WBC that seep from tissue  Diagnosis is gray membrane covering throat and positive culture  Treatment is antibiotic and diphtheria antitoxin  Pertussis (whooping cough)  Caused by Bordetella pertussis  Incubation is 6-10 days but can be as long as 21 days  Symptoms are  Catarrhal- increase in inflammation of mucous membranes  Paroxysmal-spasm or convulsion with violent coughing, cyanosis, vomiting  Convalescent stage-gradually reduced coughing  Treatment is with antibiotics and supportive therapy but pneumonia can be a problem

13 Tuberculosis (TB)  Affects respiratory system  Currently on the rise  Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis  Also found in GI system and the bones, brain, and lymph nodes  Incubation period is 4-12 weeks  Symptoms include bloody sputum, fever, cough, lymph node enlargement  Disease in children often stays dormant  Diagnosis is by positive skin test, sputum culture and chest x-rays  Treatment is rest, drug therapy  There is a TB vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guesnn (BCG) for places with infection greater than 1% per year

14 Tularemia (Rabbit fever or deer fly fever)  Caused by Francisella tularensis  Symptoms include headaches, lymph node swelling, chills, vomiting  Diagnosis is with blood test or chest x-ray to rule our pneumonia  Treatment is with antibiotics  Prevention is protection from ticks

15 Impetigo / Acute Tonsillitis / Otitis Media  Impetigo  Caused by pyoderma commonly found on face and hands of children  Caused by Staphylococcus aureus  Acute Tonsillitis  Infection of palatine tonsils caused by beta-hemolytic streptococci  Symptoms are sore throat, cough, fever, trouble swallowing  Diagnosis with throat culture  Treatment is tonsillectomy  Otitis Media  Bacterial infection of middle ear  If persistent, myringotomy with tympanopathy tubes might be treatment

16 Fungal Diseases

17 Candidiasis/ Tinea  Candidiasis  Also known as thrush, oral fungal infection  Caused by Candida albicans  White plaques on mucous membranes and tongue  Treatment of choice is usually swabbing mouth with oral nystatin  Tinea  Also known as ringworm  Usually affect scalp and between toes  Males also get it in the groin area

18 Parasitic Diseases

19 Giardiasis / Pediculosis  Giardiasis  Infection with protozoa called giardia  Caused by the Giardia lamblia and affects the digestive system  Symptoms include watery diarrhea, nausea, flatulence  Stool will float and be shiny  May take many samples to identify parasite  Treatment is furazolidone or similar drugs; clear fluids to prevent dehydration  Pediculosis  Lice acceptance  Adult females produce 6 eggs/ 24 hours  Nits (eggs) can be seen in hair  Treated with permethrin 1% crème rinse

20 Pinworms/ Roundworms  Pinworms (seatworms or threadworms) are nematodes that infect intestines and rectum  No harmful, just itchy  Caused by Enterobius vermicularis  Eggs can survive for 2-3 weeks; females lay 10,000-20,000 eggs at anus  Symptoms are anal itching and look like white threads  Diagnosis is by microscopic exam of stool  Treatment is OTC or prescription drug therapy; may need to repeat in 2 weeks  Roundworms  Ascaris lumbricoides found in soil  Symptoms are abdominal pain, excessive gas, weight loss, vomiting  Diagnosis is through stool sample  Treatment is same as for pinworms

21 Respiratory Diseases  SIDS  Croup  Adenopid Hyperplasia  Asthma  Pneumonia

22 Respiratory Illness

23 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) / Croup  SIDS  Unexplainable death of an infant under age one; also known as crib death  Cause unknown but suggested that infants be put in supine rather than prone position  Only diagnosis is autopsy  Croup  Also known as laryngotracheobronchitis (URI)  Caused by parainfluenza 1 and 2 viruses in children from 3 mos- 3 yrs old  Symptoms are inspiratory stridor, difficulty breathing at night  Diagnosis is physical exam  Treatment is usually high humidity, fluids, rest, racemic epinephrine 

24 Adenoid Hyperplasia/ Asthma  Adenoid Hyperplasia  Enlargement of the pharyngeal tonsils  Symptoms are blockage of Eustachian tubes causing otitis media; difficulty breathing  Diagnosis is exam/ throat culture  Treatment is antibiotic therapy or adenoidectomy  Asthma  More than 5 million children under age 18 diagnosed (I out of every 4)  #1 reason for school absences  Cause unknown  Symptoms are respiratory distress  Diagnosis is by chest x-rays, allergy test, pulmonary function tests, physical exam  Treatment is with medications like a bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory drugs  Monitored with peak flow meter  Prevention is knowing triggers 

25 Pneumonia  Infection of the lung parenchyma  Can be viral or bacterial; alveolar air spaces become filled with fluid  Symptoms are wheezing, coughing, fever, malaise  Diagnosis is by chest x-ray and auscultation of the chest  Treatment varies (antibiotics if bacterial)

26 Digestive Diseases / Cardiovascular Diseases  Digestive  Colic- in babies  Fluid Imbalances  Food Allergies  Eating Disorders  Cardiovascular  Most are related to genetic or developmental disorders

27 Fluid Imbalances / Food Allergies/ Eating Disorders  Fluid Imbalance  Children have higher exchange of fluids so diarrhea or vomiting can be serious  Dehydration serious  Treatment includes rehydration and electrolyte replacement  Food Allergies  Overreaction of immune system to a particular food  Reaction may take seconds or even hours  More common in children especially under age 1  After age three, if one develops it stays for adult life  Testing can be done   Eating Disorders  Problem during adolescence  Anorexia and bulimia most common

28 Musculoskeletal Diseases / Blood Diseases  Musculoskeletal  Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP)  Ewing’s Sarcoma  Blood Diseases  Leukemia

29 Musculoskeletal diseases  Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP)  Avascular necrosis of the upper end of the femur  Blood flow is reduced to the head of the femur  Most common in boys age 4-8  Only symptom is pain when walking  Cause unknown  Diagnosis with x-ray  Treatment is maintain position of femur, rest, ROM exercises, traction, etc.  Ewing’s Sarcoma  More common in males; found in long bones like femur  Cause unknown  Diagnosis with x-ray, CT scan, MRI  Treatment is chemotherapy or amputation

30 Neurologic Diseases / Eye and Ear Diseases  Neurologic  Reye’s Syndrome  Eye and Ear  Strabismus  Deafness

31 Neurologic Diseases  Reyes Syndrome  Acute encephalopathy seen in children under age 15  Cause unknown but relationship with use of aspirin  Symptoms are nausea and vomiting, liver enlargement, seizures  Diagnosis should be suspected in a child who had a recent viral illness; blood testing of liver enzymes and lumbar puncture (spinal tap)  Treatment is in ICU

32 Eye and Ear Diseases  Strabismus  Lazy eye or crossed  Should not be present after age 4 mos  Deafness  Ranges from mild to complete  Cause unknown but may be from trauma, infections, or exposure to ototoxic drugs  Audiometric testing is needed for accurate diagnosis  Treatment depends on extent of deafness  Cochlear implants are now inserted surgically to stimulate 8 th cranial nerve

33 Blood Diseases  Leukemia  Malignancy of the blood-forming cells located in bone marrow  Most common cancer in children  Cause is unknown  Most common type in children is ALL (Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)  Symptoms are pale skin, easy bleeding, bruising, abdominal pain, fever  Diagnosed with blood tests and bone marrow biopsy  Treatment is chemotherapy or radiation in some cases

34 Trauma  Child Abuse  Suicide  Drug Abuse  Poisoning

35 Child Abuse  More common than any other pediatric illness  Neglect vs. abuse  Neglect is failing to provide basic needs  Abuse is causing harm  Diagnosed with physical exam and interview of child and care providers  Cigarette and hands most common items of abuse  Shaking Baby Syndrome common  Types of abuse  Sexual  Physical  Emotional  Verbal

36 Suicide  3 rd leading cause of death (15-24 years)  Firearms used in 57% of male suicides  Depression, alcohol and drug use are contributing factors  Highest in incarcerated youths, gay or bisexual, and sexually abused  Girls attempt more but males are more successful in suicide attempts

37 Poisoning  Among top five causes of death under age 10; 75% under age 6  Household items and medications are common forms of poisoning  Lead poisoning is chronic and blood can be tested to diagnose; caused neurological disorders  Treatment MAY be medication to induce vomiting

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