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Programme of next practicals April 17th Revision practical + Microscopic structure of the heart and blood vessels. April 24th Blood cells: Cytology of.

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Presentation on theme: "Programme of next practicals April 17th Revision practical + Microscopic structure of the heart and blood vessels. April 24th Blood cells: Cytology of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Programme of next practicals April 17th Revision practical + Microscopic structure of the heart and blood vessels. April 24th Blood cells: Cytology of formed elements of blood. Hematopoiesis – demonstration of developmental stages. Repetition test II (Epithelial tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.) May 1st, May 8th - Holiday

2 General histology: Repetition Tissue types Connective and supporting (+blood) Epithelial Muscular Nervous

3 Connective tissue developed from mesenchyme consists of: cellscells intercellular matrix:intercellular matrix: a) amorphous ground substance b) fibers

4 Classification connective tissue properconnective tissue proper specialized connective (supporting) tissue:specialized connective (supporting) tissue: cartilage cartilage bone boneFunctions mechanical (cartilage, bone)mechanical (cartilage, bone) nutritional (intercellular substance)nutritional (intercellular substance) defensive (cells: histiocytes, plasma cells, leukocytes – immunocompetence, production of antibodies)defensive (cells: histiocytes, plasma cells, leukocytes – immunocompetence, production of antibodies)

5 Connective tissue proper mucous (jelly-like) loose collagenous (areolar) dense collagenous (regular, irregular) reticular elastic adipose tissue (white, brown)

6 Connective tissue proper Mucous (jelly-like) connective tissue

7 Loose (areolar) connective tissue

8 Dense connective tissue (regular, irregular)

9 Elastic tissue

10 Reticular tissue

11 Adipose tissue (white)

12 Cartilage composed of cells (chondrocytes) and intercellular matrix: fibers and amorphous substance (chondrocytes present in lacunae within the matrix) fibers: a)collagenous only b)combination of collagenous and elastic cartilage is nonvascular, without nerves perichondrium – dense irregular connective tissue on the surface: important for growth and nutrition of cartilage Classification according to the kind and amount of fibers: –hyaline cartilage –elastic cartilage –fibrocartilage

13 Cartilage (hyaline)

14 Cartilage (elastic)

15 Fibrocartilage

16 Bone Cells: osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteoprogenitor cells Intercellular matrix: collagenous fibers (type I), amorphous substance, inorganic salts Macroscopically - 2 types: compact (dense) and spongy (cancelous) Microscopically – 2 types according to the organisation of intercellular substance: woven (nonlamellar) and Haversian (lamellar)

17 Woven bone

18 Lamellar (Haversian) bone

19 Epithelial tissue Classification on the structural basis (arrangement of cells): membranes – cells form sheets – the most common type, including most exocrine glands trabecular – cells are arranged into anastomosing trabeculae – liver, endocrine glands reticular – stellate cells form a network – thymus Classification on the basis of function : Covering (lining) epithelia – epithelial membranes Glandular epithelium Absorptive epithelium – enterocytes (intestine) Respiratory epithelium – pneumocytes (lung) Sensory epithelium – olfactory ep., taste buds Myoepithelial cells (exocrine glands, m. dilatator pupillae)

20 Covering epithelia (epithelial membranes) Simple squamous

21 Covering epithelia (epithelial membranes) Simple cuboidal

22 Covering epithelia (epithelial membranes) Simple columnar

23 Covering epithelia (epithelial membranes) pseudostratified

24 Covering epithelia (epithelial membranes) Stratified squamous nonkeratinized

25 Covering epithelia (epithelial membranes) Stratified squamous keratinized

26 Covering epithelia (epithelial membranes) Stratified columnar

27 Covering epithelia (epithelial membranes) transitional

28 Glandular epithelium Unicellular glands Goblet cells Paneth cells

29 Glandular epithelium multicellular glands – ducts and secretory portions (acini, tubules)

30 Glandular epithelium Multicellular glands – serous acini and mucous tubules

31 Muscle tissue Morphological unit of: Skeletal muscle cell is called muscle fiber – rhabdomyocyte (multinucleated, nuclei at periphery) myofibrils are structures inside the cell, consist of myofilaments (actin, myosin) Cardiac muscle cell – cardiomyocyte (uninucleated, nucleus centrally) myofibrils, intercallated discs Smooth muscle cell – leiomyocyte (uninucleated, nucleus centrally) no myofibrils, only myofilaments

32 Skeletal muscle

33 Cardiac muscle

34 Smooth muscle

35 Nervous tissue Anatomically: CNS (central nervous system): brain, spinal cord PNS (peripheral nervous system): nerves, ganglia Histologically it consists of 2 principal cell types: nerve cells (neurons) – excitability (irritability) and conductivity supporting cells (neuroglia)

36 Types of neurons: pyramidal cells

37 Types of neurons: Purkinje cell

38 Types of neurons: motor neurons of spinal cord

39 Types of neurons: pseudounipolar neurons

40 Peripheral nerve

41


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