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1 Fig. 25.1 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Oral cavity Tongue Teeth Sublingual gland Submandibular.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Fig. 25.1 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Oral cavity Tongue Teeth Sublingual gland Submandibular."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Fig. 25.1 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Oral cavity Tongue Teeth Sublingual gland Submandibular gland Diaphragm Liver Gallbladder Ascending colon Bile duct Small intestine Cecum Appendix Parotid gland Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Pancreas Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Anus Anal canal

2 2 Fig. 25.2 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Mucosa: Lamina propria Muscularis mucosae Submucosa: Outer longitudinal layer Serosa Diaphragm Esophageal hiatus Enteric nervous system: Myenteric plexus Submucosal plexus Parasympathetic ganglion of myenteric plexus Lumen Blood vessels Stratified squamous epithelium Esophageal gland Muscularis externa: Inner circular layer

3 3 Fig. 25.3 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Liver Gallbladder Ascending colon Small intestine (a)(b) Stomach Lesser omentum Greater omentum Jejunum Greater omentum (retracted) Transverse colon Mesocolon Descending colon Mesentery Sigmoid colon

4 4 Fig. 25.4 Vestibule Palatoglossal arch Palatopharyngeal arch Palatine tonsil Tongue Lingual frenulum Salivary duct orifices: Sublingual Submandibular Lower lip Inferior labial frenulum Uvula Soft palate Hard palate and palatine rugae Superior labial frenulum Upper lip Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

5 5 Fig. 25.5 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1st molar (a) Superior view(b) Frontal section, anterior view Epiglottis Lingual tonsils Palatine tonsil Vallate papillae Foliate papillae Fungiform papillae Intrinsic muscles of the tongue Buccinator m. Styloglossus m. Hyoglossus m. Genioglossus m. Mandible Sublingual gland Submandibular gland Mylohyoid m. Hyoid bone Root Body Terminal sulcus

6 6 Fig. 25.6 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Names of teeth Age at eruption (months) Central incisor Lateral incisor Canine 1st molar 2nd molar Names of teethAge at eruption (years) (b) Permanent teeth 6–9 7–11 16–20 12–16 20–26 Central incisor Lateral incisor 6–8 7–9 Canine 2nd premolar 1st molar 2nd molar 3rd molar (wisdom tooth) 17–25 11–13 6–7 10–12 1st premolar 9–12 (a) Deciduous (baby) teeth

7 7 Fig. 25.7 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Crown Neck Root Enamel Dentin Artery, nerve, vein Apical foramen Cementum Root canal Periodontal ligament Alveolar bone Gingiva Gingival sulcus Pulp in pulp cavity

8 8 Fig. 25.9 Masseter muscle Submandibular duct Submandibular gland Parotid gland Opening of submandibular duct Lingual frenulum Sublingual gland Mandible Sublingual ducts Parotid duct Tongue Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

9 9 Fig. 25.10 b: ©McGraw Hill Education/Dennis Strete Mucous acinus Mucous cells Serous cells Serous acinus (a) Duct Stroma Serous demilune Mucous cells (b) Salivary duct Serous demilune on mixed acinus Mixed acinus Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

10 10 Fig. 25.11 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Oral phase. The tongue forms a food bolus and pushes it into the laryngopharynx. 2 Pharyngeal phase. The palate, tongue, vocal cords, and epiglottis block the oral and nasal cavities and airway while pharyngeal constrictors push the bolus into the esophagus. 3 Esophagus Stomach Esophageal phase. Peristalsis drives the bolus downward, and relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter admits it into the stomach.

11 11 Fig. 25.12 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lesser omentum Lesser curvature Pyloric region: Antrum Pyloric canal Pylorus Pyloric sphincter Duodenum (a) Lesser curvature Duodenum Pyloric region: Pylorus Pyloric sphincter Pyloric canal Antrum (b) Diaphragm Fundic region Cardiac region Body Longitudinal muscle Circular muscle Oblique muscle Gastric rugae Greater curvature Greater omentum Esophagus Fundic region Cardiac orifice Cadiac region Body Gastric rugae Greater curvature b: ©McGraw-Hill Education/Rebecca Gray/Don Kincaid, dissections

12 12 Fig. 25.13 d: ©Steve Gschmeissner/Science Source Lumen of stomach Epithelium Gastric pit Gastric gland Lamina propria Lymphatic nodule Muscularis mucosae Artery Vein Oblique layer of muscle Circular layer of muscle Longitudinal layer of muscle (a) Stomach wall Mucous neck cell Parietal cell Mucous cell Chief cell G cell (b) Pyloric gland(c) Gastric gland(d) Gastric pit Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis externa Serosa Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

13 13 Fig. 25.14 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Blood Parietal cell Lumen of gastric gland Alkaline tide Cl – HCO 3 – CO 2 HCO 3 – H 2 CO 3 Stomach acid H+H+ H + –K + ATPase Cl – K+K+ CO 2 + H 2 O

14 14 Parietal cell Removed peptide Dietary proteins Partially digested protein Gastric gland Pepsinogen (zymogen) Chief cell Pepsin (active enzyme) HCl Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fig. 25.15

15 15 Table 25.1

16 16 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Vagus nerve Long (vagovagal) reflex: Vagus nerve Sensory fibers Motor fibers Gastrin Histamine Intestinal gastrin Sympathetic nerve Vagus nerve Stimulation Inhibition Reduced or no effect Key 1 2 3 0 0 + + Sensory and mental input Secretin and CCK Short (myenteric) reflex Enterogastric reflex Cephalic phase Vagus nerve stimulates gastric secretion even before food is swallowed. Gastric phase Food stretches the stomach and activates myenteric and vagovagal reflexes. These reflexes stimulate gastric secretion. Histamine and gastrin also stimulate acid and enzyme secretion. Intestinal phase Intestinal gastrin briefly stimulates the stomach, but then secretin, CCK, and the enterogastric reflex inhibit gastric secretion and motility while the duodenum processes the chyme already in it. Sympathetic nerve fibers suppress gastric activity, while vagal (parasympathetic) stimulation of the stomach is now inhibited. + + + + – – – – Fig. 25.17

17 17 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Mucous cell Pyloric glandGastric gland Parietal cell Chief cell Chief cells secrete pepsinogen Parietal cells secrete HCI Pepsinogen (zymogen) HCI converts pepsinogen to pepsin Pepsin digests dietary protein Partially digested proteinPepsin (active enzyme)HCI Gastrin stimulates chief cells and parietal cells G cells secrete gastrin G cell Oligopeptides directly stimulate G cells Oligopeptides and amino acids buffer stomach acid Elevated pH stimulates G cells Ingested food buffers stomach acid Fig. 25.18

18 18 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sternum 5th rib Liver (a) Location Right lobe Posterior Bare area Inferior vena cava Caudate lobe Left lobe (b) Anterior view(c) Inferior view Right lobe Anterior Round ligament Falciform ligament Porta hepatis: Hepatic portal vein Hepatic artery proper Bile duct Quadrate lobe Gallbladder Fig. 25.19

19 19 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Hepatocytes Bile canaliculi Hepatic sinusoid Stroma Central vein Hepatic triad: Branch of hepatic portal vein Branch of hepatic artery proper Bile ductule (a) (b) Stroma Central vein Hepatic lobule Hepatic macrophage Branch of hepatic portal vein Hepatocyte Bile ductule Lymphatic vessel Erythrocytes in sinusoid Branch of hepatic artery proper 0.5 mmEndothelial cells Fenestration Sinusoid Blood flow (c) b: ©McGraw-Hill Education/Dennis Strete Fig. 25.20

20 20 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Body Head Body Head Hepatic ducts Common hepatic duct Cystic duct Bile duct Accessory pancreatic duct Pancreatic duct Gallbladder: Neck Duodenum Minor duodenal papilla Circular folds Hepatopancreatic sphincter Major duodenal papilla Hepatopancreatic ampulla Duodenojejunal flexure Jejunum Pancreas: Tail Fig. 25.21

21 21 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: ©McGraw-Hill Education/Dennis Strete (b) Acinar cells Zymogen granules (a) Stroma Ducts Exocrine acinar cells Vein 50  m Fig. 25.22

22 22 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Chymotrypsinogen Procarboxypeptidase Trypsin Enterokinase Trypsinogen Fig. 25.23

23 23 Table 25.2

24 24 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Duodenum Large intestine Jejunum Ileum Ileocecal valve Fig. 25.24

25 25 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. (a) (b) Villi Absorptive cell Brush border of microvilli Capillary network Goblet cell Lacteal Intestinal crypts Venule Arteriole Lymphaticvessel Paneth cell Villi (c) Intestinal crypts Muscularis mucosae Duodenal glands Muscularis externa Serosa 0.5 mm a: ©Meckes/Ottawa/Science Source; b: © McGraw-Hill Education/Dennis Strete Fig. 25.25

26 26 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. (b) Peristalsis(a) Segmentation Fig. 25.26

27 27 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Starch Pancreatic amylase Maltose and oligosaccharides Absorption Glucose Contact digestion Maltase, dextrinase, and glucoamylase Fig. 25.27

28 28 K+K+ Glucose Na + Core of villus Epithelial cell of small intestine Lumen of small intestine Tight junction Fructose Glucose Fructose Galactose Na + Key Leakage through tight junction Solvent drag Facilitated diffusion Symports (SGLT) Antiport Fructose Galactose Na + H 2 O, glucose Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fig. 25.28

29 29 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fig. 25.29 H N H O C HO H N H O C O C H N H O C H N H O C OH H H N H H N O C O C HO H N H O C H N H O C OH H H N H H N O C O C HO N H N H C O OH H H N O C H H N O C O C H H N H N H C O O C H H N O C H H N O C H H N O C H H N O C H H N O C H H N O C H H N O C H H N O C H H N Mouth Stomach No chemical digestion occurs. Protein Polypeptides Protein Small intestine Actions of pancreatic enzymes Trypsin ( ) and chymotrypsin ( ) hydrolyze other peptide bonds, breaking polypeptides down into smaller oligopeptides. PolypeptidesOligopeptides Carboxypeptidase ( ) removes one amino acid at a time from the carboxyl (–COOH) end of an oligopeptide. Small intestine Actions of brush border enzymes (contact digestion) CarboxypeptidaseAminopeptidase Dipeptidase Blood capillary of intestinal villus Carboxypeptidase ( ) of the brush border continues to remove amino acids from the carboxyl (–COOH) end. Dipeptidase ( ) splits dipeptides ( ) into separate amino acids ( ). Aminopeptidase ( ) of the brush border removes one amino acid at a time from the amino (–NH 2 ) end. Pepsin ( ) hydrolyzes certain peptide bonds, breaking protein down into smaller polypeptides. H H

30 30 Emulsification Lecithin Fat globule Hydrophilic region Bile acid Hydrophobic region Emulsification droplets Fat globule is broken up and coated by lecithin and bile acids. Fat hydrolysis Free fatty acid Pancreatic lipase Emulsification droplets are acted upon by pancreatic lipase, which hydrolyzes the first and third fatty acids from triglycerides, usually leaving the middle fatty acid. Lecithin Monoglyceride Free fatty acid Triglyceride Bile acid Dietary lipid Lipid uptake by micelles MonoglyceridesCholesterol Fatty acidsFat-soluble vitamins Bile acid Lipid core Micelles in the bile pass to the small intestine and pick up several types of dietary and semidigested lipids. Micelles Chylomicron formation Absorptive cell Fatty acids Triglycerides Monoglycerides Micelles Cholesterol Protein shell Chylomicron Phospholipids Lacteal Chylomicrons in lymph Chylomicrons in secretory vesicles Intestinal cells absorb lipids from micelles, resynthesize triglycerides, and package triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids into protein-coated chylomicrons. Golgi complex packages chylomicrons into secretory vesicles; chylomicrons are released from basal cell membrane by exocytosis and enter the lacteal (lymphatic capillary) of the villus. Chylomicron exocytosis and lymphatic uptake Brush border Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fig. 25.30

31 31 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sucrose Starch Maltose Dipeptides Glucose Blood capillary Lacteal Monoglyceride Monoglycerides Chylomicrons Micelles Circulation Maltose Free amino acids Site(a) Carbohydrates(b) Proteins(c) Fats Mouth Cholesterol Phospholipids Fat-soluble vitamins Fat Protein Salivary amylase Lactose Oligosaccharides Pancreatic amylase Stomach Small intestine (lumen) Small peptides Pepsin Small intestine (epithelium) Fructose Galactose Lingual lipase Pancreatic lipase Trypsin Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Free fatty acids Cholesterol Phospholipids Fat-soluble vitamins Free fatty acids Fig. 25.31 Triglycerides

32 32 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Right colic flexure Superior mesenteric artery Haustrum Ascending colon Ileocecal valve Ileum Cecum Appendix Rectum Anal canal (a) Gross anatomy Rectum Rectal valve Anal canal Levator ani muscle Hemorrhoidal veins Internal anal sphincter External anal sphincter (b) Anal canal Anus Anal columns Anal sinuses External anal sphincter Sigmoid colon Omental appendages Descending colon Mesocolon Taeniae coli Left colic flexure Greater omentum (retracted) Transverse colon Fig. 25.32

33 33 1 2 3 4 4 Impulses from cerebral cortex Sensory fibers Stretch receptors Voluntary motor fibers Sigmoid colon Stretch receptors Rectum Anal canal Internal anal sphincter External anal sphincter 3 2 1 Feces stretch the rectum and stimulate stretch receptors, which transmit signals to the spinal cord. A spinal reflex stimulates contraction of the rectum. The spinal reflex also relaxes the internal anal sphincter. Impulses from the brain prevent untimely defecation by keeping the external anal sphincter contracted. Defecation occurs only if this sphincter also relaxes. Parasympathetic motor fibers Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fig. 25.33


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