Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Digestive & Excretory Systems

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Digestive & Excretory Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Digestive & Excretory Systems
Chapter 38

2 Introductory Questions #1
Why do we need to eat food? Give TWO Main reasons. How do we measure the amount of energy in food? What is the unit of measurement? List all of the main nutrients your body needs. Which nutrient is most important? Explain why? How much of this nutrient do we need each day? Give some examples of Carbohydrates, Fats, and proteins. Name the foods that are rich in each of these. Out of the 20 amino acids that make proteins, 8 of these cannot be made by the body. Name these 8 (see pg. 973) How is a vitamin different from a mineral. Give TWO examples of a vitamin and two examples of a mineral. Name a type of food you can eat to obtain the following vitamins and minerals: (hint: use the tables on Pgs -Folic acid -Potassium -Zinc -Vitamin D -Iron -Vitamin E & K

3 Most animals ingest chunks of food called: “Bulk feeders”
Figure 21.1E

4 CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are a class of molecules
They range from small sugars to large polysaccharides Polysaccharides are long polymers of monomers The three you need to know are: Glycogen (stores in our liver & muscles) Cellulose (fiber, unable to digest) Starch (main carb we digest for energy)

5 Starch and glycogen are polysaccharides that store sugar for later use
Cellulose is a polysaccharide in plant cell walls Starch granules in potato tuber cells Glucose monomer STARCH Glycogen granules in muscle tissue GLYCOGEN Cellulose fibrils in a plant cell wall CELLULOSE Cellulose molecules Figure 3.7

6 Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
*(simple sugars -found in fruits, honey, & sugar cane) Disaccharides: Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose Polysaccharides: Starch, Cellulose, Glycogen Alpha (starch) & Beta (cellulose) linkages **Complex Carbohydrates- have to be broken down

7 Lipids Hydrophobic molecules w/polar head regions
Allows cells to form membranes Composed of glycerol (O-H) and fatty acid tails (C-H) Saturated (stearic acid) room temp Unsaturated (oleic acid) has C=C and is kinked Important for produces hormones in the body Longest to digest (requires bile salts) Ex. Phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, steroids, hormones, oils, and waxes

8 Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats

9 Proteins (polypeptides)
Composed of a variety of amino acids (20 total) Important for many functions in the body which include the following examples: Insulin -Hemoglobin -Antibodies Enzymes -Hair -Membrane proteins Our bodies can produce (synthesize) 12 of 20 amino acids needed to make proteins. The other EIGHT are essential to obtain through our diets. Meat, fish, eggs, and milk all are good sources of protein.

10 Proteins are essential to the structures and activities of life
Proteins are involved in cellular structure movement defense transport communication Mammalian hair is composed of structural proteins Enzymes regulate chemical reactions Figure 3.11

11 Protein Examples & Function

12 Homework (Mon. 5/21) Read Pgs. 970-977 in Chapter 38
Write down which foods you ate throughout the day today and the amount. Try to be as exact as you can on the amounts. (separate paper) **You will be doing this for each day this week (mon.- fri) Do Section Assessment 38-1 Quest. 1-5

13 Introductory Questions #1
Why do we need to eat food? Give TWO Main reasons. How do we measure the amount of energy in food? What is the unit of measurement? List all of the main nutrients your body needs. Which nutrient is most important? Explain why? How much of this nutrient do we need each day? Give some examples of Carbohydrates, Fats, and proteins. Name the foods that are rich in each of these. Out of the 20 amino acids that make proteins, 8 of these cannot be made by the body. Name these 8 (see pg. 973) How is a vitamin different from a mineral. Give TWO examples of a vitamin and two examples of a mineral. Name a type of food you can eat to obtain the following vitamins and minerals: (hint: use the tables on Pgs -Folic acid -Potassium -Zinc -Vitamin D -Iron -Vitamin E & K

14 Introductory Questions #2
Matching Ex. -Insulin & hemoglobin A. Proteins (polypeptides) -Cell membranes & hormones B. Fats/Lipds -Glycogen & cellulose C. Carbohydrates (polysaccarides) -Enzymes -Lactose, glucose, sucrose -Saturates & Unsaturated What two factors do you need to consider whenever you eat food? (See pg. 976) Look at the Nutrition label on Pg. 977, answer the FIVE Questions asked (calculating-Going further) What foods form he base of the food pyramid? Why are these foods positioned at the bottom? What is the function of the digestive system? What role does saliva and your teeth play when you digest food? How is the small intestine different from the Large intestine (give three differences)

15 Vegetarians must be sure to obtain all eight essential amino acids
The eight essential amino acids that adults require must be obtained from food They are easily obtained from animal protein They can also be obtained from the proper combination of plant foods ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS Methionine Valine (Histidine) Threonine Phenylalanine Corn Leucine Isoleucine Beans and other legumes Tryptophan Lysine Figure 21.16

16 Table 21.17 (Fat-soluble vitamins)

17 Table 21.17 (Water-soluble vitamins)

18 Table 21.18

19 Figure 38–8 Food Guide Pyramid
Section 38-1 Fats, Oils, and Sweets (use sparingly) Soft drinks, candy, ice cream, mayonnaise, and other foods in this group have relatively few valuable nutrients. Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group (2-3 Servings) Milk and other dairy products are rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nut Group (2-3 servings) These foods are high in protein. They also supply vitamins and minerals. Vegetable Group (3-5 servings) Vegetables are a low-fat source of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Fruit Group (2-4 servings) Fruits are good sources of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and water. Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta Group (6-11 servings) The foods at the base of the pyramid are rich in complex carbohydrates and also provide proteins, fiber, vitamins, and some minerals. Fats Sugars

20 Body Fat and Fad Diets The human body tends to store excess fat molecules instead of using them for fuel A balanced diet includes adequate amounts of all nutrients

21 Fad diets are often ineffective and can be harmful
Table 21.15

22 Concept Map Nutrients Section 38-1 include Carbohydrates Fats Minerals
Proteins Vitamins include are made of are made using include include Simple Complex Amino acids Calcium Iron Fatty Acids Glycerol such as such as Sugars Starches Fat-soluble Water-soluble

23 Introductory Questions #2
Matching Ex. -Insulin & hemoglobin A. Proteins (polypeptides) -Cell membranes & hormones B. Fats/Lipds -Glycogen & cellulose C. Carbohydrates (polysaccarides) -Enzymes -Lactose, glucose, sucrose -Saturates & Unsaturated What two factors do you need to consider whenever you eat food? (See pg. 976) Look at the Nutrition label on Pg. 977, answer the FIVE Questions asked (Calculating-Going further) What foods form he base of the food pyramid? Why are these foods positioned at the bottom? What is the function of the digestive system? What role does saliva and your teeth play when you digest food? How is the small intestine different from the Large intestine (give three differences)

24 Homework (Tues. 5/22) Do IQ #2 (Read pgs. 978-980)
Bring in TWO Nutrition Fact Labels to analyze tomorrow. Be sure it is from something you ate. If it is at a fast food Rest. Get a copy of the nutrition fact sheet & highlight the items you ate. You can also take a picture of the label and print it out) Continue to write down which foods you ate throughout the day today and the amount. Try to be as exact as you can on the amounts. (separate paper) **You will be doing this for each day this week (Mon.- Fri)

25 Introductory Questions #3
Name the two types enzymes produced by the salivary glands. Briefly explain what these enzymes do. Name the FOUR types of teeth in your mouth. Explain what each type of tooth does. Name the flap-like structure that ensures food will go down the esophagus and not the trachea (windpipe). See pg. 980 Explain how food travels through the esophagus and intestinal tract. What causes someone to have heartburn?

26 Figure 38–6 Types of Vitamins
Section 38-1 Organic Molecules that help Enzymes Function Vitamin A (retinol) D (calciferol) E (tocopherol) K B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) Sources Yellow, orange, and dark green vegetables; dairy products Fish oils, eggs; made by skin when exposed to sunlight; added to dairy products Green leafy vegetables, seeds, vegetable oils Green leafy vegetables; made by bacteria that live in human intestine Whole grains, pork, legumes, milk Dairy products, meats, vegetables, whole-grain cereal Function Important for growth of skin cells; important for night vision Promotes bone growth; increases calcium and phosphorus absorption Antioxidant; prevents cellular damage Needed for normal blood clotting Normal metabolism of carbohydrates Normal growth; part of electron transport chain; energy metabolism Fat Soluble

27 Figure 38–6 Types of Vitamins
Section 38-1 Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Niacin B6 (pyridoxine) Pantothenic acid Folic acid B12 (cyanocobalamin) Sources Liver, milk, whole grains, nuts, meats, legumes Whole grains, meats, vegetables Meats, dairy, whole grains Legumes, nuts, green leafy vegetables, oranges, broccoli, peas, fortified bread and cereal Meats, eggs, dairy products, enriched cereals Function Important in energy metabolism Important for amino acid metabolism Needed for energy metabolism Coenzyme involved in nucleic acid metabolism; prevents neural-tube defects in developing fetuses Coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism; maturation of red blood cells

28 Figure 38–6 Types of Vitamins
Section 38-1 Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Biotin Choline Sources Citrus fruits, tomatoes, red or green peppers, broccoli, cabbage, strawberries Legumes, vegetables, meat Egg yolk, liver, grains, legumes Function Maintenance of cartilage and bone; antioxidant; improves iron absorption; important for healthy gums, tissue repair, and wound healing Coenzyme in synthesis of fat; glycogen formation; amino acid metabolism Required for phospholipids and neurotransmitters

29 What do food labels tell us?
Food labels provide important nutritional information about packaged foods Figure 21.19

30 Overview: Food processing occurs in four stages
Small molecules Pieces of food Nutrient molecules enter body cells Chemical breakdown (enzymatic hydrolysis) Mechanical breakdown Undigested material Food 1 INGESTION 2 DIGESTION 3 ABSORPTION 4 ELIMINATION Figure 21.2

31 Lg. Intestine Cecum Ascending C. Transverse C. Descending C.
Sigmoid C. Oral cavity Mouth Tongue Pharynx Salivary glands Esophagus Liver Stomach Pyloric sphincter Stomach Gall- bladder Small intestine Pancreas Small intestine Sm. Intestine Duodenum Jejunum ileum Large intestine Rectum Anus

32 TEETH Incisors Canine Premolars Molars “Wisdom” tooth Tongue Salivary glands Opening of a salivary gland duct Figure 21.5

33 Bolus of food Tongue Epiglottis up Epiglottis down Pharynx Larynx Esophageal sphincter Larynx up Larynx down Trachea (windpipe) Esophagus Esophagus Sphincter contracted Sphincter relaxed Sphincter contracted Figure 21.6

34 Homework (Wed. 5/23) Do IQ #3 (Read pgs. 978-984)
DO Section Assessment Questions #1-5 (pg. 984) Continue to write down which foods you ate throughout the day today and the amount. Try to be as exact as you can on the amounts. (separate paper) **You will be doing this for each day this week (Mon.- Fri)

35 The esophagus squeezes food along to the stomach
Peristalsis in the esophagus moves food boluses into the stomach Circular muscle layer Relaxed muscles Circular muscles contract, constricting passageway and pushing bolus down Relaxed muscles Bolus of food Longitudinal muscles contract, shortening passageway ahead of bolus Stomach Longitudinal muscle layer Figure 21.7

36 Interior surface of stomach
Pits Gastric juice (mucus, HCI, and pepsinogen) Food particle 3 Epithelium Gastric juice Pepsinogen Pepsin (active enzyme) 2 Mucous cells HCI Pyloric sphincter Gastric gland 1 STOMACH Chief cells Parietal cells Figure 21.8

37 Video #1 - Overview of the Digestive System
Name two enzymes mentioned by Dr. Sokolowski that play a role in the digestive system. 2. How is the diet of a dog different from a cat? 3. What are the nutritional needs for a cat and dog? 4. What is the name of the café mentioned in the video? **Write the title of the segment and 10 key statements

38 The Pancreas (Regulates blood sugar)
Islets of Langerhans Alpha cells: •glucagon~ raises blood glucose levels Beta cells: •insulin~ lowers blood glucose levels Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent; autoimmune disorder) Type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent; reduced responsiveness in insulin targets)

39 Enzymes from the walls of the small intestine complete the digestion of many nutrients (See Pg. 981)
Table 21.10

40 Figure 38–13 The Liver and the Pancreas
Section 38-2 Liver Gallbladder Duodenum Bile duct Pancreas Pancreatic duct To rest of small intestine

41 Lg. Intestine Cecum Ascending C. Transverse C. Descending C.
Sigmoid C. Oral cavity Mouth Tongue Pharynx Salivary glands Esophagus Liver Stomach Pyloric sphincter Stomach Gall- bladder Small intestine Pancreas Small intestine Sm. Intestine Duodenum Jejunum ileum Large intestine Rectum Anus

42 Duodenum of small intestine Pancreas
Bile Liver Gall- bladder Stomach Bile Acid chyme Duodenum of small intestine Pancreas Figure 21.10A

43 See pg. 983 INTERIOR OF INTESTINE
Blood vessel with blood en route to the liver Nutrient absorption Nutrient absorption Microvilli Epithelial cells Lumen Muscle layers Blood capillaries Circular folds Villi Lymph vessel EPITHELIAL CELLS Nutrient absorption INTESTINAL WALL VILLI Figure 21.10B

44 Large Intestine Reclaims Water
Undigested material passes to the large intestine, or colon Water is absorbed Feces are produced Large intestine (colon) End of small intestine Small intestine Rectum Anus Nutrient flow Appendix Cecum Figure 21.11

45 Small intestine Small intestine Stomach Cecum Colon (large intestine) CARNIVORE HERBIVORE Figure 21.12A

46 Video #2 Evolution of the Digestive System
Write 15 Key Statements from the video. BE sure to number each statement

47 Homework (Wed. 5/30) Finish IQ home by going to my website

48 Introductory Questions #5
How are fat molecules absorbed? (see pg. 983) Once the food leaves the small intestine and enters into the blood stream, what is left behind? Why is the large intestine considered “Large”? What function does the large intestine serve? What purpose does the appendix serve? Name the bacteria that is known to cause stomach ulcers. How curable are ulcers? What can be done? Which Vitamin is produced by the bacteria present in the large intestine? Name three waste products that must be excreted from the body. (see pg. 985 – Sect. 38.3) Draw a kidney and include the following labels: -cortex -renal artery -renal vein -medulla -ureter

49 Homework (Thurs. 5/31) Do IQ home by going to my website and answering the Questions (stamp tomorrow) **Extra Credit Stamp: -Do Sect. Assessment 38.3 Quest. #1-5 **Turn in today if finished/Hand back on Mon.

50 Video #3 – Excretion & The Kidneys
What organism is used by Dr. Carol Beuchat to illustrate how fluid is regulated and the role played by the urinary tract in maintaining homeostasis? (1st segment) What kind of nitrogenous waste does this organism excrete? Why is Dr. Beuchat studying his organism? What hope does she bring by studying these creatures? The 2nd segment discusses the role the kidneys play in maintaining homeostasis. How does this happen? What kind of machine is the patient connected to? Why is she connected to this machine? **Write the title for each segment and FIVE statements for each segment.

51 Introductory Questions #6
Name three roles that the kidneys play in order to maintain homeostasis in the body? (see pg. 985) Where are the kidneys located in the body? What does the kidney remove from the blood? How is the renal artery different from the renal vein? The functional unit of the kidney is called a ____. Where is the renal cortex located compared to the renal medulla? Define Filtration and where it occurs in the nephron. How long does it take for your kidneys to filter all of your blood? (see pg. 987)

52 Water Balance and waste disposal

53 The Excretory System Sect (pgs ) The Skin (water, salts, urea) The Lungs (CO2) The Liver (produces the urea by breaking down amino acids) & The Kidneys – filters the blood and removes urea from the blood stream

54 Function/Roles of the Kidneys
Removes Urea & other waste products from the blood Maintains proper blood pH ( ) Regulates Water Balance & Volume Blood Pressure

55 Key Structures of the Kidney
Renal Cortex (thin outer layer) Renal medulla (deeper tissue) Renal Pelvis (collecting area of urine) Ureter (Tube that transports urine to bladder) Renal Artery (brings blood to he kidneys) Renal Vein (transports blood away from the kidney) Urinary Bladder (stores up urine as its produced) Urethra (Tube that eliminates urine out of the body)

56 Figure 38–17 Structure of the Kidneys
Section 38-3 Kidney Nephron Cortex Medulla Renal artery Renal vein Ureter To the bladder Bowman’s capsule Glomerulus Capillaries Collecting duct To the ureter Loop of Henle Artery Vein

57 The Nephron (functional unit of the Kidney)
A kidney is made up of millions of nephrons Each nephron has its own blood supply Glomerulus: small ball of capillaries Bowman’s Capsule: Collects the filtrate Cup-shaped structure First part of the tubule system (urine is collected) Proximal & Distal Tubules: absorption/re-absortption Loop of Henle: penetrates deeper into the kidney Water is taken back (out of the filtrate – urine) Collecting duct: forms the end of the tubule system -dumps the filtrate (urine) into the renal pelvis & into the ureter.

58 Homework (Fri. 6/1) Read Sect. 38.3 (Pgs. 985-989)
Do Section Assessment Questions #1-5 on pg. 989 (sect. 38-3) **if not done already***

59 The Nephron Reabsorption Filtration Section 38-3
As the filtrate flows through the renal tubule, most of the water and nutrients are reabsorbed into the blood. The concentrated fluid that remains is called urine. Filtration Most filtration occurs in the glomerulus. Blood pressure forces water, salt, glucose, amino acids, and urea into Bowman’s capsule. Proteins and blood cells are too large to cross the membrane; they remain in the blood. The fluid that enters the renal tubules is called the filtrate.

60 Glomerulus Proximal tubule Loop of Henle

61 Figure 38–19 Kidney Dialysis
Section 38-3 Blood in tubing flows through dialysis fluid Blood pump Vein Artery Shunt Used dialysis fluid Air detector Dialysis machine Fresh dialysis fluid Compressed air

62 Video #3 – Excretion & The Kidneys
What organism is used by Dr. Carol Beuchat to illustrate how fluid is regulated and the role played by the urinary tract in maintaining homeostasis? (1st segment) The 2nd segment discusses the role the kidneys play in maintaining homeostasis. What kind of machine is the patient connected to? Why is she connected to this machine? **Write the title for each segment and FIVE statements for each segment.

63 The Human Kidney & Nephron

64 Homework (Mon. 6/4) -Use the web code on Pgs. 988 (cbn-0383)
Search Online for an image of the Bowman’s capsule and print it out. Go to: -Use the web code on Pgs (cbn-0383) -Click on “Concentrating Urine-The Mammalian Kidney -View the animation and Do the Self Quiz at the end. **Printout your self quiz results** I will be stamping BOTH Printouts tomorrow!!!!

65 Lab Activity– Tissue Sample from the Kidney
Obtain the following items: Make a circle using the petri dish Write the title: using the label on the slide Observe the tissue using the compound microscope Be sure to view at least THREE Glomeruli/Bowman’s capsules. Draw the entire visual field/take a pix using your phones or cameras 7. Be sure to label the following: -Glomerulus -Bowman’s capsule Write the total magnification below your labeled drawing Homework: Print, Cut, & Paste the image you took in class or from the internet next to your labeled drawing. Be sure to label the printed imagae as well.

66 Kidney Cross section

67

68 Introductory Questions #7
Describe what a glomerulus is. What about the Bowman’s capsule. Name all of the structures that the “filtrate” urine flows through as it is produced in the nephron beginning with the Bowman’s capsule. What kind of salts combine to form stones in the kidney? What kind of treatment can be done? (see pg. 988) When you drink a glass of water where does the liquid go? Name the TWO ways that can keep a person alive if both kidneys are damaged and not functional? What are the downfalls of doing dialysis?

69 Overview of Mammalian Nephron Function
Gradient of NaCl

70 Kidney Functional Units
Renal artery/vein: kidney blood flow Ureter: urine excretory duct Urinary bladder: urine storage Urethra: urine elimination tube Renal cortex (outer region) Renal medulla (inner region) Nephron: functional unit of kidney Cortical nephrons (cortex; 80%) Juxtamedullary nephrons (medulla; 20%)

71 Video #4 – Review of Excretory System
Write 15 key statements (numbered)

72 Today’s Objectives Stamp Homework & Do IQ #8
Go over IQ #8 & All Textbook Questions Assemble Assignment Packets

73 Homework (Tues. 6/5) Do “Reviewing Content Quest. #1-10 on Pg. 993
Do “Understanding Concepts” #12, 13, 15, 19, 21, & 24, 25 Do the Standardized Test Prep Quest. #1-8 on pg. 995

74 Introductory Questions #8
Matching Exercise: Has rich colonies of bacteria that produces Vitamin K A. Pancreas Inner wall has many villi B. Liver Glomerulus & Bowman’s capsule C. Stomach Produces/Secretes Digestive enzymes D. Small intestine Chief cells & Parietal cells E. Large Intestine Produces Urea F. Kidneys Specialized to absorb water Produces bile Regulates water & Blood volume/pressure The bacterim Heliobacter pylori causes ulcers here Segments include: duodenum, jejunum, & ileum II. Multiple Choice/True-False/fill in the blank Questions: The functional unit of the kidney is called a ______________ Heartburn occurs in the ______________. Re-absorption & Secretion occurs between the glomerulus & Bowman’s capsule (T/F) Both antibiotics and amylase is produced and makes up a large part of saliva (T/F) Calcium, Magnesium, and Iodine are all considered to be ______________. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is produced by Pancreas b. Liver c. Parietal cells d. Chief cells e. villi Which one of the following will have the most calories? a. 10g of carbs b. 10g of fat c. 10g of protein 10g of water

75 Items for your Assignment Packet
Cover sheet (name, period, date & Ch. 38) Calorie Journal Textbook Hmwk. Assignments: Sect. Assess (pg. 977) Sect. Assess (pg. 984) Sect. Assess (pg. 989)**extra credit stamp End of Chapter Questions: Quest. #1-10 on pg. 993 Understanding Concepts # #12, 13, 15, 19, 21, & 24, 25 Standardized Test prep Quest. #1-8 on pg. 995 Lab Activity: Drawing & Pix w/labels of Glomerulus Video Notes (x4) IQ’s (x8) Online Printout (self quiz from Scilinks) Practice MC test (Online Textbook)-Tonight’s Homework

76 Homework (Wed. 6/6) Take the Textbook Online quiz @
Printout your results & Attach to the back of your packet ** if you are not registered then follow these steps: -Click “register” -Type in this access code: D52CA EACE252 -Establish a Username & Password (don’t use your full name)


Download ppt "Digestive & Excretory Systems"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google