2Introductory Questions #1 Why do we need to eat food? Give TWO Main reasons.How do we measure the amount of energy in food? What is the unit of measurement?List all of the main nutrients your body needs. Which nutrient is most important? Explain why? How much of this nutrient do we need each day?Give some examples of Carbohydrates, Fats, and proteins. Name the foods that are rich in each of these.Out of the 20 amino acids that make proteins, 8 of these cannot be made by the body. Name these 8 (see pg. 973)How is a vitamin different from a mineral. Give TWO examples of a vitamin and two examples of a mineral.Name a type of food you can eat to obtain the following vitamins and minerals: (hint: use the tables on Pgs-Folic acid -Potassium -Zinc-Vitamin D -Iron -Vitamin E & K
4CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are a class of molecules They range from small sugars to large polysaccharidesPolysaccharides are long polymers of monomersThe three you need to know are:Glycogen (stores in our liver & muscles)Cellulose (fiber, unable to digest)Starch (main carb we digest for energy)
5Starch and glycogen are polysaccharides that store sugar for later use Cellulose is a polysaccharide in plant cell wallsStarch granules in potato tuber cellsGlucose monomerSTARCHGlycogen granules in muscle tissueGLYCOGENCellulose fibrils in a plant cell wallCELLULOSECellulose moleculesFigure 3.7
6Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: Glucose, Fructose, Galactose *(simple sugars -found in fruits, honey, & sugar cane)Disaccharides: Lactose, Maltose, SucrosePolysaccharides: Starch, Cellulose, GlycogenAlpha (starch) & Beta (cellulose) linkages**Complex Carbohydrates- have to be broken down
7Lipids Hydrophobic molecules w/polar head regions Allows cells to form membranesComposed of glycerol (O-H) and fatty acid tails (C-H)Saturated (stearic acid) room tempUnsaturated (oleic acid) has C=C and is kinkedImportant for produces hormones in the bodyLongest to digest (requires bile salts)Ex. Phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, steroids, hormones, oils, and waxes
9Proteins (polypeptides) Composed of a variety of amino acids (20 total)Important for many functions in the body which include the following examples:Insulin -Hemoglobin -AntibodiesEnzymes -Hair -Membrane proteinsOur bodies can produce (synthesize) 12 of 20 amino acids needed to make proteins. The other EIGHT are essential to obtain through our diets.Meat, fish, eggs, and milk all are good sources of protein.
10Proteins are essential to the structures and activities of life Proteins are involved incellular structuremovementdefensetransportcommunicationMammalian hair is composed of structural proteinsEnzymes regulate chemical reactionsFigure 3.11
12Homework (Mon. 5/21) Read Pgs. 970-977 in Chapter 38 Write down which foods you ate throughout the day today and the amount. Try to be as exact as you can on the amounts. (separate paper)**You will be doing this for each day this week (mon.- fri)Do Section Assessment 38-1 Quest. 1-5
13Introductory Questions #1 Why do we need to eat food? Give TWO Main reasons.How do we measure the amount of energy in food? What is the unit of measurement?List all of the main nutrients your body needs. Which nutrient is most important? Explain why? How much of this nutrient do we need each day?Give some examples of Carbohydrates, Fats, and proteins. Name the foods that are rich in each of these.Out of the 20 amino acids that make proteins, 8 of these cannot be made by the body. Name these 8 (see pg. 973)How is a vitamin different from a mineral. Give TWO examples of a vitamin and two examples of a mineral.Name a type of food you can eat to obtain the following vitamins and minerals: (hint: use the tables on Pgs-Folic acid -Potassium -Zinc-Vitamin D -Iron -Vitamin E & K
14Introductory Questions #2 Matching Ex.-Insulin & hemoglobin A. Proteins (polypeptides)-Cell membranes & hormones B. Fats/Lipds-Glycogen & cellulose C. Carbohydrates (polysaccarides)-Enzymes-Lactose, glucose, sucrose-Saturates & UnsaturatedWhat two factors do you need to consider whenever you eat food? (See pg. 976)Look at the Nutrition label on Pg. 977, answer the FIVE Questions asked (calculating-Going further)What foods form he base of the food pyramid? Why are these foods positioned at the bottom?What is the function of the digestive system? What role does saliva and your teeth play when you digest food?How is the small intestine different from the Large intestine (give three differences)
15Vegetarians must be sure to obtain all eight essential amino acids The eight essential amino acids that adults require must be obtained from foodThey are easily obtained from animal proteinThey can also be obtained from the proper combination of plant foodsESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDSMethionineValine(Histidine)ThreoninePhenylalanineCornLeucineIsoleucineBeans and other legumesTryptophanLysineFigure 21.16
19Figure 38–8 Food Guide Pyramid Section 38-1Fats, Oils, and Sweets (use sparingly)Soft drinks, candy, ice cream, mayonnaise, and other foods in this group have relatively few valuable nutrients.Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group(2-3 Servings)Milk and other dairy products are rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nut Group(2-3 servings)These foods are high in protein. They also supply vitamins and minerals.Vegetable Group(3-5 servings)Vegetables are a low-fat source of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals.Fruit Group(2-4 servings)Fruits are good sources of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and water.Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta Group(6-11 servings)The foods at the base of the pyramid are rich in complex carbohydrates and also provide proteins, fiber, vitamins, and some minerals.FatsSugars
20Body Fat and Fad DietsThe human body tends to store excess fat molecules instead of using them for fuelA balanced diet includes adequate amounts of all nutrients
21Fad diets are often ineffective and can be harmful Table 21.15
22Concept Map Nutrients Section 38-1 include Carbohydrates Fats Minerals ProteinsVitaminsincludeare made ofare made usingincludeincludeSimpleComplexAmino acidsCalciumIronFatty AcidsGlycerolsuch assuch asSugarsStarchesFat-solubleWater-soluble
23Introductory Questions #2 Matching Ex.-Insulin & hemoglobin A. Proteins (polypeptides)-Cell membranes & hormones B. Fats/Lipds-Glycogen & cellulose C. Carbohydrates (polysaccarides)-Enzymes-Lactose, glucose, sucrose-Saturates & UnsaturatedWhat two factors do you need to consider whenever you eat food? (See pg. 976)Look at the Nutrition label on Pg. 977, answer the FIVE Questions asked (Calculating-Going further)What foods form he base of the food pyramid? Why are these foods positioned at the bottom?What is the function of the digestive system? What role does saliva and your teeth play when you digest food?How is the small intestine different from the Large intestine (give three differences)
24Homework (Tues. 5/22) Do IQ #2 (Read pgs. 978-980) Bring in TWO Nutrition Fact Labels to analyze tomorrow. Be sure it is from something you ate. If it is at a fast food Rest. Get a copy of the nutrition fact sheet & highlight the items you ate. You can also take a picture of the label and print it out)Continue to write down which foods you ate throughout the day today and the amount. Try to be as exact as you can on the amounts. (separate paper)**You will be doing this for each day this week (Mon.- Fri)
25Introductory Questions #3 Name the two types enzymes produced by the salivary glands. Briefly explain what these enzymes do.Name the FOUR types of teeth in your mouth. Explain what each type of tooth does.Name the flap-like structure that ensures food will go down the esophagus and not the trachea (windpipe). See pg. 980Explain how food travels through the esophagus and intestinal tract.What causes someone to have heartburn?
26Figure 38–6 Types of Vitamins Section 38-1Organic Molecules that help Enzymes FunctionVitaminA (retinol)D (calciferol)E (tocopherol)KB1 (thiamine)B2 (riboflavin)SourcesYellow, orange, and dark green vegetables; dairy productsFish oils, eggs; made by skin when exposed to sunlight; added to dairy productsGreen leafy vegetables, seeds, vegetable oilsGreen leafy vegetables; made by bacteria that live in human intestineWhole grains, pork, legumes, milkDairy products, meats, vegetables, whole-grain cerealFunctionImportant for growth of skin cells; important for night visionPromotes bone growth; increases calcium and phosphorus absorptionAntioxidant; prevents cellular damageNeeded for normal blood clottingNormal metabolism of carbohydratesNormal growth; part of electron transport chain; energy metabolismFat Soluble
27Figure 38–6 Types of Vitamins Section 38-1Water Soluble VitaminsVitaminNiacinB6 (pyridoxine)Pantothenic acidFolic acidB12 (cyanocobalamin)SourcesLiver, milk, whole grains, nuts, meats, legumesWhole grains, meats, vegetablesMeats, dairy, whole grainsLegumes, nuts, green leafy vegetables, oranges, broccoli, peas, fortified bread and cerealMeats, eggs, dairy products, enriched cerealsFunctionImportant in energy metabolismImportant for amino acid metabolismNeeded for energy metabolismCoenzyme involved in nucleic acid metabolism; prevents neural-tube defects in developing fetusesCoenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism; maturation of red blood cells
28Figure 38–6 Types of Vitamins Section 38-1VitaminC (ascorbic acid)BiotinCholineSourcesCitrus fruits, tomatoes, red or green peppers, broccoli, cabbage, strawberriesLegumes, vegetables, meatEgg yolk, liver, grains, legumesFunctionMaintenance of cartilage and bone; antioxidant; improves iron absorption; important for healthy gums, tissue repair, and wound healingCoenzyme in synthesis of fat; glycogen formation; amino acid metabolismRequired for phospholipids and neurotransmitters
29What do food labels tell us? Food labels provide important nutritional information about packaged foodsFigure 21.19
30Overview: Food processing occurs in four stages Small moleculesPieces of foodNutrient molecules enter bodycellsChemical breakdown (enzymatic hydrolysis)Mechanical breakdownUndigested materialFood1INGESTION2DIGESTION3ABSORPTION4ELIMINATIONFigure 21.2
31Lg. Intestine Cecum Ascending C. Transverse C. Descending C. Sigmoid C.Oral cavityMouthTonguePharynxSalivary glandsEsophagusLiverStomachPyloric sphincterStomachGall- bladderSmall intestinePancreasSmall intestineSm. IntestineDuodenumJejunumileumLarge intestineRectumAnus
32TEETHIncisorsCaninePremolarsMolars“Wisdom” toothTongueSalivary glandsOpening of a salivary gland ductFigure 21.5
34Homework (Wed. 5/23) Do IQ #3 (Read pgs. 978-984) DO Section Assessment Questions #1-5 (pg. 984)Continue to write down which foods you ate throughout the day today and the amount. Try to be as exact as you can on the amounts. (separate paper)**You will be doing this for each day this week (Mon.- Fri)
35The esophagus squeezes food along to the stomach Peristalsis in the esophagus moves food boluses into the stomachCircular muscle layerRelaxed musclesCircular muscles contract, constricting passageway and pushing bolus downRelaxed musclesBolus of foodLongitudinal muscles contract, shortening passageway ahead of bolusStomachLongitudinal muscle layerFigure 21.7
36Interior surface of stomach PitsGastric juice (mucus, HCI, and pepsinogen)Food particle3EpitheliumGastric juicePepsinogenPepsin (active enzyme)2Mucous cellsHCIPyloric sphincterGastric gland1STOMACHChief cellsParietal cellsFigure 21.8
37Video #1 - Overview of the Digestive System Name two enzymes mentioned by Dr. Sokolowski that play arole in the digestive system.2. How is the diet of a dog different from a cat?3. What are the nutritional needs for a cat and dog?4. What is the name of the café mentioned in the video?**Write the title of the segment and 10 key statements
38The Pancreas (Regulates blood sugar) Islets of LangerhansAlpha cells: •glucagon~ raises blood glucose levelsBeta cells: •insulin~ lowers blood glucose levelsType I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent; autoimmune disorder)Type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent; reduced responsiveness in insulin targets)
39Enzymes from the walls of the small intestine complete the digestion of many nutrients (See Pg. 981) Table 21.10
40Figure 38–13 The Liver and the Pancreas Section 38-2LiverGallbladderDuodenumBile ductPancreasPancreatic ductTo rest of small intestine
41Lg. Intestine Cecum Ascending C. Transverse C. Descending C. Sigmoid C.Oral cavityMouthTonguePharynxSalivary glandsEsophagusLiverStomachPyloric sphincterStomachGall- bladderSmall intestinePancreasSmall intestineSm. IntestineDuodenumJejunumileumLarge intestineRectumAnus
42Duodenum of small intestine Pancreas BileLiverGall- bladderStomachBileAcid chymeDuodenum of small intestinePancreasFigure 21.10A
43See pg. 983 INTERIOR OF INTESTINE Blood vessel with blood en route to the liverNutrient absorptionNutrient absorptionMicrovilliEpithelial cellsLumenMuscle layersBlood capillariesCircular foldsVilliLymph vesselEPITHELIAL CELLSNutrient absorptionINTESTINAL WALLVILLIFigure 21.10B
44Large Intestine Reclaims Water Undigested material passes to the large intestine, or colonWater is absorbedFeces are producedLarge intestine (colon)End of small intestineSmallintestineRectumAnusNutrient flowAppendixCecumFigure 21.11
46Video #2 Evolution of the Digestive System Write 15 Key Statements from the video. BE sure to number each statement
47Homework (Wed. 5/30)Finish IQ home by going to my website
48Introductory Questions #5 How are fat molecules absorbed? (see pg. 983)Once the food leaves the small intestine and enters into the blood stream, what is left behind?Why is the large intestine considered “Large”?What function does the large intestine serve?What purpose does the appendix serve?Name the bacteria that is known to cause stomach ulcers. How curable are ulcers? What can be done?Which Vitamin is produced by the bacteria present in the large intestine?Name three waste products that must be excreted from the body. (see pg. 985 – Sect. 38.3)Draw a kidney and include the following labels:-cortex -renal artery -renal vein-medulla -ureter
49Homework (Thurs. 5/31)Do IQ home by going to my website and answering the Questions (stamp tomorrow)**Extra Credit Stamp:-Do Sect. Assessment 38.3Quest. #1-5**Turn in today if finished/Hand back on Mon.
50Video #3 – Excretion & The Kidneys What organism is used by Dr. Carol Beuchat to illustrate how fluid is regulated and the role played by the urinary tract in maintaining homeostasis? (1st segment)What kind of nitrogenous waste does this organism excrete?Why is Dr. Beuchat studying his organism? What hope does she bring by studying these creatures?The 2nd segment discusses the role the kidneys play in maintaining homeostasis. How does this happen?What kind of machine is the patient connected to? Why is she connected to this machine?**Write the title for each segment and FIVE statements for each segment.
51Introductory Questions #6 Name three roles that the kidneys play in order to maintain homeostasis in the body? (see pg. 985)Where are the kidneys located in the body?What does the kidney remove from the blood?How is the renal artery different from the renal vein?The functional unit of the kidney is called a ____.Where is the renal cortex located compared to the renal medulla?Define Filtration and where it occurs in the nephron.How long does it take for your kidneys to filter all of your blood? (see pg. 987)
53The Excretory SystemSect (pgs )The Skin (water, salts, urea)The Lungs (CO2)The Liver (produces the urea by breaking down amino acids)&The Kidneys – filters the blood and removes urea from the blood stream
54Function/Roles of the Kidneys Removes Urea & other waste products from the bloodMaintains proper blood pH ( )Regulates Water Balance & VolumeBlood Pressure
55Key Structures of the Kidney Renal Cortex (thin outer layer)Renal medulla (deeper tissue)Renal Pelvis (collecting area of urine)Ureter (Tube that transports urine to bladder)Renal Artery (brings blood to he kidneys)Renal Vein (transports blood away from the kidney)Urinary Bladder (stores up urine as its produced)Urethra (Tube that eliminates urine out of the body)
56Figure 38–17 Structure of the Kidneys Section 38-3KidneyNephronCortexMedullaRenal arteryRenal veinUreterTo the bladderBowman’s capsuleGlomerulusCapillariesCollecting ductTo the ureterLoop of HenleArteryVein
57The Nephron (functional unit of the Kidney) A kidney is made up of millions of nephronsEach nephron has its own blood supplyGlomerulus: small ball of capillariesBowman’s Capsule: Collects the filtrateCup-shaped structureFirst part of the tubule system (urine is collected)Proximal & Distal Tubules: absorption/re-absortptionLoop of Henle: penetrates deeper into the kidneyWater is taken back (out of the filtrate – urine)Collecting duct: forms the end of the tubule system-dumps the filtrate (urine) into the renal pelvis & into the ureter.
58Homework (Fri. 6/1) Read Sect. 38.3 (Pgs. 985-989) Do Section Assessment Questions #1-5 on pg. 989 (sect. 38-3)**if not done already***
59The Nephron Reabsorption Filtration Section 38-3 As the filtrate flows through the renal tubule, most of the water and nutrients are reabsorbed into the blood. The concentrated fluid that remains is called urine.FiltrationMost filtration occurs in the glomerulus. Blood pressure forces water, salt, glucose, amino acids, and urea into Bowman’s capsule. Proteins and blood cells are too large to cross the membrane; they remain in the blood. The fluid that enters the renal tubules is called the filtrate.
61Figure 38–19 Kidney Dialysis Section 38-3Blood in tubing flows through dialysis fluidBlood pumpVeinArteryShuntUsed dialysis fluidAir detectorDialysis machineFresh dialysis fluidCompressed air
62Video #3 – Excretion & The Kidneys What organism is used by Dr. Carol Beuchat to illustrate how fluid is regulated and the role played by the urinary tract in maintaining homeostasis? (1st segment)The 2nd segment discusses the role the kidneys play in maintaining homeostasis.What kind of machine is the patient connected to? Why is she connected to this machine?**Write the title for each segment and FIVE statements for each segment.
64Homework (Mon. 6/4) -Use the web code on Pgs. 988 (cbn-0383) Search Online for an image of the Bowman’s capsule and print it out.Go to:-Use the web code on Pgs (cbn-0383)-Click on “Concentrating Urine-The Mammalian Kidney-View the animation and Do the Self Quiz at the end.**Printout your self quiz results**I will be stamping BOTH Printouts tomorrow!!!!
65Lab Activity– Tissue Sample from the Kidney Obtain the following items:Make a circle using the petri dishWrite the title: using the label on the slideObserve the tissue using the compound microscopeBe sure to view at least THREE Glomeruli/Bowman’s capsules.Draw the entire visual field/take a pix using your phones or cameras7. Be sure to label the following:-Glomerulus -Bowman’s capsuleWrite the total magnification below your labeled drawingHomework: Print, Cut, & Paste the image you took in class or from the internet next to your labeled drawing. Be sure to label the printed imagae as well.
68Introductory Questions #7 Describe what a glomerulus is. What about the Bowman’s capsule.Name all of the structures that the “filtrate” urine flows through as it is produced in the nephron beginning with the Bowman’s capsule.What kind of salts combine to form stones in the kidney? What kind of treatment can be done? (see pg. 988)When you drink a glass of water where does the liquid go?Name the TWO ways that can keep a person alive if both kidneys are damaged and not functional?What are the downfalls of doing dialysis?
69Overview of Mammalian Nephron Function Gradient of NaCl
71Video #4 – Review of Excretory System Write 15 key statements (numbered)
72Today’s Objectives Stamp Homework & Do IQ #8 Go over IQ #8 & All Textbook QuestionsAssemble Assignment Packets
73Homework (Tues. 6/5) Do “Reviewing Content Quest. #1-10 on Pg. 993 Do “Understanding Concepts” #12, 13, 15, 19, 21, & 24, 25Do the Standardized Test Prep Quest. #1-8 on pg. 995
74Introductory Questions #8 Matching Exercise:Has rich colonies of bacteria that produces Vitamin K A. PancreasInner wall has many villi B. LiverGlomerulus & Bowman’s capsule C. StomachProduces/Secretes Digestive enzymes D. Small intestineChief cells & Parietal cells E. Large IntestineProduces Urea F. KidneysSpecialized to absorb waterProduces bileRegulates water & Blood volume/pressureThe bacterim Heliobacter pylori causes ulcers hereSegments include: duodenum, jejunum, & ileumII. Multiple Choice/True-False/fill in the blank Questions:The functional unit of the kidney is called a ______________Heartburn occurs in the ______________.Re-absorption & Secretion occurs between the glomerulus & Bowman’s capsule (T/F)Both antibiotics and amylase is produced and makes up a large part of saliva (T/F)Calcium, Magnesium, and Iodine are all considered to be ______________.Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is produced byPancreas b. Liver c. Parietal cells d. Chief cells e. villiWhich one of the following will have the most calories?a. 10g of carbs b. 10g of fat c. 10g of protein 10g of water
75Items for your Assignment Packet Cover sheet (name, period, date & Ch. 38)Calorie JournalTextbook Hmwk. Assignments:Sect. Assess (pg. 977)Sect. Assess (pg. 984)Sect. Assess (pg. 989)**extra credit stampEnd of Chapter Questions:Quest. #1-10 on pg. 993Understanding Concepts # #12, 13, 15, 19, 21, & 24, 25Standardized Test prep Quest. #1-8 on pg. 995Lab Activity: Drawing & Pix w/labels of GlomerulusVideo Notes (x4)IQ’s (x8)Online Printout (self quiz from Scilinks)Practice MC test (Online Textbook)-Tonight’s Homework
76Homework (Wed. 6/6) Take the Textbook Online quiz @ Printout your results & Attach to the back of your packet** if you are not registered then follow these steps:-Click “register”-Type in this access code: D52CA EACE252-Establish a Username & Password(don’t use your full name)