Presentation on theme: "Lymphatic and Immune system Chapter 17. Lymphatic System System consists ofSystem consists of –Lymph fluid –Lymphatic vessels –Structures and organs consisting."— Presentation transcript:
Lymphatic System System consists ofSystem consists of –Lymph fluid –Lymphatic vessels –Structures and organs consisting of lymphatic tissue –Red bone marrow –Lymphocytes Tortora Pages 454-455
Functions of Lymphatic System Draining interstitial fluidDraining interstitial fluid Transporting lipids and lipid soluble vitamins A,D, E, and KTransporting lipids and lipid soluble vitamins A,D, E, and K Carries out immune responsesCarries out immune responses Tortora Page 456
Lymphatic and Interstitial fluid Same fluid - different areas.Same fluid - different areas. –Interstitial fluid bathes cells. –Lymphatic fluid is I.F. in lymphatic vessels. Contains same materials as plasma except no proteinsContains same materials as plasma except no proteins
Lymphatic capillaries –Lie between cells –Open –Collect interstitial fluid. –Fluid moves due to pressure. –Flaps open, allow fluid in, then close Tortora 456
Lymphatic Vessels Lymphatic vesselsLymphatic vessels –Carry lymph fluid –Similar structure as veins with –Thinner walls & more valves. valves. –Skeletal and muscular pumps move it towards the heart. Tortora pg 457
Return to veins Lymphatic fluid is returned to circulatory system via the jugular & subclavian veinsLymphatic fluid is returned to circulatory system via the jugular & subclavian veins 20 L of plasma become IF every day20 L of plasma become IF every day 17 L goes back to heart via the veins17 L goes back to heart via the veins 3 L becomes lymph3 L becomes lymphTortora456-457
Lymph Nodes –Located along lymphatic vessels. –Arranged in groups. –Afferent vessel leads to node. –Efferent leads away. –Valves do not let lymph fluid move backwards. Tortora pg 458-459
Lymphatic nodes –600 located in the body –Concentrated at axillae, mammary glands, throat and groin –Foreign materials are filtered and destroyed in nodes. –Macrophages destroy by phagocytosis –Lymphocytes destroy by a variety of immune responses Tortora pg 458
Macrophages Two cross sections of a lymph node: macrophages, which appear as red in the top image, are sticky cells that act like flypaper, trapping viruses and bacteria when they enter the lymph node. Green and blue show other structural elements of the node. In the bottom picture, B cells are red and the structural elements of the node are in green and blue
Tonsils & spleen Tonsils:Tonsils: –Large nodules grouped together. –Contains T and B lymphocytes. SpleenSpleen –Largest mass of lymphatic tissue. –Stores blood. –Stores 1/3 rd of the body’s platelets –Destroys broken RBCs & platelets.
Thymus gland –Contains T cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. –Immature T cells arrive here from the red bone marrow. –2% “graduate” to be mature T cells. –Mature T cells leave the thymus via the blood, are carried to the lymph nodes, spleen, and other lymphatic tissues. Tortora 458
Lymph Circulation Fluid from plasma of blood.Fluid from plasma of blood. Interstitial fluid.Interstitial fluid. Lymph Vessels and nodesLymph Vessels and nodes –Lymphatic capillaries –Lymphatic vessels. –Lymph nodes. Back to plasma.Back to plasma. Thursday 5/8/03 Pages 383-388
Lymph Circulation Lymph fluid is moved by;Lymph fluid is moved by; –Skeletal muscles compressing vessels. –Valves insure one way flow. EdemaEdema –Fluid gain in the interstitial spaces. –Can be due to blocked lymphatic vessels or nodes. Thursday 5/8/03 Pages 383-388
Innate Resistance to Disease Monday 5/12/03 Pages 388-388 Pathogens are disease causing organisms.Pathogens are disease causing organisms. Pathogens produce toxins or toxic waste products.Pathogens produce toxins or toxic waste products. Your ability to ward off pathogens is resistance.Your ability to ward off pathogens is resistance. Lack of resistance is susceptibility.Lack of resistance is susceptibility.
Skin & Mucous Membranes Skin is 1st defense against pathogens.Skin is 1st defense against pathogens. Mechanical factorsMechanical factors –Many layers of epithelial cells. –Role of keratin. –Role of Mucus membranes. –Mucus –Cilia –Role of lacrimal apparatus –Role of Saliva Monday 5/12/03 Pages 388-388
Defenses Against Microbes Second line of defense.Second line of defense. –Interferon Proteins produced by cells infected by viruses.Proteins produced by cells infected by viruses. Binds to receptor sites of other cells.Binds to receptor sites of other cells. –Complement Group of about 20 proteins.Group of about 20 proteins. Found in the plasma of blood.Found in the plasma of blood. Inhance immune system.Inhance immune system. Monday 5/12/03 Pages 388-388
Defenses Against Microbes Natural killer cellsNatural killer cells –Type of lymphocyte. –Ability to kill microbes and some cancer cells. –Located in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and blood. PhagocytesPhagocytes –Macrophages are monocytes that morph. Wandering and fixed.Wandering and fixed. –Neutrophils HiHi Monday 5/12/03 Pages 388-388
Phagocytosis ChemotaxisChemotaxis –Phagocytes move towards higher concentration of chemicals. AdherenceAdherence –Phagocytes attach to microbe. –Role of complement. IngestionIngestion –Pseudopod surrounds microbe. –Phagocytic vesicle is formed. –Vesicle fuses to lysosome. –Microbe is digested. –Wastes are released by exocytosis.
Inflammation Monday 5/12/03 Pages 388-392 Caused by pathogens, abrasions, chemical irritations.Caused by pathogens, abrasions, chemical irritations. SymptomsSymptoms –Redness –Pain –Heat –Swelling
Inflammation Monday 5/12/03 Pages 388-392 Stages of inflamationStages of inflamation –Vasodialation & increased permeability of blood vessels. –Phagocyte migration. Usually within an hour.Usually within an hour. Chemotaxis & emigrationChemotaxis & emigration RepairRepair
Types of Immunity Monday 5/12/03 Pages 388-392 Immunity refers to “specific” resistance to certain pathogens.Immunity refers to “specific” resistance to certain pathogens. An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response.An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response. Acquired immunity is gained due to contact with an antigen.Acquired immunity is gained due to contact with an antigen.
Types of Immunity Monday 5/12/03 Pages 388-392 Four types of acquired immunity:Four types of acquired immunity: 1.Naturally acquired active immunity. Response to pathogens in every day life.Response to pathogens in every day life. 2.Naturally acquired passive immunity. Natural transfer of resistance. Nursing baby.Natural transfer of resistance. Nursing baby. 3.Artificially acquired active immunity. Acquired through vaccinations.Acquired through vaccinations. 4.Artificially acquired passive immunity. Injection of antibodies.Injection of antibodies.
Types of Immunity Tortora Pages 428-437 Two forms of adaptive immunity:Two forms of adaptive immunity: –Cell mediated immunity Cells directly attack specific antigen (pathogens)Cells directly attack specific antigen (pathogens) –Antibody mediated immunity Antibodies are produced to attack specific antigen.Antibodies are produced to attack specific antigen. –Self tolerance is critical Lack of self tolerance results in autoimmune diseasesLack of self tolerance results in autoimmune diseases
T Cells and Cell Mediated Immunity Role of MHCsRole of MHCs –Major histocompatibility complex proteins –Role of MHCs in transplants T Cells destroy antigenT Cells destroy antigen –Macrophages present antigen to T cells. –T cells sensitize. –T cells clone. Tortora Pages 428-437
Antigens and Antibodies Antigens are chemical substances not recognized as self.Antigens are chemical substances not recognized as self. –Whole pathogens –Toxins –Parts of pathogens Antibodies are plasma proteins called globulinsAntibodies are plasma proteins called globulins Tortora Pages 428-437
B Cells and Antibody- Mediated immunity Antibodies are proteins produced by plasma cells.Antibodies are proteins produced by plasma cells. –Converted B lymphocytes. –B lymphocytes were shown the antigen by macrophages. –B cells now recognize antigen. –Some B cells become memory cells, Tortora Pages 428-437
B Cells and Antibody- Mediated immunity Primary responsePrimary response –Slower to develop Secondary responseSecondary response –Much faster and stronger. Tortora Pages 428-437
Action of Antibodies Neutralizing the antigen.Neutralizing the antigen. Immobilize bacteria.Immobilize bacteria. Agglutination of antigen.Agglutination of antigen. Tortora Pages 428-437
Structure of Antibodies Made by B lymphocytesMade by B lymphocytes Shaped like a “Y”Shaped like a “Y” One arm is always the same.One arm is always the same. Other two arms are specifically shaped to antigen.Other two arms are specifically shaped to antigen. B cells become “memory cells”.B cells become “memory cells”. Tortora Pages 428-437