Presentation on theme: "Bloodborne /Airborne Pathogen"— Presentation transcript:
1Bloodborne /Airborne Pathogen Black MountainFire DepartmentBloodborne /Airborne PathogenTraining
2What are Bloodborne Pathogens Bloodborne Pathogens are disease-causing micro-organisms present in blood, such as bacteria or viruses, that can cause disease in humansMay be transmitted from one individual to another through exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials
3You can be exposed if:Your skin or mucous membranes come into direct contact with blood, body fluids or other potentially infectious materialsYour skin or mucous membranes come into direct contact with items or surfaces that have been contaminatedYou stick yourself with a contaminated needle or bitten by affected person
4DefinitionsExposure Incident -Occurs when an individual comes in contact with blood or other bodily fluids to which universal precautions apply, through percutaneous inoculation (needle stick), contact with an open wound, non- intact skin, and/or mucous membrane.
5What is the Standard ?OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration, under the Department of Labor. North Carolina is an OSHA state and performs its own inspections.
6HepatitisHepatitis A (HAV)Hepatitis B (HBV)Hepatitis C (HCV)
7Hepatitis A (HAV)Hepatitis A is found in the stool (poop) of persons with hepatitis A.Hepatitis A is spread from person to person by putting anything in the mouth that has been contaminated with the stool of a person with hepatitis A.Casual contact as in the usual office, work, or school setting, does not spread the virus.
8Who is Likely to Get HAVPersons who share a household or have sexual contact with someone who has HAVPersons who use street drugsChildren and employees in child care centers (especially centers that have children in diapers) where a child or an employee has hepatitis A.Unsanitary practices in food services.
9Hepatitis A Prevention Thorough hand washingHepatitis A vaccines provide long term protection.Immuno Globulin: Must be given within two weeks of exposure to HAV in order to work.
10Spread of Hepatitis Viral Infection Takes 2 to 6 months before infected individual feels or looks sickIndividual my be infected and never get sick, but can infect othersCan cause lingering active hepatitis, liver damage, liver cancer and death
11Signs/Symptoms of Hepatitis A Flu - like symptomsLoss of AppetiteFeverNausea, vomiting and diarrheaStomach acheJaundice ( yellow skin tone)Darkened Urine
12LONG-TERM EFFECTS There is no chronic (long-term) infection. Once you have had hepatitis A you cannot get it again.About 15% of people infected with HAV will have prolonged or relapsing symptoms over a 6-9 month period.
13Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Occurs when blood or body fluid from an infected person enters the body of a person who is not infected .Can be prevented by Vaccine.Hepatitis B is NOT spread through food or water, sharing eating utensils, breastfeeding, hugging, kissing, coughing, sneezing or by casual contact.
14Signs/Symptoms of Hepatitis B Flu - like symptomsLoss of AppetiteFeverNausea, vomiting and diarrheaStomach acheJaundice ( yellow skin tone)Liver inflamation
15Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Occurs when blood from an infected person enters the body of a person who is not infected.HCV is spread through sharing needles or "works" when "shooting" drugs, through needlesticks or sharps exposures on the job, or from an infected mother to her baby during birth.
16Hepatitis C virus (HCV) 80% of persons have no signs or symptomsChronic infection: 55%-85% of infected personsChronic liver disease: 70% of chronically infected personsDeaths from chronic liver disease: 1%-5% of infected persons may die
17Hepatitis C virus (HCV) There is no vaccine/treatment to prevent hepatitis C.
18HIV Incurable Viral Infection Can take up to 10 years before infected person feels or looks sickInfected person who has no symptoms can infect othersHIV infection causes: AIDS, Infections and CancersOccurs when blood or body fluid from an infected person enters the body of a person who is not infected .
19Symptoms of HIV Flu-like symptoms Constant fatigue Fever Sore throat, swollen lymph nodes in neck and upper arm regionLoss of appetite, weight lossDiarrhea
20Characteristics of HBV and HIV Transmission CAN NOT occur through– Eating Food prepared by an infected person– Drinking Fountains– Toilet Seats– Telephones– Insect bites– Casual Contact
21SARS- Severe acute respiratory syndrome Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness.In 2003, illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia
22SARS- Signs & SymptonsSARS begins with a high fever (temperature greater than °F [>38.0°C]).HeadacheOverall feeling of discomfort and body achesMild respiratory symptoms at the outset10 to 20 % of patients have diarrheaDry CoughMost patients develop pneumonia
23SARS- Prevention Mask self and patient due to airborne droplets. Avoid close contact. Examples:Kissing or huggingSharing eating or drinking utensilsTalking to someone within 3 feetTouching someone directly.
24TB - TuberculosisTuberculosis, many cases, is a lethal infectious disease.Usually attacks the lungs.Is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit their saliva through the air
25TB – Tuberculosis Symptoms Chronic coughFeverNight SweatsWeight Loss
26TB – Tuberculosis Prevention VaccineMask self and patient due to airborne droplets.Avoid close contact. Examples:Kissing or huggingSharing eating or drinking utensilsTalking to someone within 3 feetTouching someone directly.
27A TB skin test is the only way to find out if you have a TB infection
28TB Skin Tests You should get test if you are exposed to a person with active TBSmall amount of tuberculin is injected underskin in lower armAfter 2 to 3 days the result is checkedTest should be given initially after exposure and if negative then 10 weeks after exposure.
29If you test positive, the Doctor will order another test, Chest x- rays and blood work to confirm the results and begin treatment
30Exposure Statistics - HBV 6 to 30% depending on source Risk of Exposure from needle sticks or cut exposure:- HBV 6 to 30% depending on source- HCV 1.8%- HIV 0.3%Treatment for HBV/HIV exposure should start as soon as possible, preferably 24hrs.
31Exposure Follow Up HBV- No follow up unless any symptoms appear HCV- Antibody and liver enzyme levels as soon as possible after exposure and at 4-6 months after exposure. Check for virus 4-6 weeks after exposure.HIV- Antibody as soon as possible after exposure (baseline) and periodically for at least 6 months after the exposure (6 weeks,12weeks, 6 months)
32Airborne PathogensAny organism that cause disease that spreads throughout the environment via the air.
33Personal Protective Equipment GlovesGogglesMasksFace ShieldsGowns and body suits
34How Can We Protect Ourselves Use gloves and eye protectionBarrier DevicesHand SanitizerWash your hands
35Personal Protective Equipment Use anytime there is a risk of exposureDispose in regular trash if not soiledDispose in red biohazard bag if soiledDisinfect non-disposable with approveddisinfectant (Available at Fire Department)
36Reasons why People fail to use PPE Not necessary to use all the timeUsing it causes work to be slowed downUsing it interferes with ability to do certain thingsJust simply forgot to use itNot available once got out of car or truck
37Failure to use PPEIs a violation of the OSHA standard and the Riceville Vol. Fire Department Policy. There are NO ACCEPTABLE EXCUSES
38Gloves Should be appropriate size Gloves will deteriorate with use of cleaners and disinfectantsDisposable, single use gloves should not be washed and re-usedDiscoloration does not affect the integrity or function of the glove
39Masks Surgical Masks Filter Out and Respirators filter in. Primary function is to protect mucous membranes of the mouth, nose and eyes from contamination with blood or other potentially infectious materialsSurgical Masks Filter Out and Respirators filter in.
40MasksIf you wear a mask to cover you mouth, you must wear and eye shield or gogglesMasks should be worn when blood splashes are likely to occurIf you are using your eyeglasses as eye protection the glasses must have side shields
41Gowns Always use a clean gown Gowns should fit comfortably If blood soaks thru quickly remove and cleanse skin below itIf clothing is contaminated, DO NOT TAKE HOME TO CLEAN
42The “Gotchas” Never blindly reach into any containers Never assume that any bleeding is under controlNever assume that you know what body fluids are present
43Clean up Contaminated items should NOT be cleaned in normal ways. Special cleaners are used for decontamination.Always ask for instructions if unsure of clean-up procedures.
44Reporting ExposuresAlways report suspected exposures to the incident commander and/or the Fire Chief.Exposure Report Forms are located in the radio room filing cabinet.
45Questions come from PowerPoint info as well as Exposure Control Plan. ExamQuestions come from PowerPoint info as well as Exposure Control Plan.