Presentation on theme: "PRACTICAL PET-ANIMAL MEDICINE (PTR) Dr/ Abd Elghany Hefnawy."— Presentation transcript:
PRACTICAL PET-ANIMAL MEDICINE (PTR) Dr/ Abd Elghany Hefnawy
Clinical examination of body temperature Dr / Abd Elghany Hefnawy
1- Physiological aspect on the body temperature 2-Internal body temperature 3-Clinical significance of taking of body temperature Points of studying
-Higher animals are homeothermal (What means) 1-Physiological aspect on the body temperature Maximum efficiency of thermoregulation occurred by combined action between Thermoreceptores which present on the skin and certain mucous membranes Thermodetectores that present on the hypothalamic part of the brain. +
Thermoregulatory mechanism mainly -Hypothalmus -Thermoregulatory center -Thyroid hormone -Glucagon Neural Hormonal Regulation of heat production and loss mechanisms
Main organs of heat production Skeletal muscles (80%) Liver and heart Heat loss -Vaporization -Sweating (not in pets) -Radiation -Respiration
2-Internal body temperature The internal body temperature that detected clinically is not indicator to the total heat production in the body, but it is indicator to the steady stage of the thermal balance in the body between the heat loss and heat production in the body.
The body temperature in the animal taken rectally by using of the clinical blunt bulb thermometer. If cannot be done rectally?
Purchase a digital pet thermometer at your local pet supply store. 1
2- Control of the animal by its owner 2
Clean the thermometer with rubbing alcohol. 3
Apply petroleum jelly or mineral oil to the thermometer prior to taking a dog's temperature for lubrication. 4
Lift your dog's tail. 5
Insert the thermometer slowly and gently into your dog's rectum. 6
Hold the thermometer in place until it beeps, or for about 1 to 2 minutes. 7
Remove the thermometer and look at it to see what your dog's temperature is. 8
Clean the thermometer thoroughly with warm water and soap. 9
Normal range of the body temperature in pet animal - Large breed dog--- 37.5-38.6 C˚. -Small breed dog--- 38.6-39.2 C˚. - Cat-- 37.5-39.2 C˚.
Age Breed Sex Daytime Physiological process Physiological Factors Affecting In the Body Temperature
3-Clinical significance of taking of body temperature Hyperthermia Hypothermia Fever
A condition in which the body temperature is higher than normal which usually due to microbial infection and it is usually accompanied with disturbances in the thermoregulating mechanism.
Pathogenesis Etiology and predisposing factors Clinical findings
Biological infection (Bacteria, virus or parasites) Production of endogenous and exogenous pyrogen Fever by it three stages Disturbances in thermoregulation
Increment Fastigium Decrement Period of bacteremia, vieremia or parasitemia
-Cutaneous capillaries constriction which leads to dryness and coldness of the skin in addition to:- - Decreased respiration -Decreased urine volume -Increased heart rate -Shivering of the skeletal muscles. (I)-Increment or onset stage
(II)- Fastigium (acme) or steady stage -Temperature is Constant and the demand of the heat Production is subsided while the heat loss is increased that reflected in the Form of peripheral vasodilatation -(Congested mucous membranes) -In this stage if the animal exposed to changes in the environmental Temperature it may lead to alteration of the body temperature.
-Effect of the pyrogen is ceased or diminished after the localization of the infective microorganism in its predilection sit (i.e..after the end of the stage of vireamia or bacteremia) then the stored heat is dissipated and -The body temperature is fall to normal level accompanied with flaccidity in the muscles and peripheral vasodilatation (as a mechanism of heat loss). (III)-Decrement or Defervescence Stage
Classification of fever Causes Degree Septic fever (Virus or bacteria) Aseptic fever (Vaccination, tearing of tissue or surgical wound) Low (Laryngitis) Moderate(Pneumonia) Sever (peritonitis)
What about critical Set point of body temperature ?
How you deal with febrile condition?
Taking of pulse Site of taking of pulse Superficial Artery from which the pulse taken should be Medium sized Laying in adherence of solid mass as bone or tendon
Method of taking of pulse
May be taken from the heart
CHARACTYERS OF THE PULSE IN PETS Abnormal rate Pulse (Tachycardia) Pulse (Bradycardia) PULSE RATE : 60-90/min In large breed 90-120/min In small breed 110-130/min In cat
Pulse (Tachycardia) Pulse (Bradycardia) -Acute pain - Peritonitis - Pyrexia - Pneumonia - Valvular diseases -Toxemia - Great loss of blood -Debility - Dehydration -Low blood pressure -Some cases of jaundice -Senile dog - Gastric ulcer - Prior to death -Cerebral tumor
PULSE RHYTHM : PULSE AMPLITUDE OR QUALITY Normally irregular due to panting Pulse amplitude means that it is the degree of the digital pressure that required for obliteration of the pulse waves
ABNORMAL PULSE AMPLITUDE OR QUALITY StrongWeak Running down -Pyrexia -Ventricular hypertrophy -Pleurisy - Peritonitis -Dehydration -Anemia -Myocardial debility -Toxemic condition Prior to death
Age Breed Sex Daytime Physiological process Physiological Factors Affecting In the Pulse
وسائل التواصل Email: email@example.com@yahoo.com Abdelghany.firstname.lastname@example.org Facebook abdelghany hefnawy د. عبد الغني حفناوي Web site to download lectures www.bu.edu.eg/staff/abdelghanyhefnawy www.bu.edu.eg/staff/abdelghanyhefnawy (Courses) Tel 01011676482
Clinical examination of respiration in pets Dr / Abd Elghany Hefnawy
Type & Rythm of respiration in pets Costal Irregular
Rate of respiration in pets 15-20/min. in dog 20-30 /min. in cat
CHARACTERSABNORMALINDICATIONS 1-Rate 15-20/min. in dog 20-30 /min. in cat -Hyperpnoea -Polypnaea -Oligapnoea -Fever -Exercise -Pneumonia -Colic -pleurisy -Brain diseases 2-TypeCostal -Wholly abdominal -Wholly thoracic -chest painful conditions - painful conditions in abd. 3-AmplitudeCalm -Labored or deep -Shallow -Dyspnoea or obstruction of upper respiratory tract -Low oxygen level -Pneumonia -Abdominal respiration 4-RythmIrregular-Prolonged inspiration -Prolonged expiration -Dropped respiration -Syncoptic respiration -Canine distemper -Pulmonary emphysema - Brain diseases -Shock and near to death