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Respiratory System CHAPTER 11. 2 Respiratory System Overview Responsibilities of respiratory system –Respiration = exchange of gases between body and.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System CHAPTER 11. 2 Respiratory System Overview Responsibilities of respiratory system –Respiration = exchange of gases between body and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory System CHAPTER 11

2 2 Respiratory System Overview Responsibilities of respiratory system –Respiration = exchange of gases between body and air Provides oxygen to body cells for energy Removes carbon dioxide from body cells –Production of sound –Assisting in body’s defense against foreign materials

3 3 External respiration –Oxygen is inhaled into lungs –Passes through capillaries of the lungs into the pulmonary bloodstream –Carbon dioxide passes from blood through the same capillaries into the lungs and is exhaled Respiratory System Overview

4 4 Internal respiration –Inhaled oxygen circulates from pulmonary bloodstream in the lungs, back through the heart, to systemic bloodstream, to the body cells At cellular level, oxygen passes through capillaries into tissue cells where it is used for energy Carbon dioxide passes from tissue cells into capillaries and travels through bloodstream for removal from body via lungs Respiratory System Overview

5 5 Respiratory System Structures Nose –External portion composed of cartilage and bone covered with skin Entrance to nose = nostrils or nares Air enters body through the nose and mouth Nasal cavity –Divided into left and right chambers by dividing wall called the septum As air enters through nose, it passes into the nasal cavity

6 6 Paranasal sinuses –Hollow areas or cavities within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity –Lighten the skull and enhance the sound of the voice –Lined with mucous membranes Help to warm and filter the air as it enters the respiratory system Cilia (hairlike projections on mucous membranes) sweep dirt and foreign material toward throat for elimination Respiratory System Structures

7 7 Pharynx –Airway that connects the mouth and nose to the larynx Also known as the throat Serves as a common passageway for both air and food Respiratory System Structures

8 8 Pharynx –Commonly divided into three sections Nasopharynx –Contains the adenoids Oropharynx –Contains the tonsils (palatine tonsils) Laryngopharynx Respiratory System Structures

9 9 Larynx –Connects pharynx with trachea –Also known as the voice box –Most prominent of supporting cartilages is the thyroid cartilage at the front Forms the Adam’s apple –Contains structures that make vocal sounds possible – the vocal cords Vocal cords vibrate as air passes through the space between them, producing sound Respiratory System Structures

10 10 Trachea –Extends into the chest and serves as a passageway for air to the bronchi –Commonly known as the windpipe Bronchi –Trachea branches into two tubes called the bronchi –Each bronchus leads to a separate lung Divides and subdivides into progressively smaller tubes called bronchioles Respiratory System Structures

11 11 Bronchioles –Smallest branches of bronchi –Terminal ends known as alveoli Air sacs Have thin walls that allow for exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood Alveoli = pulmonary parenchyma Respiratory System Structures

12 12 Lungs –Two cone-shaped, spongy organs consisting of alveoli, blood vessels, elastic tissue, and nerves –Left lung has two lobes and right lung has three lobes –Apex = uppermost part of lung –Base = lower part of lung –Hilum = portion in midline region where blood vessels, nerves, and bronchial tubes enter and exit the lungs Respiratory System Structures

13 13 Pleura –Double-folded membrane that surrounds the lungs –Parietal pleura Outer layer of the pleura which lines the thoracic cavity –Visceral pleura Inner layer of the pleura which covers the lungs Respiratory System Structures

14 14 Pleura –Pleural space Small space between the pleural membranes Filled with lubricating fluid that prevents friction when the two membranes slide against each other during respiration Respiratory System Structures

15 15 Breathing Process Inhalation = inspiration –Diaphragm is stimulated by phrenic nerve –Diaphragm contracts and flattens (descends) –Chest cavity enlarges –Decrease in pressure within the thorax –Air is drawn into the lungs

16 16 Breathing Process Exhalation = expiration –Diaphragm relaxes and rises back into thoracic cavity –Chest cavity decreases in size –Increase in pressure with the thorax –Air is forced out of lungs

17 17 Physical Exam Techniques Inspection –Visual examination of the external surface of the body as well as of its movements and posture Palpation –Process of examining by application of the hands or fingers to the external surface of the body to detect evidence of disease or abnormalities in the various organs

18 18 Physical Exam Techniques Auscultation –Process of listening for sounds within the body, usually to sounds of thoracic or abdominal viscera, to detect some abnormal condition, or to detect fetal heart sounds Performed with a stethoscope

19 19 Physical Exam Techniques Percussion –Use of the fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine position, size, and consistency of an underlying structure and the presence of fluid or pus in a cavity Tapping over solid organ = dull flat sound Tapping over air-filled structure = clear, hollow sound

20 20 Common Signs and Symptoms Apnea –Temporary cessation of breathing “Without breathing” Bradypnea –Abnormally slow breathing –Evidenced by respiratory rate slower than 12 respirations per minute

21 21 Cough –Forceful and sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration Glottis is partially closed, accessory muscles of expiration brought into action, air is noisily expelled –Due to irritation of the airways or infection Irritants = dust, smoke, mucus Common Signs and Symptoms

22 22 Cough –Nonproductive = unproductive Not effective in bringing up sputum “Dry cough” –Productive Effective in bringing up sputum “Wet cough” Common Signs and Symptoms

23 23 Cyanosis –Slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike, or dark purple discoloration of the skin due to presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood Dysphonia –Difficulty in speaking –Hoarseness Common Signs and Symptoms

24 24 Dyspnea –Air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain Epistaxis –Hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed Common Signs and Symptoms

25 25 Expectoration –Act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs Hemoptysis –Expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs Common Signs and Symptoms

26 26 Hypercapnia –Increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood Hypoxemia –Insufficient oxygenation of the blood Hypoxia –Deficiency of oxygen Common Signs and Symptoms

27 27 Kussmaul respirations –Very deep, gasping type of respiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis Orthopnea –Respiratory condition in which there is discomfort in breathing in any but erect, sitting, or standing position Common Signs and Symptoms

28 28 Pleural rub –Friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space Rales –Abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest, produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion or exudate or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls Common Signs and Symptoms

29 29 Rhinorrhea –Thin, watery discharge from the nose Rhonchi –Rales or rattlings in the throat, especially when it resembles snoring Common Signs and Symptoms

30 30 Sneeze –To expel air forcibly through the nose and mouth by spasmodic contraction of muscles of expiration due to irritation of nasal mucosa Stridor –Harsh sound during respiration –High pitched and resembling the blowing of wind, due to obstruction of air passages Common Signs and Symptoms

31 31 Tachypnea –Abnormal rapidity of breathing Wheeze –Whistling sound or sighing sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway Common Signs and Symptoms

32 PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Upper Respiratory System

33 33 Coryza Pronounced –(kor-RYE-zuh) Defined –Inflammation of the respiratory mucous membranes known as the common cold “Common cold” usually refers to symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection

34 34 Croup Pronounced –(KROOP) Defined –Childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, suffocative and difficult breathing, stridor, and laryngeal spasm

35 35 Diphtheria Pronounced –(diff-THEER-ree-uh) Defined –Serious infectious disease affecting the nose, pharynx, or larynx, usually resulting in sore throat, dysphonia, and fever Caused by bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae which forms a white coating over the affected airways as it multiplies

36 36 Laryngitis Pronounced –(lair-in-JYE-tis) Defined –Inflammation of the larynx, usually resulting in hoarseness, cough, and difficulty swallowing Causes: abuse of the voice, upper respiratory tract infection, chronic bronchitis, chronic sinusitis

37 37 Pertussis Pronounced –(per-TUH-sis) Defined –Acute upper respiratory infectious disease, caused by the bacterium Bordetello pertussis –Also known as “whooping cough”

38 38 Pharyngitis Pronounced –(fair-in-JYE-tis) Defined –Inflammation of the pharynx, usually resulting in sore throat Usually caused by a virus

39 39 Rhinitis Pronounced –(rye-NYE-tis) Defined –Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose Usually resulting in obstruction of the nasal passages, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and facial pressure or pain

40 40 Sinusitis Pronounced –(sigh-nus-EYE-tis) Defined –Inflammation of a sinus, especially a paranasal sinus Usually results in pain and a feeling of pressure in the affected sinuses

41 41 Tonsillitis Pronounced –(ton-sill-EYE-tis) Defined –Inflammation of the palatine tonsils: tonsils appear enlarged and red with yellowish exudate Symptoms: Sore throat, fever, snoring, difficulty swallowing

42 PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Lower Respiratory System

43 43 Asthma Pronounced –(AZ-mah) Defined –Paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane Occurs most frequently in childhood or early adulthood

44 44 Bronchiectasis Pronounced –(brong-key-EK-tah-sis) Defined –Chronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung

45 45 Pronounced –(brong-KIGH-tis) Defined –Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes Infection is often preceded by the common cold Patient may experience productive cough, accompanied by wheezing, dyspnea, and chest pain Bronchitis

46 46 Acute Bronchitis –Causes are viral infection, bacterial infection, and airborne irritants Chronic Bronchitis –Primarily associated with cigarette smoking or exposure to pollution Smoke irritates airways, resulting in inflammation and hypersecretion of mucus Productive cough is present for at least three months of two consecutive years Bronchitis

47 47 Bronchogenic Carcinoma Pronounced –(brong-koh-JEN-ic car-sin-OH-mah) Defined –Malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi –Lung cancer

48 48 Emphysema Pronounced –(em-fih-SEE-mah) Defined –Chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls

49 49 Empyema Pronounced –(em-pye-EE-mah) Defined –Pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity Usually the result of a primary infection in the lungs

50 50 Hyaline Membrane Disease Pronounced –(HIGH-ah-lighn membrane dih-ZEEZ) Defined –Severe impairment of respiration in premature newborn –Also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RSD)

51 51 Influenza Pronounced –(in-floo-IN-zah) Defined –Highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract transmitted by airborne droplet infection –Also known as the flu Symptoms include sore throat, cough, fever, muscular pains, and generalized weakness

52 52 Lung Abscess Pronounced –(lung AB-sess) Defined –Localized collection of pus formed by the destruction of lung tissue and microorganisms by white blood cells that have migrated to the area to fight infection

53 53 Pleural Effusion Pronounced –(PLOO-ral eh-FYOO-zhun) Defined –Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, resulting in compression of the underlying portion of the lung, with resultant dyspnea Usually secondary to some other disease

54 54 Pleuritis (Pleurisy) Pronounced –(ploor-EYE-tis) –(PLOOR-ih-see) Defined –Inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura

55 55 Pneumonia Pronounced –(new-MOH-nee-ah) Defined –Inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria, viruses, and chemical irritants

56 56 Pneumothorax Pronounced –(new-moh-THOH-racks) Defined –Collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity Air enters as the result of a perforation through the chest wall or the pleura covering the lung

57 57 Pulmonary Edema Pronounced –(PULL-mon-air-ree eh-DEE-mah) Defined –Swelling of the lungs caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, either in the alveoli or the interstitial spaces

58 58 Pronounced –(PULL-mon-air-ree heart dih-ZEEZ) –(cor pull-mon-ALL-ee) Defined –Hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart (with or without failure) resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall Pulmonary Heart Disease (Cor Pulmonale)

59 59 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Pronounced –(sudden infant death SIN-drohm) Defined –Unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well infant –Also known as crib death or SIDS

60 60 Pronounced –(too-ber-kyoo-LOH-sis) Defined –Infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis –Inflammatory infiltrations, formation of tubercles, and caseous (cheeselike) necrosis in the tissues of the lungs Tuberculosis


62 62 Anthracosis Pronounced –(an-thrah-KOH-sis) Defined –Accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to breathing smoke or coal dust –Also known as black lung disease or coal worker’s pneumonoconiosis

63 63 Asbestosis Pronounced –(as-beh-STOH-sis) Defined –Lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles

64 64 Byssinosis Pronounced –(bis-ih-NOH-sis) Defined –Lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton, flax, and hemp –Also known as brown lung disease

65 65 Silicosis Pronounced –(sill-ih-KOH-sis) Defined –Lung disease resulting from inhalation of silica (quartz) dust, characterized by formation of small nodules


67 67 Bronchoscopy –Examination of interior of bronchi using a lighted, flexible bronchoscope (or endoscope) Chest X-ray –High-energy electromagnetic waves passing through the body onto a photographic film –Produces a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

68 68 Laryngoscopy –Examination of interior of the larynx using a lighted, flexible tube known as a laryngoscope (or endoscope) Lung scan –Visual imaging of the distribution or ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

69 69 Pulmonary function tests –Variety of tests performed to assess respiratory function Sputum specimen –Specimen of material expectorated from the mouth If produced after a cough, it may contain, in addition to saliva, material from the throat and bronchi Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

70 70 Thoracentesis –Procedure that involves the use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis, or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

71 71 Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures Tonsillectomy –Surgical removal of the palatine tonsils Usually combined with an adenoidectomy (surgical removal of adenoids) Tuberculin skin test (TST) –Determines past or present tuberculosis infection present in the body Based on positive skin reaction to the introduction of a purified protein derivative (PPS) of the tubercula bacilli into the skin

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