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CHAPTER 11 Respiratory System.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11 Respiratory System."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 11 Respiratory System

2 Respiratory System Overview
Responsibilities of respiratory system Respiration = exchange of gases between body and air Provides oxygen to body cells for energy Removes carbon dioxide from body cells Production of sound Assisting in body’s defense against foreign materials

3 Respiratory System Overview
External respiration Oxygen is inhaled into lungs Passes through capillaries of the lungs into the pulmonary bloodstream Carbon dioxide passes from blood through the same capillaries into the lungs and is exhaled

4 Respiratory System Overview
Internal respiration Inhaled oxygen circulates from pulmonary bloodstream in the lungs, back through the heart, to systemic bloodstream, to the body cells At cellular level, oxygen passes through capillaries into tissue cells where it is used for energy Carbon dioxide passes from tissue cells into capillaries and travels through bloodstream for removal from body via lungs

5 Respiratory System Structures
Nose External portion composed of cartilage and bone covered with skin Entrance to nose = nostrils or nares Air enters body through the nose and mouth Nasal cavity Divided into left and right chambers by dividing wall called the septum As air enters through nose, it passes into the nasal cavity

6 Respiratory System Structures
Paranasal sinuses Hollow areas or cavities within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity Lighten the skull and enhance the sound of the voice Lined with mucous membranes Help to warm and filter the air as it enters the respiratory system Cilia (hairlike projections on mucous membranes) sweep dirt and foreign material toward throat for elimination

7 Respiratory System Structures
Pharynx Airway that connects the mouth and nose to the larynx Also known as the throat Serves as a common passageway for both air and food

8 Respiratory System Structures
Pharynx Commonly divided into three sections Nasopharynx Contains the adenoids Oropharynx Contains the tonsils (palatine tonsils) Laryngopharynx

9 Respiratory System Structures
Larynx Connects pharynx with trachea Also known as the voice box Most prominent of supporting cartilages is the thyroid cartilage at the front Forms the Adam’s apple Contains structures that make vocal sounds possible – the vocal cords Vocal cords vibrate as air passes through the space between them, producing sound

10 Respiratory System Structures
Trachea Extends into the chest and serves as a passageway for air to the bronchi Commonly known as the windpipe Bronchi Trachea branches into two tubes called the bronchi Each bronchus leads to a separate lung Divides and subdivides into progressively smaller tubes called bronchioles

11 Respiratory System Structures
Bronchioles Smallest branches of bronchi Terminal ends known as alveoli Air sacs Have thin walls that allow for exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood Alveoli = pulmonary parenchyma

12 Respiratory System Structures
Lungs Two cone-shaped, spongy organs consisting of alveoli, blood vessels, elastic tissue, and nerves Left lung has two lobes and right lung has three lobes Apex = uppermost part of lung Base = lower part of lung Hilum = portion in midline region where blood vessels, nerves, and bronchial tubes enter and exit the lungs

13 Respiratory System Structures
Pleura Double-folded membrane that surrounds the lungs Parietal pleura Outer layer of the pleura which lines the thoracic cavity Visceral pleura Inner layer of the pleura which covers the lungs

14 Respiratory System Structures
Pleura Pleural space Small space between the pleural membranes Filled with lubricating fluid that prevents friction when the two membranes slide against each other during respiration

15 Breathing Process Inhalation = inspiration
Diaphragm is stimulated by phrenic nerve Diaphragm contracts and flattens (descends) Chest cavity enlarges Decrease in pressure within the thorax Air is drawn into the lungs

16 Breathing Process Exhalation = expiration
Diaphragm relaxes and rises back into thoracic cavity Chest cavity decreases in size Increase in pressure with the thorax Air is forced out of lungs

17 Physical Exam Techniques
Inspection Visual examination of the external surface of the body as well as of its movements and posture Palpation Process of examining by application of the hands or fingers to the external surface of the body to detect evidence of disease or abnormalities in the various organs

18 Physical Exam Techniques
Auscultation Process of listening for sounds within the body, usually to sounds of thoracic or abdominal viscera, to detect some abnormal condition, or to detect fetal heart sounds Performed with a stethoscope

19 Physical Exam Techniques
Percussion Use of the fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine position, size, and consistency of an underlying structure and the presence of fluid or pus in a cavity Tapping over solid organ = dull flat sound Tapping over air-filled structure = clear, hollow sound

20 Common Signs and Symptoms
Apnea Temporary cessation of breathing “Without breathing” Bradypnea Abnormally slow breathing Evidenced by respiratory rate slower than 12 respirations per minute

21 Common Signs and Symptoms
Cough Forceful and sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration Glottis is partially closed, accessory muscles of expiration brought into action, air is noisily expelled Due to irritation of the airways or infection Irritants = dust, smoke, mucus

22 Common Signs and Symptoms
Cough Nonproductive = unproductive Not effective in bringing up sputum “Dry cough” Productive Effective in bringing up sputum “Wet cough”

23 Common Signs and Symptoms
Cyanosis Slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike, or dark purple discoloration of the skin due to presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood Dysphonia Difficulty in speaking Hoarseness

24 Common Signs and Symptoms
Dyspnea Air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain Epistaxis Hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed

25 Common Signs and Symptoms
Expectoration Act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs Hemoptysis Expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs

26 Common Signs and Symptoms
Hypercapnia Increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood Hypoxemia Insufficient oxygenation of the blood Hypoxia Deficiency of oxygen

27 Common Signs and Symptoms
Kussmaul respirations Very deep, gasping type of respiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis Orthopnea Respiratory condition in which there is discomfort in breathing in any but erect, sitting, or standing position

28 Common Signs and Symptoms
Pleural rub Friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space Rales Abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest, produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion or exudate or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls

29 Common Signs and Symptoms
Rhinorrhea Thin, watery discharge from the nose Rhonchi Rales or rattlings in the throat, especially when it resembles snoring

30 Common Signs and Symptoms
Sneeze To expel air forcibly through the nose and mouth by spasmodic contraction of muscles of expiration due to irritation of nasal mucosa Stridor Harsh sound during respiration High pitched and resembling the blowing of wind, due to obstruction of air passages

31 Common Signs and Symptoms
Tachypnea Abnormal rapidity of breathing Wheeze Whistling sound or sighing sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway

32 PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
Upper Respiratory System

33 Coryza Pronounced Defined (kor-RYE-zuh)
Inflammation of the respiratory mucous membranes known as the common cold “Common cold” usually refers to symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection

34 Croup Pronounced Defined (KROOP)
Childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, suffocative and difficult breathing, stridor, and laryngeal spasm

35 Diphtheria Pronounced Defined (diff-THEER-ree-uh)
Serious infectious disease affecting the nose, pharynx, or larynx, usually resulting in sore throat, dysphonia, and fever Caused by bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae which forms a white coating over the affected airways as it multiplies

36 Laryngitis Pronounced Defined (lair-in-JYE-tis)
Inflammation of the larynx, usually resulting in hoarseness, cough, and difficulty swallowing Causes: abuse of the voice, upper respiratory tract infection, chronic bronchitis, chronic sinusitis

37 Pertussis Pronounced Defined (per-TUH-sis)
Acute upper respiratory infectious disease, caused by the bacterium Bordetello pertussis Also known as “whooping cough”

38 Pharyngitis Pronounced Defined (fair-in-JYE-tis)
Inflammation of the pharynx, usually resulting in sore throat Usually caused by a virus

39 Rhinitis Pronounced Defined (rye-NYE-tis)
Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose Usually resulting in obstruction of the nasal passages, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and facial pressure or pain

40 Sinusitis Pronounced Defined (sigh-nus-EYE-tis)
Inflammation of a sinus, especially a paranasal sinus Usually results in pain and a feeling of pressure in the affected sinuses

41 Tonsillitis Pronounced Defined (ton-sill-EYE-tis)
Inflammation of the palatine tonsils: tonsils appear enlarged and red with yellowish exudate Symptoms: Sore throat, fever, snoring, difficulty swallowing

42 PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
Lower Respiratory System

43 Asthma Pronounced Defined (AZ-mah)
Paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane Occurs most frequently in childhood or early adulthood

44 Bronchiectasis Pronounced Defined (brong-key-EK-tah-sis)
Chronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung

45 Bronchitis Pronounced Defined (brong-KIGH-tis)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes Infection is often preceded by the common cold Patient may experience productive cough, accompanied by wheezing, dyspnea, and chest pain

46 Bronchitis Acute Bronchitis Chronic Bronchitis
Causes are viral infection, bacterial infection, and airborne irritants Chronic Bronchitis Primarily associated with cigarette smoking or exposure to pollution Smoke irritates airways, resulting in inflammation and hypersecretion of mucus Productive cough is present for at least three months of two consecutive years

47 Bronchogenic Carcinoma
Pronounced (brong-koh-JEN-ic car-sin-OH-mah) Defined Malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi Lung cancer

48 Emphysema Pronounced Defined (em-fih-SEE-mah)
Chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls

49 Empyema Pronounced Defined (em-pye-EE-mah)
Pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity Usually the result of a primary infection in the lungs

50 Hyaline Membrane Disease
Pronounced (HIGH-ah-lighn membrane dih-ZEEZ) Defined Severe impairment of respiration in premature newborn Also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RSD)

51 Influenza Pronounced Defined (in-floo-IN-zah)
Highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract transmitted by airborne droplet infection Also known as the flu Symptoms include sore throat, cough, fever, muscular pains, and generalized weakness

52 Lung Abscess Pronounced Defined (lung AB-sess)
Localized collection of pus formed by the destruction of lung tissue and microorganisms by white blood cells that have migrated to the area to fight infection

53 Pleural Effusion Pronounced Defined (PLOO-ral eh-FYOO-zhun)
Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, resulting in compression of the underlying portion of the lung, with resultant dyspnea Usually secondary to some other disease

54 Pleuritis (Pleurisy) Pronounced Defined (ploor-EYE-tis) (PLOOR-ih-see)
Inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura

55 Pneumonia Pronounced Defined (new-MOH-nee-ah)
Inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria, viruses, and chemical irritants

56 Pneumothorax Pronounced Defined (new-moh-THOH-racks)
Collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity Air enters as the result of a perforation through the chest wall or the pleura covering the lung

57 Pulmonary Edema Pronounced Defined (PULL-mon-air-ree eh-DEE-mah)
Swelling of the lungs caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, either in the alveoli or the interstitial spaces

58 Pulmonary Heart Disease (Cor Pulmonale)
Pronounced (PULL-mon-air-ree heart dih-ZEEZ) (cor pull-mon-ALL-ee) Defined Hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart (with or without failure) resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall

59 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Pronounced (sudden infant death SIN-drohm) Defined Unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well infant Also known as crib death or SIDS

60 Tuberculosis Pronounced Defined (too-ber-kyoo-LOH-sis)
Infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inflammatory infiltrations, formation of tubercles, and caseous (cheeselike) necrosis in the tissues of the lungs

61 PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
Work-Related

62 Anthracosis Pronounced Defined (an-thrah-KOH-sis)
Accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to breathing smoke or coal dust Also known as black lung disease or coal worker’s pneumonoconiosis

63 Asbestosis Pronounced Defined (as-beh-STOH-sis)
Lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles

64 Byssinosis Pronounced Defined (bis-ih-NOH-sis)
Lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton, flax, and hemp Also known as brown lung disease

65 Silicosis Pronounced Defined (sill-ih-KOH-sis)
Lung disease resulting from inhalation of silica (quartz) dust, characterized by formation of small nodules

66 DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES
Respiratory System

67 Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
Bronchoscopy Examination of interior of bronchi using a lighted, flexible bronchoscope (or endoscope) Chest X-ray High-energy electromagnetic waves passing through the body onto a photographic film Produces a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy

68 Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
Laryngoscopy Examination of interior of the larynx using a lighted, flexible tube known as a laryngoscope (or endoscope) Lung scan Visual imaging of the distribution or ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material

69 Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
Pulmonary function tests Variety of tests performed to assess respiratory function Sputum specimen Specimen of material expectorated from the mouth If produced after a cough, it may contain, in addition to saliva, material from the throat and bronchi

70 Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
Thoracentesis Procedure that involves the use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis, or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space

71 Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
Tonsillectomy Surgical removal of the palatine tonsils Usually combined with an adenoidectomy (surgical removal of adenoids) Tuberculin skin test (TST) Determines past or present tuberculosis infection present in the body Based on positive skin reaction to the introduction of a purified protein derivative (PPS) of the tubercula bacilli into the skin


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