Presentation on theme: "Do Now (in your trackers) 1. What are three functions of the respiratory system? 2. Where are the upper and lower respiratory tracts located (which organs."— Presentation transcript:
Do Now (in your trackers) 1. What are three functions of the respiratory system? 2. Where are the upper and lower respiratory tracts located (which organs are in each)? Worth 30 tribal points for all tribe seated and silent Today’s Lesson Topic: Organs of the Respiratory System
Respiratory System Function 1. It provides for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between the blood and air. 2. It serves for speech and other vocalizations. 3. It provides the sense of smell, which is important in social interactions, food selection, and avoiding danger. 4. By eliminating carbon dioxide, it helps control the pH of body fluids.
Function Continued 5. The lungs carry out a step in the synthesis of a vasoconstrictor called angiotensin II, which helps to regulate blood pressure. 6. Breathing creates pressure gradients between the thorax and abdomen that promote the flow of lymph and venous blood 7. Taking a deep breath and holding it while contracting the abdominal muscles helps to expel abdominal contents during urination, defecation, and childbirth.
23-4 Upper tract: nose, pharynx and associated structures Lower tract: larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs and the tubing within the lungs
5 The Respiratory Organs Conducting zone Respiratory passages that carry AIR to the site of gas exchange Filters, humidifies and warms air Respiratory zone Site of gas exchange Composed of Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveolar sacs Conducting zone labeled
Check What are the functions of the two zones? What comprise the two zones?
Objective: SWBAT trace the flow of air from the nose through the larynx SWBAT describe the anatomy of the nose and the larynx. I must apologize today is a note heavy day so focus on the function(s) and sturcture… but Monday we have our first lab of the semester!
Today, I will hold myself and my peers to high expectations. I will show grit and not give up so that I can become a critical thinker. I will advocate for my education, show integrity, and respect my peers, this space, and myself. Creed:
9 Nose: Functions Provides airway Moistens and warms air Filters air Resonating chamber for speech Olfactory (smell) receptors Conducting zone will be covered first
23-10 Nasal Cavities Nasal cavity From nares to choncae Vestibule: just inside nares Hard palate: floor of nasal cavity Nasal septum: partition dividing cavity. Anterior cartilage; posterior vomer and perpendicular plate of ethmoid Choncae: bony ridges on lateral walls with meatuses between. Most space in nasal cavity is occupied by the superior, middle, and inferior nasal
Check What are some main functions of the nose? What comprises the nasal cavity?
Nasal Conchae Function Narrowness of passages makes sure that air contacts the mucous membranes on the way through. Dust then sticks to the mucous and the air picks up moisture and heat from the mucosa. The conchae thus enable the nose to cleanse, warm, and humidify the air more effectively
Check What are the main functions of the nasal conchea?
23-14 Pharynx Common opening for digestive and respiratory systems Three regions Nasopharynx: pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Mucous and debris is swallowed. Openings of Eustachian (auditory) tubes. Floor is soft palate, uvula is posterior extension of the soft palate. –Oropharynx: shared with digestive system. Lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium. –Laryngopharynx: epiglottis to esophagus. Lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium
Check What are the three components of the larynx? What is the main function?
16 The Larynx (voicebox) Extends from the level of the 4 th to the 6 th cervical vertebrae Attaches to hyoid bone superiorly Inferiorly is continuous with trachea (windpipe) Three functions: 1.Produces vocalizations (speech) 2.Provides an open airway (breathing) 3.Switching mechanism to route air and food into proper channels Closed during swallowing Open during breathing
17 Framework of the larynx 9 cartilages connected by membranes and ligaments Thyroid cartilage with laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple) anteriorly Cricoid cartilage inferior to thyroid cartilage: the only complete ring of cartilage: signet shaped and wide posteriorly
Check What is the function of the larynx?
19 Epliglottis* (the 9 th cartilage) Elastic cartilage covered by mucosa On a stalk attached to thyroid cartilage Attaches to back of tongue During swallowing, larynx is pulled superiorly Epiglottis tips inferiorly to cover and seal laryngeal inlet Keeps food out of lower respiratory tract * * Posterior views
Check What is the function of the epiglottis?
23-21 Vocal Folds
22 Glottis is the space between the vocal cords Laryngeal muscles control length and size of opening by moving arytenoid cartilages Sound is produced by the vibration of vocal cords as air is exhaled
23 Cough reflex: keeps all but air out of airways Low position of larynx is required for speech (although makes choking easier) Paired vocal ligaments: elastic fibers, the core of the true vocal cords
23-24 Trachea (windpipe) Membranous tube of dense regular connective tissue and smooth muscle; supported by hyaline cartilage C-shaped rings open posteriorly. Posterior surface is elastic ligamentous membrane and bundles of smooth muscle called the trachealis. Contracts during coughing. Inner lining: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Mucus traps debris, cilia push it superiorly toward larynx and pharynx. Divides to form Left and right primary bronchi Carina: cartilage at bifurcation. Membrane of carina especially sensitive to irritation and inhaled objects initiate the cough reflex
25 Trachea (the windpipe) Descends: larynx through neck into mediastinum Divides in thorax into two main (primary) bronchi C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage joined by fibroelastic connective tissue Flexible for bending but stays open despite pressure changes during breathing
Check What is the main function of the trachea?
23-28 Tracheobronchial Tree Trachea to terminal bronchioles which is ciliated for removal of debris. Trachea divides into two primary bronchi. Primary bronchi divide into secondary bronchi (one/lobe) which then divide into tertiary bronchi. Bronchopulmonary segments: defined by tertiary bronchi.
23-29 Lungs Two lungs: Principal organs of respiration Base sits on diaphragm, apex at the top. Right lung: three lobes. Left lung: Two lobes, and an indentation called the cardiac notch
30 Main=primary bronchi divide into secondary=lobar bronchi, each supplies one lobe 3 on the right 2 on the left Smooth muscle important: sympathetic relaxation (“bronchodilation”), parasympathetic constriction (“bronchoconstriction”)
Check How does air get into the lungs (what is the pathway?) What is the main function of the lungs?
32 Respiratory Zone—Gas Exchange! End-point of respiratory tree Structures that contain air-exchange chambers are called alveoli Respiratory bronchioles lead into alveolar ducts: walls consist of alveoli Ducts lead into terminal clusters called alveolar sacs – are microscopic chambers There are 3 million alveoli!
33 This “air-blood barrier” (the respiratory membrane) is where gas exchange occurs Oxygen diffuses from air in alveolus (singular of alveoli) to blood in capillary Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood in the capillary into the air in the alveolus
Remember Scribe will turn in total points today Today’s Shout outs Binders will count starting next week
Exit Ticket Based upon the creed, use AT LEST two complete sentences to describe what went well and what didn’t go well. Own piece of paper Name on the top