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Respiratory System SYDNEE IS MY FAV. Consists of lungs and air passages Responsible for: -Taking in oxygen (gas needed by all body cells) – Removing carbon.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System SYDNEE IS MY FAV. Consists of lungs and air passages Responsible for: -Taking in oxygen (gas needed by all body cells) – Removing carbon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory System SYDNEE IS MY FAV

2 Consists of lungs and air passages Responsible for: -Taking in oxygen (gas needed by all body cells) – Removing carbon dioxide (a gas that is a metabolic waste product produced by cells when cells convert food into energy)

3 Parts of the Respiratory System Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Alveoli Lungs

4 Nose Location of olfactory receptors for sense of smell Has two openings called nostrils and/or nares which is where air enters Has a nasal septum, which is a wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two hollow spaces These hollow spaces are called the nasal cavities

5 Nasal Cavities Lined with mucous membranes--- helps to trap pathogens and germs Have a rich blood supply Air entering the nasal cavity is warmed, filtered, and moistened Has Cilia which are tiny hairlike structures that filter inhaled air to trap dust and pathogens

6 Pharynx (throat) Air leaves the nose and enters the pharynx Has three sections – Nasopharynx (upper portion) – Oropharynx (middle section) – Laryngopharynx (bottom section) This section is what branches into the trachea—which carries air to the lungs and esophagus which carries food to the stomach

7 Larynx (voice box) Lies between the pharynx and trachea Has nine layers of cartilage, largest is the thyroid cartilage called the “Adam’s apple” Has two folds called vocal cords Opening between the vocal cords is called the glottis As air leaves the lungs, vocal cords vibrate and produce sound Tongue and lips act on the sound to produce speech Epiglottis--- piece of cartilage that closes the opening into the larynx during swallowing and prevents food/liquids from entering the respiratory tract

8 Trachea (windpipe) Tube that extends from the larynx to the center of the chest Function is to carry air between pharynx and bronchi Has C shaped cartilage (which are opened on the dorsal (back) surface) that helps keep the trachea opened

9 Bronchi Trachea divides into two bronchi near the center of the chest--- a right bronchus and a left bronchus Each bronchus enters a lung and carries air from trachea to lungs In the lungs the bronchi continue to divide into smaller and smaller bronchi until they finally divide into smaller branches called bronchioles The smallest bronchioles (called terminal bronchioles) end in air sacs called alveoli

10 Alveoli (Air Sacs) Resembles a bunch of grapes Adult lungs contain approx. 500 million Contain a rich network of blood capillaries which allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to be exchanged between blood and lungs Inner surface of alveoli are covered with surfactant, which is a fatty substance that keeps the alveoli from collapsing

11 Lungs Organs that contain the divisions of the bronchi and aveoli Right lung has three sections or lobes– superior, middle, and inferior Left lung only has two sections or lobes-- superior and inferior So, why is the left lung smaller?????? Each lung is enclosed in a membrane (sac) called Pleura – Pleura has two layers Visceral pleura is attached to the surface of the lung Parietal pleura is attached to the chest wall SPACE BETWEEN THESE TWO LAYERS IS CALLED THE PLEURA SPACE AND IT IS FILLED WITH PLEURAL FLUID THAT LUBRICATES THE MEMBRANES AND PREVENTS FRICTION AS THE LUNGS EXPAND DURING BREATHING


13 Ventilation What is ventilation?? – Process of breathing – Has two phases– inspiration and expiration – INSPIRATION (inhalation) Process of breathing in air Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract and enlarge the thoracic cavity, which creates a vacuum Air rushes in through airways to alveoli, where gas exchange takes place

14 – Expiration (exhalation) Air leaves the lungs Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax Air is forced out of the lungs and air passages

15 Respiration What is respiration? What controls respiration?

16 Stages of Respiration 2 main stages – External respiration-- exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and bloodstream – Internal respiration– exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the tissue cells and bloodstream

17 Diseases of Respiratory System Asthma – Usually caused by sensitivity to an allergen such as dust, pollen, animals, medications, or foods – Stress, overexertion, and infections can also cause an asthma attack Symptoms – Occur when bronchospasms narrow openings of bronchioles, mucus production increases, and edema develops in mucosal lining – Dyspnea and wheezing – Coughing with expectoration of sputum – Tightness in chest

18 Treatment – Bronchodilators to enlarge the bronchioles – Epinephrine and anti-inflammatory medications – Oxygen therapy **** Identification and elimination of allergens is important to prevent asthma attacks ****

19 Bronchitis – Inflammation of the bronchi and bronchial tubes Acute bronchitis – Usually caused by and infection – Sx- productive cough, dyspnea, rales (bubbly/noisy breath sounds), chest pain, fever – Tx- antibiotics, expectorants to remove excess mucus, rest, increase fluids – Chronic bronchitis » Occurs after frequent attacks of acute bronchitis and long term exposure to pollutants or smoking » Signs- chronic inflammation, damaged cilia, enlarged mucous glands » Sx- Excessive mucus resulting in productive cough, wheezing, dyspnea, chest pain » Tx- (NO CURE) antibiotics, bronchodilators, respiratory therapy

20 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) – Any chronic lung disease that results in obstruction of the airways – Disorders such as chronic asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and tuberculosis lead to COPD – Smoking is the primary cause, but allergens and chronic respiratory infections are also factors – TX- bronchodilators, mucolytics, cough meds – Prognosis is poor because damage to the lungs causes a deterioration of pulmonary function leading to respiratory failure and death

21 Emphysema – Noninfectious chronic respiratory condition – Occurs when walls of the alveoli deteriorate and lose their elasticity (CO2 remains trapped in the alveoli/ poor exchange of gases) – Most common causes are heavy smoking and prolonged exposure to air pollutants – Sx: Dyspnea and a feeling of suffocation, pain and a barrel chest, chronic cough, cyanosis, rapid respirations with prolonged expiration, eventual respiratory failure and death – Tx (NO CURE) Avoid smoking, bronchodilators, breathing exercises prompt treatment of respiratory infections, O2 therapy and respiratory therapy

22 Epistaxis – Occurs when capillaries in nose become congested and bleed Causes: Injury, hypertension, chronic infections, blood diseases – Tx: Compress nostrils, elevate head and tilt it slightly forward, apply cold compresses, may have to do nasal pack

23 Influenza – Highly contagious viral infection of upper respiratory system with a sudden onset – Sx: chills, fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, muscle pain, fatigue – Tx: bed rest, fluids, analgesics for pain, antipyretics for fever – *** FLU VACCINE *** » Different viruses every year » Yearly vaccine

24 Laryngitis – Inflammation of the larynx and vocal cords, frequently occurs with other respiratory infections – Sx: hoarseness or loss of voice, sore throat, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) – Tx: rest, fluids, limit use of voice, meds if infection present

25 Lung Cancer – Leading cause of cancer death in men and women – A preventable disease because the main cause is exposure to carcinogens in tobacco through smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke – Sx: none in the early stages, chronic cough, coughing up blood tinged sputum, dyspnea, chest pain, fatigue, and weight loss – **Prognosis is poor since disease is usually advanced before it is diagnosed – Tx: surgical removal of the cancerous sections, radiation, and/or chemotherapy

26 Pleurisy – Inflammation of pleura – Usually occurs with pneumonia or other infections – Sx: sharp, stabbing pain while breathing, dyspnea, fever – Tx: rest, pain meds, if fluid collects in the pleural space- a thoracentesis (withrawal of fluid through a needle) is done to remove fluid

27 Pneumonia – Inflammation or infection of the lungs with a buildup of fluid in the alveoli – Usually caused by a bacteria, virus, chemicals – Sx: chills, fever, chest pain, productive cough, dyspnea, fatigue – Tx: bedrest, Ox therapy, fluids, antibiotics, respiratory therapy, pain meds

28 Rhinitis – Inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane – Sx: runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, soreness, congestion – Causes: infections and allergens – Tx: fluids, meds to relieve congestion

29 Sinusitis – Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the sinuses – Usually caused by a bacteria or virus – Sx: headache, pressure, dizziness, thick nasal discharge and congestion – Tx: antibiotics, pain meds, decongestants, surgery in chronic sinusitis to open the cavities and encourage drainage

30 Sleep Apnea – Condition in which an individual stops breathing while asleep, causing a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels – 2 main kinds: Obstructive sleep apnea: caused by blockage in air passage that occurs when muscles that keep airway open relax and allow the tongue and palate to block the airway Central sleep apnea: caused by a disorder in the brain’s respiratory control center (Tx: meds to stimulate breathing)

31 Sleep apnea (con’t) – More common in men – Risk factors include: obesity, hypertension, smoking, alcohol, use of sedatives – Diagnosed when more than five periods of apnea lasting at least ten seconds each occur during an hour of sleep Periods of apnea lower the blood oxygen level; causes the brain to awaken the individual, who then gasps for air and snores loudly; interruption of the sleep cycle leads to excessive tiredness/drowsiness during the day

32 Sleep apnea (con’t) Tx: lose weight, abstain from smoking, alcohol, sedatives; sleep on side or stomach In severe cases CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) is used to deliver pressure to the airway to keep it open while person sleeps – Mask fits securely against the face – Tubing connects the mask with a blower device that can be adjusted to deliver air at different levels of pressure

33 Tuberculosis (TB) Infectious disease of the lungs caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis Sx: fatigue, chest pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss, coughing up blood Tx: Admin. of drugs for one or more years to destroy the bacteria, good nutrition, rest

34 Upper Respiratory Infection – Common cold– inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the upper respiratory tract – Sx: fever, runny nose, watery eyes, congestion, sore throat, hacking cough – Tx: no cure, sx may last up to a week; take meds for fever, rest, increase fluids, take meds to relieve congestion

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