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Kingdom Animalia: Vertebrate Unit Biology 3. Phylum Chordata  52,600+ species  Fishes  Amphibians  Reptiles  Aves  Mammals.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Animalia: Vertebrate Unit Biology 3. Phylum Chordata  52,600+ species  Fishes  Amphibians  Reptiles  Aves  Mammals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Animalia: Vertebrate Unit Biology 3

2 Phylum Chordata  52,600+ species  Fishes  Amphibians  Reptiles  Aves  Mammals

3 Chordata Characteristics  At least at some stage of its life it possess a Notochord  Notochord: a firm flexible rod of specialized cells in the dorsal region of the body  For vertebrates, only appears during the embryonic stage  Notochord is replaced with a vertebral column (backbone)

4 Chordata Characteristics  Hollow nerve cord is called the spinal cord and brain

5 Chordata Characteristics  Eucoelomate  Deuterostome  Bilateral symmetry  Pharyngeal Pouches: in vertebrates this develops into the throat (pharynx) region

6 7 Classes of Living Vertebrates

7 Fish Characteristics and Classification

8 3 Classes of Fish: 1. Agnatha  Examples include hagfish (marine) or Lampryes (freshwater)  Jawless Fishes (no teeth or jaws)  Skeletons are made of fibers and cartilage  Lack vertebrae and keep their notochords  Possess skin not scales  Parasites or scavengers

9 2 Types of Agnatha A. Lampreys :  Filter feeders as larvae and parasites as adults  Scrap away at skin with tooth structures  Sucks up the tissues and body fluids of its host

10 2 Types of Agnatha B. Hagfish  No eyes, light detecting sensors Feed on dead and dying fish  Use a toothed tongue to scrape a hole into the fish’s slide

11 3 Classes of Fish 2. Chondrichthyes:  Sharks, Rays, Mantas and skates  Skeleton made entirely of cartilage  Most are carnivores

12 3 Classes of Fish 3. Osteichthyes (95% of all fish)  Examples include perch, bass catfish, bluegill  Bony fishes, they have jaws and live both in marine and freshwater

13 Structure and Functions of Fish  Operculum : Protects the gills  Caudal fin: functions to increase the swim speed  Anal Fin : near the anus, functions in keeping the fish upright

14 Structure and Functions of Fish  Pelvic Fin: (ventral and anterior) functions to steer, brake, swim backwards  Pectoral Fin: (ventral and anterior) near operculum, steer, brake and swim backward slowly

15 Structure and Functions of Fish  Swim/Air Bladder : pouch where gases from blood concentrate to give the fish buoyancy  Integument : (skin with scales) Protection

16 Structure and Functions of Fish  Chromatophores: Pigmented cells used for camouflage (blending in) and molting  Lateral Line : Cells that sense vibrations and chemicals


18 Class Amphibian Characteristics and Terms

19 What is an Amphibian  Lives in water as a larva and on land as an adult  Breaths with lungs as an adult  Has moist skin that contains mucous glands  Lacks scales and claws

20 Evolution of Amphibians  Vertebrates transition to land required them to:  Breathe air  Develop lungs  Protect themselves and their eggs from drying out  Produce watery mucous through the skin  Support against the pull of gravity  Evolved to have stronger bones for limbs and limb girdles

21 Pelvic Girdle Lungs Leg Bones: The legs of a land vertebrate must be strong enough to hold its weight. Skin: The skin and the lining of the mouth cavity of many adult amphibians are thin and richly supplied with blood vessels. Watery mucus is secreted by glands in the skin. Amphibian Adaptations

22 Amphibian Characteristics 1. Ectotherms (outside heat) or cold- blooded  Relies upon the environment to control body temp  Dormancy/tempor : reduces the state of metabolism (body functions slow down)  Why would they need this?

23 Amphibian Characteristics  2 Types of Dormancy: a) Hibernation: dormancy in winter b) Estivation: dormancy in summer 2. Amphibians can undergo metamorphosis  Aquatic larval stage matures into adult form

24 Amphibian Characteristics 3. Amphibians have a mucous secreting skin with no scales 4. Webbed feet without claws (if they have feet) 5. Gills, mouth, lungs and skin for respiration 6. Heart:  2 chambered heart: Larvae  3 chambered heart: Adult  Eggs lack a shell (laid in water)

25 Frog Anatomy and Adaptation  Possess 3 eyelids.  1 eyelid is transparent and keeps the eyeball moist and protected  Eyes and nostrils located at the top of the head  Allows for the frog to see and breath above and below the water

26 Frog Anatomy and Adaptation  Tympanic Membranes: eardrums are located behind the eyes (function both air and water)  Eustachian Tubes: located between mouth and ears.  Equalize air pressure  Aids in balance

27 Frog Anatomy and Adaptation  Mucous Membranes: keep the skin moist for respiration

28 Class Reptiles Characteristics and Terms

29 What is a Reptile?  A reptile is a vertebrate that has dry, scaly skin, lungs, and terrestrial eggs  Allow to live out of water

30 What is a Reptile?  Reproduction on land was now possible due to the development of the amniotic egg  egg with a protective membrane and porous shell enclosing the developing embryo

31 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall  The amnion is a fluid-filled sac that surrounds and cushions the developing embryo. Amnion

32 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall  The chorion regulates the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the surface of the egg and the embryo. Chorion

33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall  The yolk sac contains the yolk that serves as a nutrient-rich food supply for the embryo. Yolk sac

34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall  The allantois stores the waste produced by the embryo. Allantois

35 Reptile Adaptations to Terrestrial Life  Dry, waterproof skin  Prevents the loss of body water in dry environment  Internal Fertilization  Terrestrial Eggs  Respiration is performed by internal lungs  To stay moist and protected

36 Reptile Adaptations to Terrestrial Life  External structural adaptions:  Toes with claws (running, climbing, movement on land)  Circulation :  Reptilian circulation is more complex than that of amphibians  3 and 4 (crocs and alligators) chambered hearts are used

37 Characteristics of Reptiles  Body Temperature Control  Ectotherms: animals that rely on behavior control body temperature  Bask in the sun to warm up  Take shade to cool down

38 Groups of Reptiles  Groups of Reptiles  Lizards and snakes  Rely on speed, agility and camouflage to catch prey  Crocodilians  Snakes  Snakes have immovable eyelids and no external ear openings  Snakes kill their prey by either:  Constrictions  Swallowing their prey whole  Venom

39 Groups of Reptiles  Turtles and Tortoises  Turtles live in water  Tortoises live on land  Tuatara  Lack external ears

40 Class Aves

41 How Birds are Classified  Physical Characteristics:  Beak  Feet  Plumage (color variation of feathers)  Behavior and Song  DNA sequences

42 Characteristics of Birds  Possess feathers and thin, hollow bones for flight  Most species forelimbs function as wings used for flight instead of grasping  Two hind limbs with clawed toes are used to support the body

43 Characteristics of Birds  Birds are endotherms (warm-blooded)  4 chambered heart  Amniotic egg (incubated in a nest)

44 Feathers  Separate birds from all other living animals  Made of protein  Function for flight and insulation  Their structure combines maximum strength with minimum weight.

45 Feathers  Preening: process of a bird cleaning its feathers with an oil secreted by the preen gland found at the base of the oil.  Molt :  Feathers of flight are replaced in late summer between breeding and migration  Also before courtship

46 How are birds adapted for flight?

47 Flight  Adaptations for flight:  Highly efficient digestive, respiration and circulatory systems  Aerodynamic feathers and wings  Strong, lightweight bones  Strong chest muscles


49 Two Methods of Rearing/Raising Young Birds 1. Precocial : Bird lays many eggs and incubates for a long period of time.  Baby birds are active and fairly independent shortly after hatching  Ex. Chickens, ducks, and quail 2. Altricial: Birds lay only a few eggs that hatch quickly  Baby birds are hatched blind and helpless  Ex. Bluejays, Owls, Pigeons

50 Ecology of Birds  Birds interact with ecosystems and humans in many different ways:  Hummingbirds pollinate flowers  Fruit-eating disperse seeds in their droppings  Control insect populations  Migration patters  Use stars, sun and differences in air pressure

51 Class Mammals

52 Evolution of Mammals  Mammalian fossils are characterized by:  Lower jaw with large teeth  Limbs  Backbone  Mammals are descended from ancient reptiles  Dinosaur extinction opened new habitats and new food sources allowing mammals to thrive

53 Mammalian Characteristics  Mammals are endotherms (warm blooded)  High rate of metabolism generates body heat  Possess hair at some time of their lives  Subcutaneous Fat : layer of fat located beneath the skin to conserve body heat  Young feed on breast milk

54 Mammalian Characteristics  Four chambered heart (efficient distribution of oxygenated blood)  Diaphragm  Separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities for respiration  Sweat glands (to cool the body)  Keratinized body parts  (skin, horns, claws) for protection

55 Mammalian Characteristics  Lower jawbone with specialized teeth  Incisors, canines, premolars and molars

56 Mammal Classification 1. Monotremes: Oviparous animals  Lay eggs  Females lay soft-shelled eggs that incubate outside the body  Duckbill platypus, spiny anteaters

57 Mammal Characteristics 2. Marsupials : Give birth to tiny immature young  Young marsupials complete their development in an external pouch  Feed on their mothers nipples inside her pouch

58 Mammal Classification 3. Placental Mammals  Named for an internal structure of the placenta  Organ formed during pregnancy to supply oxygen and nutrients to the fetus  Also removes waste


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