Presentation on theme: "Human Body Science Life Science"— Presentation transcript:
1 Human Body Science Life Science TEAS V TESTHuman Body ScienceLife ScienceGeorgia Perimeter CollegeClarkston Campus
2 ..about the TEAS Science48 out of 54 scored items (32% of exam) minutes – 1.22s per questionScientific Reasoning – 11 Q (7.3%)Human Body Science – 15 Q (10.0%)Life Science – 14 Q (9.3%)Earth and Physical Science – 8 Q (5.3%)
3 ..about the TEAS Science Human Body Science – 8 Objectives Anatomy and PhysiologyCirculatory SystemRespiratory SystemNervous SystemDigestive SystemImmune SystemFactors that Influence Birth & Fertility RatesPopulation Growth and Decline
4 ..about the TEAS Science Life Science – 14 Objectives RNA & DNA Involvement in Cell ReplicationMitosis & MeiosisPhotosynthesis & RespirationStorage of Hereditary InformationChanges in DNA & Mutations in Germ CellsPhenotypes & GenotypesMendel’s Laws of Genetics and the Punnett SquareLife Science – 14 ObjectivesBiological Classification SystemNatural Selection and AdaptionNucleic AcidsParts of a CellCellular OrganellesChromosomes, Genes, Proteins, RNA, & DNACell Differentiation
5 Anatomy & PhysiologyAnatomy - study of the structure of organs and body systemsPhysiology - study of the function of the organs and body systemsOrganism: highest level of organism; result of all organ systems working together within the bodyOrgan Systems: organs work together to perform a task; 11 organ systemsOrgans: two or more tissue working together to perform extremely complex & specific functionsTissues: cells combine in terms of function and types to form tissuesCells: specific molecules combine to form cells, the basic unit of lifeMolecules: chemical bonding of atoms that possesses its own characteristics independent of the atomsAtoms: smallest parts of elements that still retain all the original properties of an element
7 4 Tissue Types Epithelial Tissue Nervous Tissue Provides covering (skin) or produces secretions (glandular)Sheets, can regenerateNo vascularization, nutrients and gas exchange via diffusion# of cells vs. cell shapesimple vs. stratifiedabsorption, secretion, and filtration vs. protectionSquamous, cuboidal, columnarNervous TissueProvides structure for brain, spinal cord, and nervesNeurons generate electrical impulsesSupport cells (myelin)
8 4 Tissue Types Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue Connects different structures of the bodyBone, cartilage, adipose, and blood vesselsVascularized, but some connective tissue are notMuscle TissueMovementSkeletal vs. smooth vs. cardiacVoluntary, consciously controlled; connected to bonesInvoluntary; intestines, blood vessels, bladder, uterusInvoluntary; heart
9 Just a few anatomical terms…. Anatomical position: both body and feet are facing anterior with the feet parallel to each other, and the arms at the sides with palms facing anteriorSuperior vs. InferiorAnterior vs. PosteriorMedial vs. Lateral vs. IntermediateProximal vs. DistalSuperficial vs. DeepSagittal, mid-sagittal, transverse, and frontal sectionsDorsal vs. Ventral Body Cavity
10 Functions of the Human Body Adaption: receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous systemCirculation: transport oxygen and other nutrients via the circulatory systemElimination: remove metabolic wastes via the renal systemLocomotion: voluntary and involuntary movements via the musculoskeletal and neurological systemNutrition: take in and breakdown nutrients to be used for metabolism via the digestion systemOxygenation: take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide via the respiratory systemRegulation: hormonal control of body functions via the endocrine systemSelf-duplication: production of offspring via the reproductive system
11 Interactions between Organ Systems Maintaining boundaries: eukaryotic cells have highly specific, semi- permeable membranes; integumentary system protects body from environmental stimuli and pathogens Response to environmental changes: ability to sense and response to environmental stimuli; voluntary and involuntary responses Movement: muscular system moves the bones in the skeletal system both voluntarily and involuntarily, and the digestive, urinary, respiratory, reproductive, and cardiovascular system involuntarily Ingestion and Digestion: breaks down and absorbs nutrients which are moved to tissues through the circulatory system
12 Interactions between Organ Systems Reproduction: hormones regulate reproduction Growth: digestive system removes nutrients from food, cardiovascular system transports nutrients, and endocrine system releases hormones that signal growth, musculoskeletal system changes shape Excretion: waste is eliminated by the body via the digestive and urinary systems Metabolism: digestive and respiratory system supplies the nutrients and oxygen required to facilitate metabolism; blood is distributed throughout the body by the circulatory system; endocrine system regulates the body’s metabolism.
13 Circulatory SystemSupports circulation and distribution of various substances ( O2, hormones, nutrients, etc…)HeartRight: atrium, ventricle, tricuspid (AV) and pulmonary valveLeft: atrium, ventricle, mitral (AV) and aortic valveBlood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) and bloodSVC & IVC right atrium tricuspid right ventricle pulmonary valve pulmonary artery lungs pulmonary vein left atrium mitral valve left ventricle aortic valve aorta
15 Respiratory SystemAir exchange; supplies tissues with oxygenated blood and removes carbon dioxideNasal cavity pharynx larynx trachea R. and L. bronchial tubes alveoli capillariesCilia (mucociliary escalator), diaphragmInspiration vs. expirationPulmonary function decreases with age, smoking, pollutants, and irritating chemicals. Exercising helps to maintain adequate lung function.
16 Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous SystemCranial and spinal nervesAutonomic nervous system (ANS)Involuntary; motor; works together to maintain balanced internal environmentSympathetic NS: Fight-or-FlightParasympathetic NS: Feed-and-BreedSomatic NSVoluntary; motor; 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of peripheral nerves and associated ganglia
17 Nervous SystemNeuronsDendrites: receives stimuli from internal and external environment and brings it to the bodyAxons: conducts electrical impulses away from the bodySynapse: structure that allows transmission of electrical or chemical signals to another cellProvides sensory, motor, and integrative functions in order to react to stimuli and maintain homeostasisSensory function: receives information about pain, temperature, heat, pressure, etc…Face, fingers, and toes are more sensitive b/c they have greater # of sensory neuronsReflex: signal is sent to the spinal cord , and back to the muscle before the signal is sent to brainMotor Function: carries information from CNS to effectors, glands and musclesIntegrative Function: uses sensory information and memories to make decisions, develops thoughts and feelings, association and executive functions
18 Digestion System Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption Mechanical (teeth) and chemical (enzymes) breakdownGastrointestinal tract and accessory structuresMouth (bolus) esophagus stomach (chyme) small intestines (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) large intestine anusTeeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gall bladderStomach and intestines are lined by smooth muscles, which produce peristalsis, or rhythmic contractions that propels food. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth by salivary amylase.Enzymes breakdown carbs, fats, and proteins for absorption in the intestinesStomach secretes mucus, proteases, HCl, and IF; mechanical digestion
19 Digestion SystemFat-lade chyme remains in the stomach longer than carbohydrate-laden chymePyloric sphincter releases crude chyme into the duodenum for further digestion and absorptionDuodenum secretes…Secretin: stimulates pancreas to release bicarbonate, neutralizing stomach acid, and other pancreatic digestive enzymes (chymotrypsin, trypsin, pancreatic amylase and lipase, etc…)Cholecystokinin (CCK): stimulates bile (liver) release from gall bladder, decreases motility, and acid production by the stomachAbsorption occurs in small intestines via finger-like projections called villi and microvilli; each villus contains BVs and lymphatics for absorptionRemaining products of digestion that are not absorbed are transported into the colon.Colon: water absorption, storage and formation of feces
20 Immune SystemCells, tissues, and organs that fight of illness and disease; protects body from pathogens and foreign invadersInnate vs. Adaptive ImmunityInnate Immunity1st line of defense; non-specific; physical and chemical barriers (skin, mucous membranes, and digestive enzymes)2nd line of defense: non-specific; fever, inflammation, phagocytosis, NK cells, interferons, chemotaxis, and cytokines.Fever helps to eliminate pathogens that grow better at lower body temperaturesInflammation: redness, heat, swelling, and pain are the 4 cardinal signsNK cells: produce perforins that target cancer and virus cells., causing lysisInterferons: response to viral infection and prevents replication; activate macrophages and NK cellsLeukocytes (WBCs): responds to cytokines released by other immune cells or damaged tissues via chemotaxis; leukocyte extravasation occurs via diapedesis in response to cytokines.
21 Immune System Adaptive Immunity 3rd line of defense; highly specific; lymphocytes (B-cells, T-cells, NK)Humoral vs. Cell-mediated ResponsesHumoral Response (Antibody-mediated)B-cells are activated by T-helper cells to produce antibodies that are highly specific for the antigenActive Immunity: a vaccine or antigen stimulates the production of antibodiesPassive Immunity: antibodies from another source (breast milk)Cell-mediated ResponseMacrophages phagocytose non-self cells and presents antigens to T-helper cells. T-helper cells release cytokines that stimulate cytotoxic T-cells to destroy specified non-self cellsOnce the immune system has recognized a specific antigen, it is able to eliminate the pathogen more effectively in the future.
23 Other important organ systems Endocrine SystemControls bodily functions; Glands secrete hormones that travel through the blood; pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, testis, ovariesIntegumentary SystemProtects internal tissue from injury, pathogens, waterproofs, and regulates body temperature; skin, mucous membranes, hair, nailsLymphatic SystemSupports the immune system by housing and transporting WBCs to and from lymph nodes; returns fluid from tissue back into the cardiovascular system; carries lymph (rich in antibodies); lymph nodes, lymph vessels, spleen, thymus, tonsilsMuscular SystemSkeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments; does NOT include smooth and cardiac muscle
24 Other important organ systems Reproductive SystemFacilitates the production of offspring, secondary sex characteristics; hormones suppress or encourage activities such as libido and aggression; testis, ovaries, penis, vagina, uterus, breastsSkeletal SystemProvides support and protection, and movement; bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints; storage site for minerals (Ca and P)Urinary SystemUrinary and excretory system helps regulate water and electrolytes balance, acid-base balance of the blood, removes nitrogenous wastes from body such as from the breakdown of proteins
25 Factors That Influence Birth and Fertility Rates Fertility Rate: average # of offspring a woman will have during her childbearing years (15-44 y.o.a.)Replacement Rate: # of births needed to maintain current populationDeveloped (2.1) vs. Less-developed countries (2.3)However, fertility rates for developed countries is 1, and 7 for less-developed countries. What does this imply?
26 Factors That Influence Birth and Fertility Rates Fertility Rate: average # of offspring a woman will have during her childbearing years (15-44 y.o.a.)Replacement Rate: # of births needed to maintain current populationDeveloped (2.1) vs. Less-developed countries (2.3)However, fertility rates for developed countries is 1, and 7 for less-developed countries. What does this imply?Population in less-developed countries will rise, straining resources, and vice- versa for developed countriesReligion, culture, economy, employment, government, education, literacy, infant mortality rates, abortions and accessibility to family planning all affect birth and fertility rates
27 Population Growth and Decline Dependent on the difference between birth and death rates as well as the # of people who immigrate to or emigrate from.Crude birth rate: # of births per 1,000 people/yearCrude death rate: # of deaths per 1,000 people/yearImmigration vs. EmigrationBirth Rate > Death Rate; population will grow unless emigration occursBirth Rate < Death Rate; population will decrease unless immigration occursEconomy, politics, medical care, natural resources, food, land, water, and climateall affect population size
28 ..about the TEAS Science Life Science – 14 Objectives RNA & DNA Involvement in Cell ReplicationMitosis & MeiosisPhotosynthesis & RespirationStorage of Hereditary InformationChanges in DNA & Mutations in Germ CellsPhenotypes & GenotypesMendel’s Laws of Genetics and the Punnett SquareLife Science – 14 ObjectivesBiological Classification SystemNatural Selection and AdaptionNucleic AcidsParts of a CellCellular OrganellesChromosomes, Genes, Proteins, RNA, & DNACell Differentiation
29 Biological Classification System Developed to name, organize, and categorize organismsEarlier classification systems were based on comparative anatomy; however, it is now based on descent rather than physical similarities via genomic analysis8 levels of taxonomy hierarchyDomain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species3 Domains: Archaea, Eubacteria, and Eukarya6 KingdomsDomain Eukarya: Animalia, Fungi, Plantae, and ProtistaDomain Eubacteria: EubacteriaDomain Archaea: ArchaebacteriaBinomial nomenclature: Homo sapiens or Drosophila melanogaster
30 Natural Selection and Adaptation Charles Darwin – On the Origin of Species (1859)Natural selection: occurs when some individual species are better to survive in their environment and reproduce than others - “survival of the fittest”Some of the characteristics are inheritable and can be passed onto future generations through genes. Genes have different forms called alleles. Alleles may have mutations. Through mutations and recombination of alleles, some offspring are better able to survive and adapt to their environment. This is called adaptation.!!!NOT ALL MUTATIONS ARE ADVANTAGEOUS!!!
31 Natural Selection and Adaptation Mutations are changes in DNA sequences aka species variations. Because organisms have environmental pressures such as food, water, space, predation, etc., if a mutation/variation causes a positive result that makes the organism easier to withstand environmental pressures, it is said to be an adaptation.As a result, more favorable genes are passed onto future generations, and as time passes, the species becomes better suited to its environment. As this process repeats itself in a species, that species evolves genetically over time.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
32 Nucleic Acids Transcription: DNA RNA Translation: RNA Protein Stores and transmits hereditary informationPolymers of nucleotides (monomer)Nucleotide = Pentose sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous basePurines (2 rings) vs. Pyrimidines (1 ring) - encodes genetic informationAdenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), uracil (U), thymine (T)Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) - genetic blueprint of the cellDouble-helix; deoxyribose-phosphate backbone; anti-parallel; with complementary base-pairing; strands held by hydrogen bondsA + T C + GRibonucleic acid (RNA) - messenger within the cellMostly single stranded strings of nucleotides; ribose-phosphate backboneA + U C + GTranscription: DNA RNA Translation: RNA Protein
34 Parts of a CellProkaryote: most basic type of cell that can exist independently of other cellsBacteria (Eubacteria and Archaebacteria)Cell wall: outside, rigid layer that separates the inside and outside of the cell w/ a semipermeable plasma membraneCytoplasm: gel-like, rich protein fluid that surrounds/houses organellesNucleoid: condensed DNA of the cellPlasmids: small, circular extra-chromosomal DNA; not associated w/ DNA in the nucleoid; smaller number of genes compared to DNA in the nucleoidRibosomes: manufacture proteins from RNA and amino acids; free-floating in cytoplasm; proteins do majority of the work in the cellsFlagella: long, whip-like structures for locomotionPili: facilitates communication and transfer of genetic information between two cells
35 Parts of a CellEukarya: have eukaryotic cells; more complex; larger; some are single cells, but most exist together as a multicellular organismEndoplasmic Reticulum (ER): tubular transport network made up of flattened membranous sacsRough ER: studded with ribosomes; protein transportation, modification and secretionSmooth ER: free of ribosomes; steroid and lipid modificationGolgi apparatus: sorts, packages, transports, and secretes proteins; works with ER in protein movement and processingVesicles: small, membrane-bounded sacs within cytoplasm; transports or stores proteinsVacuoles: basic storage unitLysosomes: contains enzymes for cellular digestionPeroxisomes: detoxification via hydrogen peroxide
36 Parts of a CellEukarya: have eukaryotic cells; more complex; larger; some are single cells, but most exist together as a multicellular organismMitochondria: kidney shaped, double membrane organelle; cristae, or inner folds, contain enzymes for ATP productionMicrotubules: cellular tracks for transporting cellular material; forms mitotic spindle during mitosis for proper organization and separation of chromosomes; Centrosome are microtubule-organizing centers that help to form and organize the mitotic spindles.Nucleus: very large, double membrane organelle with pores; contains genetic information; control centerNucleolus: small body w/n nucleus; rRNA productionFlagella: some eukaryotic cells have flagella; if more than one, its called cilia; locomotion and movement;
38 Parts of a CellEukarya: have eukaryotic cells; more complex; larger; some are single cells, but most exist together as a multicellular organismPlants are also eukaryotic, but have some few exceptionsChloroplast: contains chlorophyll, allowing cells to capture solar energy for production of glucose during photosynthesis; structurally similar to mitochondria; plants have both mitochondria and chloroplastsPlant cells have larger vacuoles (that contain water) than eukaryotic cells for proper cell pressure, and a solid cell wall that gives structure
39 Chromosomes, Genes, Proteins, RNA, and DNA Chromosomes: contains genes, which codes for information that specifies the production of proteinsChromosomes consist of subunits of genes, and genes consist of DNAInformation encoded in genes are made of nitrogenous bases in specific complementary base-pairing sequences!!!CENTRL DOGMA of BIOLOGY!!!DNA RNA Protein
40 Cellular Differentiation Differentiation produces more specialized cells from less specialized cells, and determines what cell types each cell will becomeAn embryo is formed when a fertilized egg divides and becomes a mass of cell called a zygote. The most critical stage is called gastrulation, where individual tissue layers begin to form.Genes of each cell regulate the process of differentiation during all stages of development.Differentiation can occur in adults. Cells can divide and remain undifferentiated.Stem cells remain undifferentiated.Totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent cells
41 RNA and DNA Involvement in Cell Replication Mitosis: cellular replication in which two daughter cells receive the same genetic material as the parent cell.!!!TWO IDENTICAL CELLS!!!2n 2nPRIOR to mitosis…INTERPHASEG1: Preparation for DNA synthesis; Transcription & TranslationS: DNA ReplicationG2: Protein synthesis and cell growth in preparation for cellular division
42 MitosisTwo IDENTICAL daughter cells 2n 2n Important Terms: chromatids, metaphase plate, cytokinesis Diploid (2n): 2 sets of chromosomes; homologous chromosomes; all cells but gametes
43 MeiosisProcess by which a cell ½ the genetic material 2n 1n Haploid (1n): 1 set of chromosomes; ONLY gametes What about a fertilized egg?
44 Photosynthesis & Respiration Both produces cellular energy for an organism Photosynthesis: carried out by organisms that possesses chloroplast (chlorophyll: trapping green pigment) 6CO2 + 6 H2O + energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Used to produce ATP, which provides the energy to produce glucose from CO2 and H2O Autotrophs are able to produce their own food such as plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria
45 Photosynthesis & Respiration Cellular Respiration: Glucose is broken down via glycolysis & Krebs Cycle in the mitochondria to produce EVEN MORE ATP !!!!REVERSE REACTION!!!! C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6 H2O + energy Heterotrophs are NOT able to produce their own food. Heterotrophs rely on cellular respiration for energy
46 Changes in DNA and Mutations in Germ Cells Mutations in the genome typically occur by two mechanisms:Errors during DNA replicationDuring replication, DNA polymerase produces a new complementary DNA strand through base-pairing.HOWEVER, IT DOES MAKE SPONTANEOUS ERRORSThus, DNA repair mechanisms exist to greatly reduce error rate!DNA polymerase has proofreading functionsMismatch repair: removes incorrect nucleotide and replace it with the correct one; after DNA replicationIf a mutation is OVERLOOKED, then the DNA sequence from then on is ALTERED.
47 Changes in DNA and Mutations in Germ Cells Mutations in the genome typically occur by two mechanisms:2. MutagensSubstances that causes DNA damage such as UV to chemicalsExcision repair: inspect DNA for these particular types of damage and repair it; typically it’s a section of DNA, not just a nucleotideMutations that occur in somatic cells are not inheritableONLY, ONLY, ONLY mutations in germ cells are inheritableGenetic disorders are mutations that are found in germ cells, which may be passed onto the next generation
48 Phenotypes and Genotypes Phenotype: physical expression of genetic traits such as color, height, shape, body characteristics, etc…Genotype: genetic make up; genes codes for particular proteins that determine the hereditary traitsDifferent coat colors between cat breeds are examples ofgenotype or phenotype?BOTH genotype and environmental factors affect the phenotype of an organism.Organisms can have different genotypes, but same phenotypes. How?
49 Mendel’s Laws of Genetics and the Punnett Square Gregor Mendel’s pea studys in the 1800sGene: piece of DNA that controls a particular traitAlleles: multiple forms of the same geneDominant (T) vs. Recessive (t) traitsHomozygous (TT or tt) vs. Heterozygous (Tt)The Punnett Square: graphical representation of all the possible combination of allelesIncomplete Dominance: dominant and recessive traits produce an intermediate phenotype
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