Presentation on theme: "Mr. Ramos. Objectives: ◦ Discuss the ways in which pathogens can be spread ◦ Describe the immune system and how it responds to pathogens ◦ List ways."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives: ◦ Discuss the ways in which pathogens can be spread ◦ Describe the immune system and how it responds to pathogens ◦ List ways to keep the immune system healthy, including getting adequate rest
A germ, or pathogen, is something that causes disease. Examples of pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi. Not all bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi are pathogens. A communicable disease is an illness caused by a pathogen that can be passed to a person from another person, animal, or object. ◦ Examples: Common cold and the Flu
Pathogens may be spread when an infected agent comes into direct contact with a noninfected agent. ◦ Touching, kissing, sharing eating utensils, or exchanging bodily fluids, as in sexual activity or needle sharing. Pathogens may also spread indirectly through contact with doorknobs, tabletops, faucet handles, and other surfaces.
Type of PathogenDescriptionDiseases BacteriaBacteria are single-celled microorganisms that live nearly everywhere. When disease-causing bacteria enter a person’s body, they rapidly reproduce. Strep throat, Lyme disease, and urinary tract infections VirusesViruses are the smallest and simplest pathogens. They are not living organisms. However, they can reproduce inside living cells Colds, chicken pox, small pox, measles, herpes
Type of PathogenDescriptionDiseases ProtozoaProtozoa are single- celled organisms that may capture other tiny life forms for food. Some protozoa can live within the human body as parasites. Malaria, dysentery FungiFungi are single-celled or muticelled organisms that feed on organic material. Yeasts and molds are two types of fungi that may cause illness. Athlete’s foot, ringworm, nail fungal infections
Type of PathogenDescriptionDiseases RickettsiaRickettsia are a special type of bacteria that multiply like viruses. Rickettsia species are carried by many ticks, fleas, and lice. Typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
The immune system is the body’s defense against pathogens. The immune system is made up of cells, tissues, and organs. The immune system has three lines of defense: ◦ First line of defense ◦ Second line of defense ◦ Third line of defense
The first line of defense: ◦ Skin – unbroken skin provides a barrier against pathogens ◦ Mucous membrane – tissue that lines the nose, mouth, and throat. Mucous is a sticky substance that contains a chemical to kill bacteria. ◦ Tears – contain chemicals that destroy pathogens ◦ Saliva - contain chemicals that destroy pathogens ◦ Sweat - contain chemicals that destroy pathogens ◦ Stomach acid – destroys pathogens that survive in the mouth & throat
The second line of defense: ◦ If pathogens pass the first line of defense, the body launches the second line of defense. ◦ This is a nonspecific immune response. ◦ Phagocytes are white blood cells that find, engulf, and digest pathogens. ◦ Phagocytes release chemicals that cause inflammation: redness, swelling, warmth, and pain. ◦ Phagocytes can raise the body temperature (fever) to destroy pathogens.
The third line of defense: ◦ This is a specific immune response that targets particular invading pathogens. ◦ The body contains a clear liquid called lymph that helps eliminate foreign substances. ◦ A lymphocyte is a white blood cell that serves as a building block of the body’s immune system. ◦ B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells are examples of lymphocytes.
The third line of defense: ◦ B cells and T cells can recognize antigens. ◦ Antigens are substances that cause an immune reaction to the body. ◦ When a B-cells detects an antigen, it makes antibodies. ◦ An antibody is a protein in the blood that destroys or disables a specific antigen. ◦ Memory cells help speed the production of antibodies by recognizing antigens there were once present in the body.
Immunity is the body’s ability to resist disease. There are 4 types of immunity: ◦ Naturally acquired active immunity ◦ Artificially acquired active immunity ◦ Naturally acquired passive immunity ◦ Artificially acquired passive immunity
Get regular physical examinations and vaccinations. Visit a physician when you feel ill. Follow directions when taking Rx and over-the-counter drugs. Reduce stress. Exercise regularly.
Get 8 hours of sleep each night Plan your meals according to the Food Guide Pyramid. Avoid the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs.
Objectives: ◦ Discuss facts about communicable diseases and society. ◦ Identify common communicable diseases and describe their characteristics. ◦ Identify ways to prevent the spread of disease. ◦ Explain why you need to keep a personal health record.
Communicable disease are all contagious, spread by direct or indirect contact. Lyme disease, for example, is a bacterial disease transmitted through a tick. ◦ It can spread from tick to person, but not from person to person. In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia are some of the most common communicable diseases.
Communicable diseases vary in their causes, symptoms, duration, and diagnosis. Treatment depends on the type of pathogen that causes the disease. An antibiotic is a substance that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ◦ Antibiotics do NOT work on viral infections.
DiseaseCauseSymptomsDurationDiagnosisTreatment ColdA cold is a viral infection that affects the lining of the upper respiratory tract Scratchy or sore throat, stuffy or runny nose, sneezing, cough, headache, mild fever, muscle aches, loss of appetite 7 to 14 daysIn most cases, people diagnose themselves with a cold because they are familiar with the symptoms Because colds are caused by viruses, physicians cannot prescribe antibiotics for them. Over- the-counter drugs can treat some of the symptoms, such as headache and runny nose. A person who has a cold should rest and drink fluids.
DiseaseCauseSymptomsDurationDiagnosisTreatment InfluenzaInfluenza, also known as “Flu,” is a viral infection of the respiratory tract. High fever, chills, headache, severe muscle aches, dizziness, loss of appetite, tiredness, cough, nausea, weakness, depression. 5 days for major symptoms to subside; 7 to 14 days for health to return. Some people diagnose themselves with the flu according to symptoms. Others go to a physician for a laboratory test. A person who has the flu should rest and drink fluids. A nonaspirin medicine will help relieve symptoms. A flu shot can reduce a person’s chances of getting the disease.
DiseaseCauseSymptomsDurationDiagnosisTreatment West Nile virusWest Nile virus is an infection that is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. Most cases have no symptoms. However, mild symptoms include fever, body aches, and nausea. Severe symptoms, which are rare, include high fever, tremors, and vision loss. A few days for mild symptoms and several weeks for severe symptoms. Physicians diagnose West Nile virus based on symptoms and tests. Mild cases pass without treatment. Severe cases require hospital care.
DiseaseCauseSymptomsDurationDiagnosisTreatment MononucleosisEpstein Barr Virus (a type of Herpes Virus) Tiredness, fever, sore throat, sore muscles, enlarged spleen, loss of appetite, generalized weakness, nausea, severe headache, stiffness, chest pain. 2 to 4 weeksPhysicians diagnose mononucleosis based on symptoms and blood tests. (The blood test is called a mono-spot test) A person who has mono should rest, take acetaminophen or ibuprofen, and avoid rigorous physical activities for a month or so after recovery.
DiseaseCauseSymptomsDurationDiagnosisTreatment Hepatitis (A, B, C, etc) Type A: contact with the feces of infected people, & contaminated water, milk, & food. Types B & C: Direct contact with an infected person’s blood or other body fluids through blood transfusions, sexual activity, injecting drugs, tattoos, piercings, & mother to child transmission. Hepatitis is a viral disease that causes serious damage to the liver. The 3 most common forms of hepatitis are hepatitis A, B, and C. Fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, & jaundice, or yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. Type A: fever and diarrhea Type B: joint pain Type C: dark urine Some people who have hepatitis experience no symptoms. People with hepatitis A recover in a few weeks or months. About 90 to 95% of those with hepatitis B recover within 6 months. About 75 to 85% of those infected with hepatitis C have the disease for the rest of their lives. Physicians diagnose hepatitis based on symptoms and laboratory tests. Type A: rest, a healthful diet, and plenty of fluid. Type B: Medications can treat long- lasting infection. Type C: Physicians may prescribe medicines and advise against drinking alcohol. Vaccines can prevent hepatitis A and B.
DiseaseCauseSymptomsDurationDiagnosisTreatment Strep ThroatStrep Throat is a bacterial infection of the throat caused by streptococcal bacteria. Painful throat inflammation, fever, chills, body aches, loss of appetite, red and swollen tonsils, and swollen glands. 3 to 5 days with treatment A rapid strep test or a throat culture People with strep throat typically take antibiotics, such as penicillin for a course of 7 days.
DiseaseCauseSymptomsDurationDiagnosisTreatment TuberculosisTuberculosis is a bacterial infection of the lungs. People with tuberculosis experience few symptoms at first. Later symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, and the coughing up of blood. A few months with treatment Skin tests and chest X rays are used to diagnose tuberculosis. Three or four oral medications are taken in combination. Severe cases may require hospitalization.
Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water before & after preparing food, before eating, & after using the bathroom. Use a nail brush daily to remove dirt from under nails. Keep your fingers away from your eyes, nose, & mouth.
Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. If you don’t have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your elbow – not into your hand. Do not share personal items, such as toothbrushes or drinking glasses or bottles.
Cover all sores or cuts with a bandage. Wash your hands with soap and water if you touch your sore or cut. Do not touch sores or cuts on another person’s body. Wear disposable gloves if you are bandaging someone else’s wound.
Do not use illegal drugs. Injecting oneself with needles, inhaling from shared pipes or cigarettes, and snorting drugs lead to infections. Practice abstinence from sex to prevent the spread of certain diseases.
Do not share needles to make tattoos or pierce ears or other body parts. Follow the tips to prevent foodborne illnesses. Keep your food away from animals, such as pets or insects. They might spread pathogens to the food.
Keeps pets well groomed, free of ticks or fleas, and vaccinated. Use insect repellants when you are outside in the spring, summer, and fall. Check with a physician if you are bitten by an animal.
Objectives: ◦ Identify common sexually transmitted diseases and their effects on the body. ◦ Explain how HIV is transmitted and develops into AIDS. ◦ List ways to prevent and treat sexually transmitted diseases.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are also known as Sexually transmitted infections (STIs). One in two sexually active young people will get an STD by the age of 25. Most young people with STDs don’t even know they have them. Getting tested is the only way to know for sure. STDs are really common -- every year there are more than 19 million new cases in the U.S. Left untreated, some STDs can cause infertility or increase your risk of getting cancer
Chlamydia – bacterial infection ◦ Inflammation of the reproductive organs ◦ Some people have no symptoms ◦ Females may have painful urination, lower abdominal pain, unusual vaginal discharge, or bleeding between menstrual periods. ◦ Males may experience a slight discharge from the tip of the penis or itching or burning around the penis. ◦ Chlamydia may lead to infertility if left untreated. ◦ Chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics.
Genital Herpes – viral infection ◦ Produces cold sores or blisters on the sex organs or in the mouth. ◦ May experience a fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and appetite loss. ◦ May cause cervical cancer ◦ There is no cure for genital herpes.
Genital HPV infection – viral infection ◦ Human Papillomavirus is one of the most common STDs in the United States ◦ Often has no symptoms ◦ HPV may disappear on its own without treatment ◦ May cause genital warts – these are growths on or inside the sex organs ◦ The warts may disappear without treatment
Gonorrhea – bacterial infection ◦ Bacterial infection infects the linings of the genital & urinary tract ◦ Both males and females may have no symptoms ◦ Males and females may experience yellowish-green discharge from the sex organs or burning during urination. ◦ May result in infertility in both males and females. ◦ Can be treated and cured with antibiotics
Syphilis – bacterial infection ◦ Produces sores and rashes in the genital area. ◦ If left untreated, syphilis can damage the heart, brain, and liver and lead to mental illness, paralysis, and sometimes death. ◦ Can be treated and cured with antibiotics
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) destroys the body’s third line of defense. HIV destroys the body’s helper T-cells. When HIV has fully destroyed or broken down the body, a condition known as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome results.
Having sexual contact with a person infected with HIV Contact with blood, semen, vaginal secretions, or breast milk, of a person infected with HIV Sharing needles with infected person Being born to a mother infected with HIV
Closed-mouth kissing Hugging Being sneezed or coughed on Being bitten by insects Donating blood Using a telephone or computer used by an infected person Touching, holding hands, or shaking hands Sitting on a toilet seat
HIV kills helper T-cells, which are supposed to signal B-cells to produce antibodies against HIV. The HIV test does not look for HIV. The test looks for the antibodies produced against HIV. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used to detect HIV antibodies. If the ELISA test comes back positive, another test is run. If the second test is positive, a Western blot test is run.
A person infected with HIV may have flu-like symptoms. After these symptoms go away, the person may be symptom free for months or years. After the immune system has been weakened, the person may experience swollen lymph nodes, lack of energy, weight loss, skin rashes or flaky skin, frequent fevers, and sweats.
A person is said to have AIDS when Helper T-cell count falls below a certain number and opportunistic infections result. An opportunistic infection is an infection that develops when a person has a weak immune system: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), Kaposi’s sarcoma, AIDS dementia, candida infections, etc…
Objectives: ◦ Discuss the causes of noncommunicable diseases and how to prevent or manage these diseases. ◦ Identify the factors that may lead to cancer. ◦ Identify the factors that may lead to cardiovascular disease. ◦ Discuss ways to identify other noncommunicable diseases and conditions.
A noncommunicable disease is a disease that cannot be spread from one person to another (e.g. cancer and heart disease) ◦ Heredity: certain diseases can pass from parent to offspring by means of genes. These diseases include heart disease, cancer, diabetes, & Down syndrome. ◦ Behavior: behaviors that lead to these diseases include drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco. ◦ Environment: environmental factors, such as exposure to sunlight may cause skin cancer. Second hand smoke may cause lung cancer.
Cancer refers to a group of diseases in which abnormal cells grow uncontrollably in the tissues & organs of the body. A tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue. Tumors may be benign or malignant. ◦ A benign tumor is not cancerous. This is a tumor that does not spread to other body parts. ◦ A malignant tumor is cancerous because it spreads, or metastasizes, to other parts of the body.
Follow a well-balanced diet high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and low in fat. Protect yourself against UV radiation by putting on sunscreen, wearing a hat, and protective clothing.
Radiation therapy is medical treatment that uses radiation to destroy cancer cells within the body. ◦ This therapy may be used to shrink the tumor and make it easier to remove. Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals to treat cancer. ◦ Most chemotherapy treatments are given intravenously, or through a vein.
Use the acronym CAUTION to remember the warning signs for cancer. Changes in bowel or bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding from vagina, bladder, or rectum Thickening or lump in breast or testes Indigestion or difficulty swallowing Obvious changes in warts or moles Nagging cough or hoarseness that lingers
Cardiovascular disease refers to a group of diseases of the heart and blood vessels. ◦ Common cardiovascular diseases include hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Hypertension is high blood pressure. Arteriosclerosis is the general term used to describe the hardening & thickening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a disease in which fatty deposits build up on artery walls. A stroke is a condition caused by a blocked or broken blood vessel in the brain.
Some of the risks that cause cardiovascular disease can be controlled. Controllable risk factors include use of tobacco products, lack of regular exercise, consumption of high amounts of fat, salt, and cholesterol, and being overweight or obese.
Angioplasty is a type of surgery in which a physician reopens a blocked blood vessel by inflating a small balloon in the vessel. Coronary artery surgery is a procedure called a bypass, during which a physician connects healthy blood vessels to each other to reroute blood around a blocked vessel. Defibrillator implantation involves the placement of a device inside the body to regulate the heart’s rhythm.
A pacemaker is an internal device that electronically stimulates the heartbeat. A heart transplant is a surgical procedure that replaces a diseased heart with the healthy heart of a person who has recently died.
Diabetes is a disease in which the body produces little or no insulin. There are two types of diabetes. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that moves sugar from the blood into cells. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood. The body makes little or no insulin. Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in adulthood. In this type of diabetes, the body does not respond well to insulin, so the body does not make enough to keep glucose levels normal. Symptoms of diabetes 1 & 2 include increased thirst & urination, and fatigue.
DiseaseDescriptionSymptomsTreatment Alzheimer’s disease Progressive deterioration of a person’s brain functions and memory Repeating statements, misplacing items, getting lost on familiar routes, and losing sense of identity medications ArthritisA painful inflammation of the joints Joint pain, joint swelling, redness of the skin around a joint, and reduced ability to move the joint Exercises, heat or cold treatments, medications, and sometimes surgery
DiseaseDescriptionSymptomsTreatment Cerebral palsyA group of disorders characterized by loss of movement or loss of other nerve functions as a result of brain injuries at or near time of birth Seizures, muscle contractions, possible mental retardation, and limited range of motion Physical therapy, braces, glasses, hearing aids, medications, surgery EpilepsyA brain disorder involving seizures Range from staring spells to loss of consciousness & violent convulsions May include brain surgery or medications
DiseaseDescriptionSymptomsTreatment Multiple sclerosisA disorder of the brain and spinal cord as a result of progressive damage to the covering of nerve cells Weakness, paralysis, tremors, numbness, tingling, dizziness, loss of some mental abilities Medication, physical or speech therapies Muscular dystrophy A group of disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness & loss of muscle tissue Muscle weakness, low muscle tone, curved spine, possible mental retardation Physical therapy, braces, and sometimes surgery
DiseaseDescriptionSymptomsTreatment Reye’s syndromeA potentially fatal disease involving harm to the liver and brain; it mainly affects children and teens and may be caused by taking aspirin or medications containing salicylates for viral infections, such as chicken pox or cold Excessive vomiting following a viral illness; signs of brain impairment, such as disorientation, spasms, and stupor Immediate hospitalization, during which physicians attempt to stop brain swelling. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential.