Presentation on theme: "Scientific Support for the Use of Herbs in Medicine"— Presentation transcript:
1 Scientific Support for the Use of Herbs in Medicine Given at BioResource Conference, June 2014Presented bySusan McCamish, CTN, CNC, Board Certified NaturopathThese statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.Copyright 2014, Susan McCamish
2 My son Connor diagnosed in 2010 with Lyme, Babesia, later Bartonella….
3 Principles for Holistic Healing “Energy is the currency of all interactions. We just need a way to turn on the right switches and harness the body’s ability to heal spontaneously. Energetic approaches work quickly. This is the medicine of the future.”- James Oschman, Ph. D. BiophysicistThe body already has the blueprint for powerful healing.Our body has such powerful healing potential that the only way you can even stop the healing is to interfere with it.
4 Challenges in Chronic Illness Compromised Immune FunctionInability to DetoxInflammation (particularly mucosal lining)Lack of Enzymatic Activity in the GutProtein DeprivationMultiple Nutritional DeficienciesMulti-layered Illness Including Microbial InfectionsVirusesBiofilmsMycoplasmasChlamydia pneumoniaeProtozoaH. PyloriAuto-immune diseasesRickettsiaParasitesand the list goes on…
5 Herbs as Food Aids in detox High in balanced vitamin, mineral, amino acidsAntioxidant content / nutritional contentAntimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, vermifuge, purgative – All corrective propertiesA singular herb has multi-faceted applicationsSupports organ functionSynergistic ability when used in a combination/formulaAccepted by cells as fuel because herbs are food
6 Objectives of Herbal Extracts Target MicrobesSupport Immune FunctionDetox SupportSupport Organ Function
7 Detoxification a Must!“Detoxification is a full-time job for your body; a natural, ongoing process that happens 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.” – Leo Galland, M.D.“The toxins produce inflammation, and it is the inflammation imbalance from excess inflammatory cytokines that produces the disease.” – Marty Ross, M.D. & Tara Brooke, N.D.“The treatment of Lyme disease requires 4 distinctive steps:Decreasing toxic body burden/unloading the systemImproving disturbed physiologyDecreasing microbial countImmune modulation” – Part of: Klinghardt Lyme Disease Protocol
8 TOXINS Metabolic end products Microorganisms (exotoxins and endotoxins)Contaminants/pollutants in air and waterInsecticidesPesticidesFood additivesHeavy metalsPlasticsChemicalsNeurotoxinsDrugsAlcoholRadiationEMF Exposure
9 Detoxification Herbs in a Protocol? Why is it Vital to UseDetoxification Herbs in a Protocol?Support detoxification as you address infectionsReduce toxin loadSupport detox pathwaysSupport organs responsible for detoxImprove nutritional absorption and assimilation by removing unwanted toxins or poisons in the systemHelps to lessen Herxheimer reactions
10 6 Main Detox PathwaysLiver: Detoxifies and filters chemicals in the blood. Detox is the most important function of the liver. The liver has to constantly monitor everything in the bloodstream.Colon: The intestines control about 25% of the body’s detox functions and their primary function is to absorb nutrients. When the intestines are toxic and people are chronically constipated, the body slowly reabsorbs these toxins into the bloodstream.Kidneys: Together with the liver, they help to filter impurities from the blood. The kidneys play a role in preventing poisons, acids, and toxins from accumulating in the body. Many toxins in our environment can be stored in the kidneys and gradually have a negative influence on their function over time.
11 6 Main Detox PathwaysSkin: The skin is a major organ of detox. The body uses the skin to push out toxins from deep in the tissues and the lymphatic system. Many fat soluble toxins, such as some pesticides and heavy metals are excreted through sweat.Lungs: The lungs are the first line of defense. They have three defense systems: Epithelial Barriers – The cellular tissue that lines the insides of the lungs. Assisting in removing dust particles and potential toxins that have entered the air passages. Enzyme systems – that respond to inhaled particles creating substances to protect the air sacs of the lungs. Immune responses – Immunoglobulin, essential to defend the respiratory tract from microbes and tumor cells.Lymph: The lymphatic system is also a major source of detoxification in the body because it moves fluids into and out of deeper tissues of the body. The lymph vessels also transport many fats, oils, and some toxins. There are approximately 600 nodes throughout the body. They collect and remove waste products from body cells. Many natural health experts feel lymphatic system health is one of the most important factors in preventing tumors.References: “The Complete Guide to Cleansing and Detox” by Nicholas Schnell, RH, RD, LMNT, “The Complete Master Cleanse: A Step- by-Step Guide to Maximizing the Benefits of the Lemonade Diet” by Tom Wolo ShynSusan McCamish
12 Herbs Useful in Detoxification Mullein LeavesProvides emollient(softens) and demulcent(soothes) effects to intestinal wallsRhubarb RootProtective mechanism, strengthens the intestinal barrierMilk ThistleProtects against liver damaging toxins due to the active flavonoid silymarin (Flavonoid has been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties as well)Protects the liver from toxins and pollutants by preventing free radical damage and stimulates the production of new liver cells .Slippery Elm (bark)Soothes inflamed mucous membranes of the bowels, stomach, and urinary tract.Rose Hips (Fruit)Eat more foods that decrease inflammation, including garlic, onions, watercress, horseradish, mustard, parsley, celery, rose hips tea Good for bladder problems and all infections. Source of Vitamin C.BromelainBromelain is a mixture of enzymes that digest protein (proteolytic) that are found in pineapples (Ananas comosus). Pineapple has been used for centuries in Central and South America to treat indigestion and reduce inflammation. Enzyme that helps to stimulate production of prostaglandins. Reduces inflammation. Helps digestion of protein.
13 Herbs Useful in Detoxification Licorice (root)Licorice root acts as a demulcent, and as an expectorant, meaning it helps get rid of phlegm. Fights inflammation and viral, bacterial, and parasitic infection.Enhances microcirculation in the gastrointestinal lining.Apple Pectin (Pyrus Malus)Aids in removing toxic metals.Turkey Rhubarb (root) (Rheum Officinale)Turkey rhubarb is a purgative and is most often used in herbal formulas for it's strong laxative effects in constipation and colon cleansing formulas.Turkey rhubarb works on the smooth muscles of the intestine. Skullcap (Herb) (Scutellaria Lateriflora)Relieves muscle cramps, pain, spasms, and stress. It has been used for more than 200 years as a mild relaxant and as a therapy for anxiety, nervous tension, and convulsions.Red Clover (Flower) (Trifolium Pratense)Fights infection, suppresses appetite, and purifies the blood.Has expectorant, antispasmodic, and relaxing effects.
14 Herbs Useful in Detoxification Blueberry (Fruit) (Vaccinium Myrtillus)Medicinal for the blood and the liver, bittersweet blueberries are a cooling food, support eye function, and have bacteria fighting capabilities.Cayenne (Pepper) (Capsicum annuum)The hot and spicy taste of cayenne pepper is mostly due to a substance known as capsaicin, which helps reduce pain. Cayenne pepper extracts are part of herbal treatment for muscle pain, fibromyalgia, arthritis, and the nerve pain caused by shingles and sciatica.The capsaicin in the peppers causes dilation of blood vessels.Scientist in Mexico City have found that capsaicin reduces the carcinogenic effect of air pollution.Grape (seed) Extract 95% (Vitis Vinifera)A powerful antioxidant to prevent free radical damage.Can cross the blood brain barrier to protect brain cells .Elderberry Extract 10:1 (Sambucus nigra)Elder may have anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties.Elderberry also contains flavonoids, which have antioxidant properties and may help prevent damage to the body’s cellsLemongrass (Herb) (Cymbopogon citratus)Acts as an astringent, tonic, and digestive aid. Good for the skin and nails.References: Balch, Phyllis A. Prescription for Nutritional Healing 4th Edition. New York: Penguin Group, Print; University of Maryland Medical Center alternative-medicine-guide/herb/licorice Wood, Rebecca. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York: Penguin Group, Print;
15 Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Actions: Expectorant, demulcent, emollient, diuretic, antibacterial, antitumor, antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, nervine, antispasmodic, vulnerary, alterative, astringent, pectoral, nutritive, antiseptic, hemostatic, anodyne, narcotic, antiasthmatic, germicide, vermicide.Uses: Promotes the discharge of mucus, soothes and protects mucous membranes. Useful for asthma, bronchitis, and difficulty breathing. Used in kidney formulas to soothe inflammation. Has been shown in laboratory studies to possess antitumor, antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Turker and Camper showed aqueous Mullein leaf extracts to be effective against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms, with the activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae rivaling that of the Erythromycin control. Mullein has been used to treat tuberculosis for centuries. In laboratory tests it significantly inhibited mycobacterium tuberculosis.References: McCarthy, E., O’Mahoney, J.M. “What’s in a name? Can Mullein Weed Beat TB Where Modern Drugs Are Failing?” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Vol. 2011, Article ID , 7 pages.Tadeg, H, Mohammed, E, et al. “Antimicrobial activities of some selected traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants used in the treatment of skin disorders.” J Ethnopharmacol ;100(1-2):Aligiannis, N, et al. “Methanolic extract of Verbascum macrurum as a source of natural preservatives against oxidative rancidity.” J Agric Food Chem Dec 3; 51(25):Alan R. Gaby, M.D., Jonathan V. Wright, M.D., et al. The Natural Pharmacy: Complete A-Z Reference to natural Treatments for Common Health Conditions. Crown Publishing Group, Mar 21, 2006 p. 713 and p.139.Susan McCamish
16 Milk Thistle (Silybum Marianum) Actions: Hepatic, glactagogue, demulcent, cholagogue, antihepatotoxicUses: Milk Thistle was formerly used in the UK for nursing mothers, as a bitter tonic, demulcent, as an antidepressant, and for liver complaints. In Germany and other parts of Europe it was used extensively for liver diseases and jaundice and this is the most important use today. Silymarin has been used successfully to treat patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis; it is active against hepatitis B virus, is hypolipidaemic and lowers fat deposits in the liver in animals. It also has anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of lipoxygenase. Antioxidant effects have been described and these are thought to contribute to a beneficial effect in experimental cholestasis and doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.References: Medical Herbalism The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine by David Hoffman, FNIMH, AHG;Potter’s Cyclopaedia by Elizabeth M. Williamson, BSc, PhD, MRPharmS, FLS;Wellington K et al (2001) BioDrugs 15(7):466.Morazzoni P et al (1995) Fitoterapia 66(1):3.Ahmed A et al (1989) Phytochem. 28:1751.Saller R et al (2001) Drugs 61(14):2035.Kosina P et al (2002) Phytother. Res. 16:S33.Psotova J et al (2002) Thytother. Res. 16:S63.Hagymasi K et al (2002) Phytother. Res. 16: S78.Boerth J et al (2002) J. Herbal Pharmacother. 2(2):11
17 Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra) Actions: Demulcent, diuretic, emollient, nutrient, astringent, anti- inflammatory.Uses: Perfectly suited to treat sensitive or inflamed mucous membrane linings in the digestive system. Soothes inflammation and stops irritation of the mucous membranes lining the stomach, intestines, and urinary tract. Simultaneously soothes and astringes the tissues of the intestinal lining. May have some immunomodulatory benefits. Very high in nutritional content for greater absorption and assimilation.References: Hawrelak, JA, et al. “Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study.J Altern Complement Med Oct;16(10):Langmead L, et al. “Antioxidant effects of herbal therapies used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an in vitro study.”Aliment Pharmacol Ther Feb;16(2):197, “Prescription for Nutritional Healing” Phyllis Balch, CNC
18 Inflammation – A Challenge in Chronic Illness Inflammation must be addressed before nutrients are effectiveInflammation must be reduced before significant assimilation and absorption are possible
19 Cytokines“Cytokines are small secreted proteins released by cells have a specific effect on the interactions and communications between cells. Cytokines are redundant in their activity, meaning similar functions can be stimulated by different cytokines. They are often produced in a cascade, as one cytokine stimulates its target cells to make additional cytokines. Cytokines can also act synergistically or antagonistically. Cytokines are made by many cell populations, but the predominant producers are helper T cells (Th) and macrophages. Cytokines may be produced in and by peripheral nerve tissue during physiological and pathological processes by resident and recruited macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells. Localized inflammatory irritation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) not only increases pro-inflammatory cytokines but also decreases anti-inflammatory cytokines.Pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced predominantly by activated macrophages and are involved in the up-regulation of inflammatory reactions. There is abundant evidence that certain pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α are involved in the process of pathological pain.”Reference: J Zang, et al. “Cytokines, Inflammation and Pain” Int Anesthesiol Clin Spring;45(2):27-37
20 by Marty Ross, M.D. & Tara Brooke, N.D. Pro-Inflammatory CytokinesToo many cytokines:Suppress the immune systemCause painDecrease hormone production from organs like the thyroid and the adrenal glandsDisturb sleepDecrease brain functionIncrease fatigue and tirednessWaste musclesCause depressionDecrease the function of various organs throughout the body resulting in many other symptoms and medical problemsReference: “Supplements and Advanced Treatments for Lyme and Associated Diseases”by Marty Ross, M.D. & Tara Brooke, N.D.
22 HERBS USEFUL FOR REDUCING INFLAMMATION Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Actions: Stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic, rebefacient, diaphoretic, emmenagogue.Uses: Ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation. Stimulates digestive, respiratory & nervous systems, cleanses colon, skin and kidneys, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant, reduces spasm, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, antifungal .References: Tripathi S, et al. “Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function.” BMC Complement Altern Med Jan 3;8:1.Dugasani S, et al. “Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of (6)-gingerol, (8)-gingerol, (10)-gingerol and (6)- shogaol.” J Ethnopharmacol Feb 3:127(2):Sebiomo A, et al. “Comparative studies of antibacterial effect of some antibiotics and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on two pathogenic bacteria. “Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials. January 2011; 3(1):18-22.Nalbantsoy A, et al. “Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Zingiber officinalis extracts.” FABAD J Pharm Sci. 2008; 33:77-86.Supreetha S, et al. “Antifungal activity of Ginger extract on Candida Albicans: an in-vitro study.” Journal of Dental Sciences and Research. Sept. 2011;Vol 2, Issue 2:
23 HERBS USEFUL FOR REDUCING INFLAMMATION Yucca (Yucca glauca)Actions: Bitter, astringent, antibacterial, antifungal, antirheumatic, antioxidant, anti- inflammatoryUses: “Herbal medicine practitioners of the past used the yucca leaves to treat all kinds of inflammations, especially joint inflammation and bleeding. Yucca is known to have excellent blood purifying and cleansing properties and is effective in detoxifying the whole system. It is also believed that using yucca helps in alleviating the symptoms related to arthritis, counting osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. As the saponins present in yucca assist in slowing down the assimilation of toxic substances present in the digestive tract, this herb indirectly helps the body’s eliminative system, which includes the blood, liver, kidneys and lymph, because the burden on them to get rid of toxic substances from the body is lessened. As a result, this reportedly diminishes the accumulation of toxic substances in our body, especially in our joints that are associated with degenerative or wasting diseases like arthritis, gout as well as rheumatism. It is also believed that yucca possesses the aptitude to disintegrate obstructions as well as deposits by inorganic minerals, thereby lessening joint inflammations.”References: Sobia, et al. “Antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal activities and phytochemical analysis of dagger (Yucca aloifolia) leaves extracts.” Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. Feb 2013;7(6):Cheeke PR, et al. “Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of yucca schidigera: a review.” J Inflamm (Lond). 2006;3:6.Susan McCamish
24 HERBS USEFUL FOR REDUCING INFLAMMATION Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Nutrients: Calcium, Iron, Manganese, Phosphorus, Potassium, Zinc, Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and C.Actions: Aromatic, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, antisepticUses: Turmeric has been linked to numerous biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antigrowth, antiarthritic, antiatherosclerotic, antidepressant, antiaging, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, wound healing, and memory enhancing activities.References: Aggarwal BB, Yuan W, Li S, Gupta SC. “Curcumin-free turmeric exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities: Identification of novel components of turmeric.” Mol Nutr Food Res Sep;57(9): Doi: /mnfrZorofchian M, Abdul H, et al. “A Review on Antibacterial, Antiviral, and Antifungal Activity of Curcumin”Biomed Res Int. 2014:2014: Epub 2014 Apr 29
25 Compromised Immunity 70% of Immune System in the gut Lack of enzymes Leads to nutritional deficienciesCreates toxins in intestinal tract – opens one to gut dysbiosis, fungal issues, inflammation, viral & bacterial issuesCan create auto-immune issues when ungoverned
26 It has been said that Louis Pasteur, the father of modern pathology, stated on his deathbed: “The microbe is nothing; terrain is everything.”MC-BB-1
28 Horsetail/Shavegrass (Equisetum arvense) Actions: Anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antifungal, antihaemorrhagy, astringent, diuretic, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antioxidant, vasorelaxant, cardioprotective, and vulnerary effects.Uses: Used in traditional medicine “to treat various diseases such as tuberculosis, kidney disorders, and bladder disease. It was used as a haemostatic for profuse menstruation, nasal, pulmonary, and gastric hemorrhages, for rheumatic diseases, gout, poorly healing wounds, ulcers, and swellings.” * Clinical studies have shown it to possess a broad spectrum of very strong antimicrobial activity. It possesses anticonvulsant and sedative effects. It is a source of natural antioxidants. “Studies have further shown its extract exhibited the most prominent antiproliferative effect. Its pharmocologic functions include anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antifungal, anticancer, and much, much more…”*References: *Asgarpanah J and Roohi E. et al. “Phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Equisetum arvense L.” J Medical Plants Res. 9 June 2012; 6(21):Oh H, et al. “Hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging activities of phenolic petrosins and flavonoids isolated from Equisetum arvense.” J Ethnopharmacol Dec;95(2-3):421-4.Radulovic N, et al. “Composition and antimicrobial activity of Equisetum arvense L. essential oil.” Phytother Res Jan;20(1):85-8.
29 Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Actions: Alterative, expectorant, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, sedative, tonic.Uses: Red Clover is a rich source of isoflavones and contains significant amounts of polyphenolic substances which are known for their potential bio- active antioxidant properties and radical scavenging capacity. It has anti- inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antimicrobial activities. Studies have shown it has a strengthening effect on the immune system by the increase in lymphocyte content and the amount of hemoglobin leads to an increase of oxygen transport capacity in the tissues.References: Kroyer G. Th. et al. “Red clover extract as antioxidant active and functional food ingredient.” Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. Vol 5, No. 1 March 2004:Kole, L, et al. “Biochanin-A, an isoflavon, showed anti-proliferative and anti- inflammatory activities through the inhibition of iNOS expression, p38-MAPK and ATF-2 phosphorylation and blocking NFkB nuclear translocation.” Eur J Pharmacol Feb 25; 653 (1-3): 8-15.Kolankaya D, et al. “The effect of Trifolium, Raphanus, and Cistus pollen grains on some blood parameters and mesentery mast cells.” Z Naturforsch C May-Jun;61(5-6):421-6.Flythe M and Kagan I. et al. “Antimicrobial effect of red clover (Trifolium pratense) phenolic extract on the ruminal hyper ammonia- producing bacterium, Clostridium sticklandii.” Curr Microbiol Aug; 61(2):Pakalapati G, et al. “Influence of red clover ( Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on gene and protein expression profiles in liver of ovariectomized rats.” Phytomedicine Sept; 16(9):Krenn L, Paper DH. et al. “Inhibition of angiogenesis and inflammation by an extract of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.).” Phytomedicine Dec;16(12):
30 Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Uses: Enhances blood cell generation. Aids in protecting the immune system, in cholesterol reduction, mineral absorption. Stabilizes blood sugars. Helps protect liver from toxins. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory. Aids digestion by increasing the levels of beneficial bacteria in the intestines. Consists of 60 to 70 percent protein (of which 85 to 95 percent is digestible.) Supplies nutrients needed to help cleanse and heal. Can reduce the cytotoxicity and inhibit expression of inflammation- related genes of LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells.SpirulinaReferences: Pise A, et al. “Role of Nutraceuticals in Management of Malnutrition.” International Journal of Community Pharmacy September-December;4(3):6-11.Chen JC, et al “Spirulina and C-phycocyanin reduce cytotoxicity and inflammation-related genes expression of microglial cells.” Nutr Neurosci Jun 7
31 Peach (Prunus persica) Actions: Sedative, diuretic, expectorant.Uses: Great interest as an important antioxidant source including chlorogenic acid. In mice studies, it improved the immune response, and induced cancer cell apoptis. Promoted the synthesis of antibody-forming cells and serum hemolysin. Can delay a tumor development against UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. May have benefits on various chronic diseases as they demonstrated the ability to inhibit LDL oxidation. Inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines.References: Rossato SB, et al. “Antioxidant potential of peels and fleshes of peaches from different cultivars.” J Med Food Oct;12(5) Y Liu, et al. “Experimental study of stir-fried Semen Persicae total protein on mouse B cells function. Acta Chinese Medicine 2001:29(2): Heo MY, et al. “Protection against ultraviolet B-and C-induced DNA damage and skin carcinogenesis by the flowers of Prunus persica extract.” Mutat Res Sep 20;496(1-2): Gil MI, et al. “Antioxidant capacities, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and Vitamin C contents of nectarine, peach and plum cultivars from California.” J Agric Food Chem. 2002, 50: Shin TY, et al. “Anti-allergic inflammatory activity of the fruit of Prunus persica: role of calcium and NF-kappaB.” Food Chem Toxicol Oct; 48(10): Kim YK, et al. “Comparative effect of Prunus persica L. BATSCH-water extract and tacrine (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine hydrochloride) on concentration of extracellular acetylcholine in the rat hippocampus.” J Ethnopharmacol Aug: 87(2-3): Fukuda T, et al. “Anti-tumor promoting effect of glycosides from Prunus persica seeds.” Biol Pharm Bull Feb; 26(2): Noratto G, et al. “Identifying peach and plum polyphenols with chemopreventive potential against estrogen-independent breast cancer cells.” J Agric Food Chem Jun 24:57(12):
32 Plantain (Plantago major) Actions: antibacterial, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, vermifuge, blood purifier, hepatoprotective antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-carcinomaUses: “In vitro cytotoxic, antiviral, and immunomodulatory effects of Plantago major and Plantago asiatica.” Chiang LC, et al. Am J Chin Med. 2003:31(2): PubMed“Plantago major linn. and P. asiatica Linn. (Plantaginaceae) are commonly used as folk medicine in Taiwan for treating infectious diseases related to the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. In this study, we investigated the antiviral, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory activities of hot water extracts of these two species in vitro on a series of viruses, namely herpesviruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2), adenoviruses (ADV-3, ADV-8 and ADV-11), and on various human leukemia, lymphoma and carcinoma cells with XTT, BrdU and IFN-gamma kits. Results showed that hot water extract of P. asiatica possessed significant inhibitory activity on the proliferation of lymphoma (U937) and carcinoma (bladder, bone, cervix, kidney, lung and stomach) cells and on viral infection (HSV-2 and ADV-11). P. major and P. asiatica both exhibited dual effects of immunodulatory activity, enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of interferon-gamma at low concentrations (< 50 microg/ml), but inhibiting this effect at high concentration (> 50 microg/ml). The present study concludes that hot water extracts of P. major and P. asiatica possess abroad- spectrum of antileukemia, anticarcinoma and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Further investigations to elucidate the active component(s) of P. asiatica and P. major and to evaluate their clinical application are warranted.” The results of one study showed that plantago major had a considerable anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities.References: Turel I, et al. “Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of Plantago major L.” Indian J Pharmacol Jun;41(3):120-4.Chiang LC, et al. “In vitro cytotoxic, antiviral, and immunomodulatory effects of Plantago major and Plantago asiatica.” Am J Chin Med. 2003:31(2):Velasco-Lezama R, et al. “Effect of Plantago major on cell proliferation in vitro.” J Ethnopharacol Jan 3; 103(1):36-42.Gomez-Flores, et al. "Immunoenhancing properties of Plantago major leaf extract." Phytother Res Dec;14(8):Samuelsen AB, “The traditional uses, chemical constituents and biological activities of Plantago major L. A review.“ J Ethnopharmacol jul;71(1-2):1-21.
33 Astragalus(Astragalus membranaceus) “Astragalus stimulates the activity of T-helper cells without stimulating the activity of T- suppressor cells, which would deactivate them. It stimulates beneficial components of the immune system in patients with lupus – the natural killer (NK) cells – without stimulating the detrimental components involved in rheumatoid arthritis – the B cells. Astragalus increases the immune system’s production of interferon, which stimulates the creation of proteins that prevent viral infection. It also helps the macrophages, immune cells that kill off viruses, to become faster and more efficient.” – Excerpt from “Prescription for Herbal Healing” by Phyllis A. Balch, CNCTox-Ease GLReferences: Liu QY, et al. “Astragalus polysaccharides attenuate postburn sepsis via inhibiting negative immunoregulation of CD4+ CD25(high) T cells.”Plos One. 2011;6(6):e Epub 2011 Jun 15 Chu DT, et al. “Fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb, potentiates LAK cell cytotoxicity generated by a low dose of recombinant interleukin-2.”J Clin Lab Immunol Aug;26(4): Steven R, et al. “Telomerase-Based Pharmacologic Enhancement of Antiviral Function of Human CD8 T Lymphocytes” The Journal of Immunology 2008 Nov no:
34 Pau D’Arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa) Actions: Antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, antitumor, antiviral, anti- inflammatory, astringent, parasiticide, immune stimulating – activate lymphocytes & granulocytes, eliminate toxins, purify bloodUses: Remarkable broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, fights viral infection, inhibitory of EBV. Cleanses the blood, good for candidiasis, warts, and all types of infection. A remedy for various inflammatory diseases.References: Binutu OA, et al. “Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family.” Af J Med Sci Sept. 23 (3):269-73Cowan MM. “Plant products as antimicrobial agents.”Clinical Microbiology Reviews. Oct 1999; 12(4):Byeon SE, et al. “In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of taheebo, a water extract from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae.” J Ethnopharmacol Sep 2;119(1):Park BS, et al. “Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against helicobacter pylori.” J Ethnopharmacol Apr 21;105(1-2):Sacau EP, et al. “Inhibitory effects of lapachol derivatives on Epstein-barr virus activation. Bioorg Med Chem Feb 20;11(4):483-8.de Almeida ER. “Preclinical and clinical studies of Lapachol and Beta-Lapachone.” The Open Natural products Journal. 2009; 2:42-47Susan McCamish
35 Cordyceps (Cordyceps sinensis) Not in an herbal classification, is a fungus used in traditional Chinese Medicine.Nutrients: Niacin, riboflavin, Vitamin B1, B2, B12, E, K, all essential amino acids, sulfur.Uses: Known to have immunomodulatory effects. Strengthens the immune system, boosts energy, increases endurance. Helps to strengthen people who have had long-term illnesses or suffer from exhaustion. It also increases the ability of the immune system’s T cells and macrophages to engulf and destroy invaders.CorycepsReferences: Kuo YC et al. “Cordyceps sinensis as an immunomodulatory agent.” Am J Chin Med. 1996;24(2): Chen GZ , et al. “Effects of Cordyceps sinensis on murine T lymphocyte subsets.” Chin med J (Engl) 1991 Jan; 104(1):4-8
36 And remember to: Proceed at the pace the body can tolerate Regenerative Herbal ProtocolsInclude herbs that:Support detoxificationReduce inflammationAddress infectionsSupport Immune/ImmunomodulatorySupport organsAnd remember to: Proceed at the pace the body can tolerate
37 The Mind/Body Connection “Psychological and emotional reactions directly affect physiological function. The way you react to your environment, both psychologically and emotionally, determines, in part, your physiological state. These so-called psychophysiological interactions are an important component of living. When we have calm peaceful thoughts, we tend to have a comparable emotional reaction and similar physiological reaction as well. When we have angry or fearful thoughts, we tend to be emotionally aroused, and consequently our physiological reactions are more dramatic. We now know that stress-induced physiological reaction, if repeated or prolonged, can contribute to illness. Hence the thoughts and emotional reactions which give rise to these physiological reactions must be addressed.”References: The Wellness Book: The Comprehensive Guide to Maintaining Health and Treating Stress- Related Illness by Herbert Benson, MD and Eileen M. Stuart, RN, C, MS