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Bellringer Assignment What are the two main functions of the respiratory system?
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CHAPTER 16 Objectives: 11.0 Identify structures and functions of the respiratory system Tracing the pathway of the oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange 11.2 Recognizing common disorders of the respiratory system
Introduction What are the two main functions of the respiratory system? Other functions of respiratory organs include: Trapping particles in incoming air Controlling temperature and moisture of incoming air Producing vocal sounds Aiding in sense of smell Regulation of blood pH
Introduction, continued….. Respiration: the ENTIRE process of gas exchange between the atmosphere and body cells: 1. Movement of air into and out of lungs (ventilation) 2. Gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood (external respiration) 3. Gas transport by the blood between the lungs and the body cells 4. Gas exchange between the blood and the body cells (internal respiration) Cellular respiration:
Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract
Organs of the Respiratory System OrganDescriptionFunctions
Diagrams 1. Label Figures 16.4, 16.6, and DESCRIBE the function of each labeled part that was not included in the Organs of the Respiratory System table.
Tables/Diagrams Review Organ/PartFunction NosePrimary entrance of air; hairs filter incoming air Nasal cavityFilters, warms, and moistens incoming air Paranasal sinusesReduce weight of head; resonant chambers PharynxPassageway for air and food LarynxAir passageway; houses vocal cords; prevents foreign objects from entering trachea Trachea (aka,“???”) Passageway for air; mucous membranes filter incoming air Bronchial treeConducts air from trachea to alveoli; mucous lining filters air LungsHouse all “parts” required for gas exchange
Diagrams Review, continued….. What is the function of the epiglottis? Cricoidectomy
Diagrams Review, continued….. How many lobes does the right lung have? The left lung? Why is the right lung larger than the left lung?
Diagrams Review, continued…..
The lungs are lined by pleura: Visceral (???) pleura, which folds back on itself to become Parietal (???) pleura Sounds like what other organ?
Breathing Mechanism Inspiration: breathing in Expiration: breathing out The flow of air into and out of the lungs is controlled by pressure. From chemistry or physical science, what happens to pressure as volume increases? (Boyle’s Law) So, as the diaphragm contracts into the abdominal cavity, increasing volume in the thoracic cavity, what happens to pressure in the thoracic cavity? In which direction will air flow?
Assignment: 1. Read “Topic of Interest” (p.444), and answer the following questions: a) What are 3 effects of emphysema on the lungs? b) How would these effects compromise a person’s ability to breathe? c) What is the #1 way to prevent emphysema? 2. Complete worksheet to review concepts of respiratory system to this point.
Sketch the following:
Gas Exchange Occurs in the alveoli Alveoli are COVERED in capillaries. Gases naturally move from areas of _____________ to areas of _____________. This process is a form of _______________. What is homeostasis? How does homeostasis influence diffusion? Gas exchange is driven by the maintenance of homeostasis.
Respiratory Video Clip cfm?guidAssetId=1767DD09-D896-4EF5- B406- A B&blnFromSearch=1&productc ode=US# cfm?guidAssetId=1767DD09-D896-4EF5- B406- A B&blnFromSearch=1&productc ode=US#
Read about emphysema on p.444 What are 3 effects on the lungs of emphysema? How would these 3 effects compromise a person’s ability to breathe? What is the number 1 way to prevent emphysema?
Alveoli in Emphysema Patient
Control of Breathing The respiratory center is a group of neurons in the brain stem. It affects respiratory rate and depth. What is the purpose in expiration? Why do we need to exhale? What chemical triggers would result in a faster respiratory rate? Increased levels of CO 2 or H +
Control of Breathing, continued….. Increased levels of H + : Means what? 70% of CO 2 in your blood combines to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates into H + and HCO 3 +. So what will happen if you don’t exhale enough CO 2, and it remains in your blood longer? What chemical triggers would slow the respiratory rate back down?
Control of Breathing, continued….. What chemical changes would occur in your blood if you held your breath? What body responses would that trigger? What is hyperventilation? What changes occur in your blood if you hyperventilate? What would be the body’s response? WARNING: NOT for use when swimming!!!
Alveolar Gas Exchange Composition of air, by both volume and partial pressure: 78% nitrogen 21% oxygen 0.4% carbon dioxide Gases diffuse from areas of higher partial pressure to areas of lower partial pressure.
Gas Transport Oxygen transport: Almost all oxygen (98%) is transported in combination with hemoglobin. The rest is dissolved in plasma. The bonds between oxygen and hemoglobin are easily made and easily broken. More oxygen is released from the hemoglobin as CO 2 levels increase, blood becomes more acidic, or as blood temperature increases. Hypoxia: ???? Hypoxemia: ????
Gas Transport, continued….. Carbon dioxide transport: Transported in blood in 3 forms: 1. Dissolved in plasma (7%) 2. Bonded to hemoglobin (23%) 3. As part of a bicarbonate ion (70%)