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HOST DEFENSES – INNATE/NON-SPECIFIC/GENERAL RESISTANCE GOAL IS TO LIMIT/ELIMINATE ANY INFECTION A.PHYSICAL BARRIERS B.CHEMICAL BARRIERS C.PHAGOCYTOSIS.

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Presentation on theme: "HOST DEFENSES – INNATE/NON-SPECIFIC/GENERAL RESISTANCE GOAL IS TO LIMIT/ELIMINATE ANY INFECTION A.PHYSICAL BARRIERS B.CHEMICAL BARRIERS C.PHAGOCYTOSIS."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOST DEFENSES – INNATE/NON-SPECIFIC/GENERAL RESISTANCE GOAL IS TO LIMIT/ELIMINATE ANY INFECTION A.PHYSICAL BARRIERS B.CHEMICAL BARRIERS C.PHAGOCYTOSIS 1.BLOOD COMPONENTS AND CIRCULATION 2.BLOOD CELLS AND HEMATOPOEISIS BLOOD CELL FORMATION/DEVELOPMENT 3.PHAGOCYTOSIS MECHANISM D.INFLAMMATION E.COMPLEMENT SYSTEM F.OPSONIZATION G.CYTOKINES 1

2 MAMMALIAN IMMUNE SYSTEM 2

3 INNATE RESISTANCE – BORN WITH IT – GENERAL RESISTANCE A.PHYSICAL (ANATOMICAL) BARRIERS 1. SKIN a.EPIDERMIS – OUTER LAYER KERATIN – INSOLUBLE PROTEINS –NAILS, HAIR, EPIDEMIS b.DERMIS – INNER LAYER – BOUND TO MUSCLE BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE 2.BLADDER - FLUSHING 3

4 3.MUCOUS MEMBRANES – LINE RESPIRATORY, DIGESTIVE, UROGENITAL TRACTS; RESIST PENETRATION MUCUS – SECRETION – TRAPS MICROORGANISMS - CONTAINS LYSOZYME – HYDROLYZES PEPTIDOGLYCAN PATHOGENS WHICH COLONIZE MUCOUS MEMBRANES: NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS STRETOCOCCUS PYOGENES TREPONEMA PALLIDUM 4

5 B.CHEMICAL BARRIERS 1.TEARS, SWEAT - LYSOZYME, FLUSHING 2.SALIVA - DIGESTIVE ENZYMES 3.INTERFERONS –ANTIVIRAL PROTEINS; CYTOKINES; INTER-CELLULAR SIGNALLING PROTEINS PRODUCED BY VIRUS-INFECTED CELLS BUT ACT ON UN-INFECTED CELLS TO LIMIT VIRUS PRODUCTION; HYDROLYSIS OF VIRAL RNA; INHIBIT VIRUS PROTEIN SYNTHESIS; HOST SPECIFC;NOT VIRUS SPECIFC 4.CATIONIC PEPTIDES – ALTER BACTERIAL CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY; AMINO ACIDS/CHAIN 5

6 C.PHAGOCYTOSIS 1.BLOOD COMPONENTS & CIRCULATION BLOOD - FLUID PLUS CELLS; PLASMA - FLUID WITHOUT CELLS; SERUM - FLUID REMAINING AFTER CLOT FORMS TRAPPING CELLS (IN THE CLOT) HEART > LUNGS – ACQUIRES O 2 > HEART HEART > ARTERIES > ARTERIAL CAPILLARIES (GIVES UP 0 2 ) > VENOUS CAPILLARIES >VEINS > HEART ARTERIAL CAPILLARIES; FLUID & WBC LEAVE, ENTER TISSUES (INTERSTITIAL FLUID) > CAPILLARIES OF LYMPH SYSTEM; FLUID NOW CALLED LYMPH > LYMPH VESSELS, NODES > VEINS (MIXES WITH RBC; NOW CALLED BLOOD) 6

7 BLOOD & LYMPH CIRCULATION ARTERIES PLASMA RBC WBC VEINS PLASMA RBC WBC ARTERIAL CAPILLARIES VENOUS CAPILLARIES LYMPH CAPILLARIES LYMPH VESSELS LYMPH WBC LYMPH NODES TISSUE SPACES INTERSTITAL FLUID AND WBC 7

8 2. BLOOD CELLS - RBC – CARRY OXYGEN WBC – LEUCOCYTES WBC7000/MICROLITER GRANULOCYTES NEUTROPHILS – PHAGOCYTOSIS % STAIN AT NEUTRAL pH BASOPHILSVASOACTIVE 70 1 MEDIATORS; ALLERGIES STAIN WITH BASIC DYE EOSINOPHILS PHAGOCYTOSIS STAIN WITH ACIDIC DYE AGRANULOCYTES LYMPHOCYTES- IMMUNITY MONOCYTES - BECOME MACROPHAGES 8

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10 2. CONTINUED - HEMATOPOIESIS FORMATION OF BLOOD CELLULAR COMPONENTS HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS – MULTIPOTENT - DEVELOP INTO ALL DIFFERENT BLOOD CELLS FORM IN BONE MARROW DIFFERENTIATE INTO MYELOID STEM CELLS – MYELOID = PROGRAMED TO DEVELOP IN BONE MARROW, SPINAL CORD LYMPHOID STEM CELLS – LYMPHOID = PROGRAMED TO DEVELOP IN LYMPH TISSUE = THYMUS, SPLEEN, LYMPH NODES, BONE MARROW 10

11 HUMAN BLOOD CELLS 11

12 2. CONT’DMYELOID STEM CELLS FORM: GRANULOCYTES – NEUTROPHILS – PHAGOCYTOSIS EOSINOPHILS – PHAGOCYTOSIS BASOPHILS – ALLERGIES MEGAKARYOCYTES – FRAGMENT INTO THROMBOCYTES = PLATELETS (CLOTTING) AGRANULOCYTES – MONOCYTES – DIFFERENTIATE INTO MACROPHAGES AND DENDRITIC CELLS INGEST AND PROCESS FOREIGN INVADERS FOR ANTIGEN PRESENTATION RETICULOCYTES (IMMATURE RBC) > RBC 13

13 2. CONT’D LYMPHOID STEM CELLS FORM: AGRANULOCYTES LYMPHOCYTES T CELLS – HELP B CELLS IN HUMORAL IMMUNITY & FUNCTION IN CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY B CELLS - HUMORAL IMMUNITY – DIFFERENTIATE INTO PLASMA CELLS AND SECRETE ANTIBODIES NATURAL KILLER CELLS 14

14 2. CONT’D MONOCYTES AND THEIR DESTINY CIRCULATE ~ 8 HRS, MIGRATE INTO TISSUES 14 MATURE INTO MACROPHAGES/DENDRITIC CELLS WHICH HAVE RECEPTORS FOR COMMON COMPONENTS OF PATHOGENS PHAGOCYTIZE INVADERS – CONTRIBUTE TO INNATE RESISTANCE DIGEST INVADERS AND DISPLAY FRAGMENTS ON THEIR SURFACES AS PART OF STIMULATING IMMUNITY – CONTRIBUTE TO ACQUIRED IMMUNITY MACROPHAGES - ALL TISSUES, ESPECIALLY LYMPH NODES, LYMPH VESSELS DENDRITIC CELLS – LOCALIZE IN MUCOUS MEMBRANES

15 3.PHAGOCYTOSIS EVENTS (MECHANISM) NEUTROPHILS, MACROPHAGES, DENDRITIC CELLS INNATE RESISTANCE & ACQUIRED IMMUNITY a.PATHOGEN RECOGNITION: PHAGOCYTE RECEPTORS BIND PATTERNS COMMON ON INVADERS -- E.G., LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES ON GRAM NEGATIVES b.INTRACELLULAR DIGESTION - PHAGOSOME, LYSOSOME, PHAGOLYSOSOME DIGESTIVE ENZYMES (HYDROLYSIS) REACTIVE OXYGEN INTERMEDIATES c.EXOCYTOSIS – PHAGOLYSOSOME FUSES WITH MEMBRANE, RELEASE COMPONENTS. MACROPHAGES & DENDRITIC CELLS DISPLAY COMPONENTS AS ANTIGENS (ON SURFACE) - SPECIFIC IMMUNITY 15

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17 3. CONT’D PHAGOCYTOSIS BY A WBC A. CHEMOTAXIS (NOT SHOWN) B. ADHERENCE C. INGESTION D. DIGESTION WBC CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE B. NEISSERIA GONORRHOAE C. D. PHAGOLYSOSOME PHAGOSOME LYSOSOME WITH DIGESTIVE ENZYMES BACTERIAL FRAGMENTS SPIT OUT 17

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19 D. INFLAMMATION – GENERAL RESPONSE TO TISSUE INJURY – REDNESS, WARMTH, PAIN, SWELLING, ALTERED FUNCTION INJURY - SIGNALS RELEASED AND ACTIVATE ENDOTHELIUM (INNER LINING) OF NEARBY CAPILLARIES SELECTINS – DISPLAYED ON ENDOTHELIUM, ATTRACT NEUTROPHILS MARGINATION – NEUTROPHIL INTEGRINS SYNTHESIZED; DISPLAYED ON SURFACE; BIND SELECTINS; LOCALIZE NEUTROPHILS TO CAPILLARY WALLS DIAPEDESIS – NEUTROPHILS SQUEEZE THRU CAPILLARY WALLS INTO INTERSTITIAL FLUID EXTRAVASION – CHEMOTAXIS TO INJURY/INVADING MICRO- ORGANISMS; ATTACK! INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS – INCREASED BLOOD FLOW; INCREASED CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY 19

20 LYMPHOCYTE MIGRATING THROUGH WALL OF CAPILLARY 20

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22 E.COMPLEMENT SYSTEM ~30 SERUM PROTEINS, DEFEND AGAINST MICROBES, ENHANCE PHAGOCYTOSIS, BRIDGE INNATE AND ACQUIRED IMMUNITY ACTIVATED BY INVASION: MACROPHAGE DESTRUCTION OF INVADERS RESULTS IN DEGRADATION PRODUCTS WHICH ACTIVATE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATED COMPLEMENT CAUSES: RELEASE OF PEPTIDE MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION OPSONIZATION OF PATHOGENS: OPSONIZATION = ENHANCED PHAGOCYTOSIS BY NEUTROPHILS ACTIVATION OF MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEXES WHICH LYSE EUKARYOTIC CELLS/ENHANCE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PROKARYOTES TO LYSOZYME 22

23 MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX 23

24 MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX 24

25 F.OPSONIZATION PHAGOCYTOSIS ENHANCEMENT BY COATING OF INVADERS (FOREIGN OBJECTS) BY ANTIBODIES, COMPLEMENT OR BOTH PHAGOCYTIC CELLS BIND BACTERIAL CELLS BOUND BY ANTIBODIES BOUND BY COMPLEMENT BEST WHEN BOUND BY ANTIBODIES AND COMPLEMENT 25

26 OPSONIZATION 26

27 G.CYTOKINES PROTEINS PRODUCED AND RELEASED BY ONE CELL TYPE TO COMMUNICATE WITH AND REGULATE THE ACTIVITY OF ANOTHER CELL TYPE REGULATORS OF INNATE RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE INTERLEUKINS –PRODUCED BY ONE LEUKOCYTE TYPE, ACT ON ANOTHER TYPE OF LEUKOCYTE LYMPHOKINES -PRODUCED BY ONE TYPE OF LYMPHOCYTES; ACT ON ANOTHER LYMPHOCYTE POPULATION CHEMOKINES -REGULATE INFLAMMATION – ERYTHROPOEITIN – STIMULATE RBC PRODUCTION INTERFERONS – LIMIT VIRAL INFECTION 27

28 CYTOKINE ACTIVITIES PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 28


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