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Infection Control.

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Presentation on theme: "Infection Control."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infection Control

2 Federal Agencies Infectious Disease Process & Immunity Aseptic Practices Personal Protective Equipment Terminology & Pathogen Transmission Occupational Risk Factors Diseases of Concern-HIV/AIDS Disease of Concern-Hepatitis, Meningitis, Tuberculosis Diseases of Concern-Chickenpox, Measles, Mumps, Herpes

3 Federal Agencies CDC-Centers for Disease Control
Division of Dept. of Health and Human Services Governmental agency-employs over 8,600 Main location Atlanta, GA Purpose-to safeguard public health by preventing and controlling disease Seeks to finds causes of diseases, find cures, alert medical professionals Recommends appropriate treatment Conducts research Develops immunization services w/ state and local agencies Sets standards for healthful working conditions

4 CDC-Continued Issued new isolation guidelines 2 tiered approach
1st tier-(most important tier)-contains precautions designed to care for all patients in healthcare setting Contain precautions to decrease risk of transmission of disease through body fluids and known as STANDARD PRECAUTIONS Used regardless of patients dx/ or known infection

5 CDC-Continued STANDARD PRECAUTIONS-apply to Blood
All body fluids (except sweat) Blood, any body fluid containing blood, tissue specimens, semen, vaginal secretions, amniotic fluid, cerebral spinal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, interstitial fluid, feces, nasal secretions, sputum, tears, urine, vomitus, saliva, breast milk that contains blood Non-intact skin Mucous membranes

6 CDC-Continued STANDARD PRECAUTIONS promote hand hygiene
Use of personal protective equipment-cloves, mask, gown, protective eyewear 2nd tier-focuses on patients who are either suspected of having an infectious disease or already infected Uses extra precautions 3 categories Airborne precautions-need isolation/private room/mask Droplet precautions-mask worn only if within 3 feet of pt. Contact Precautions-transmission by touch

7 Federal Agencies OSHA-Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Responsible for the safety of all employees in companies operating in the US. Concerned with any workplace hazards Enforces CDC guidelines

8 Infectious Disease Process & Immunity
The presence of a pathogenic organism, or microorganism, is not enough to cause an infection Several other factors must be in place for infection to occur Known as the chain of infection

9 Infectious Disease Process & Immunity
Oxygen-aerobic (require O2) and anaerobic (survive w/o O2) Temperature-bacteria thrive at body temperature 107degrees and ^ will kill most Light-bacteria usually die if exposed to direct sunlight Prefer darkness Moisture-grow best in moist areas Skin Mucous membranes Wet dressings Wounds Dirty instruments

10 Infectious Disease Process & Immunity

11 Infectious Disease Process & Immunity
Chain of infection 1-Infectious agent/reservoir host 2-Portal of exit-resp., intestinal, urinary, wound, reproductive tract 3-Means of transmission-direct or indirect contact, foods, insects (VECTORS), air droplets 4-Means of entrance-means by which the pathogen enters the body (resp, GI, urinary, reproductive, blood, skin, mucous membranes 5-Susceptible host-poor health, poor hygiene, stress, disease

12 Infectious Disease Process & Immunity
Direct Contact-touching the bacteria, or infected person Indirect Contact-air droplets from a cough, touching a contaminated object, eating contaminated food, or insects

13 Infectious Disease Process & Immunity
Prevention-human body has several natural barriers Skin, mucous membranes, GI tract, lymph and circulatory systems Intact skin-best barrier GI tract-HCl causes destruction of disease- producing bacteria

14 Infectious Disease Process & Immunity
Lymphatic system & Blood system produce antibodies that protect the body from disease leucocytes (WBC’s)-fight pathogenic microorganisms by phagocytosis Phagocytes-engulf and destroy pathogens Lymphocytes-produce antibodies during the antigen-antibody reaction

15 Infectious Disease Process & Immunity
Antigen-Antibody Reaction Antibodies-react in response to an antigen(foreign substances) Body has natural protection called immunity Immunity-occurs when enough antibodies have been produced to provide protection Immunity can be genetic or acquired (active or passive)

16 Infectious Disease Process & Immunity
Immunity can be genetic or acquired (active or passive) Active Active acquired natural-antibodies/recovering from disease(measles) Active acquired artificial-vaccination w/ dead organism (flu) Passive Passive acquired natural-acquired form someone else’s antibodies-breast milk or placenta Passive acquired artificial-temporary-gamma globulin/tetanus shot

17 Aseptic Practices Terms to know: Nosocomial-hospital/medical facility- acquired infection Medical asepsis-destruction of organisms after they leave the body-(ex. handwashing) Surgical asepsis-techniques used to maintain a sterile environment Hand hygiene-first defense against the spread of disease

18 Aseptic Practices Antisepsis-inhibits or inactivates pathogens by means of careful scrubbing of equipment-cleans items but virus, spores not destroyed (ONLY CLEANS) Disinfection-soaking and wiping process, Destroys pathogenic organisms but…does not kill spores(KILLS GERMS) Sterilization-destruction of all microorganisms (KILLS EVERYTHING) autoclave

19 Personal Protective Equipment
PPE-equipment issued to the employee to be used while caring for a patient to reduce the risk of exposure to an infectious agent Gloves, mask, gowns, eyewear

20 Personal Protective Equipment
Gloves- an effective barrier against exposure to bloodborne pathogens Change gloves- as soon as practical when contaminated, or if torn, punctured, or lose their barrier function

21 Personal Protective Equipment
Eyewear Bacteria can enter through the mucous membranes of the eyes Goggles should fit over your glasses Use face shield if any chance of splashing

22 Personal Protective Equipment
Face mask- Used for many purposes Two way protection-you and the patient Simple face mask not adequate to protect against some sir borne diseases-TB-need a special mask to filter out the particles HEPA respirator mask-remove 95-99% of the particles Mask is specifically fit for each person

23 Personal Protective Equipment
Gowns Worn whenever there is a risk for contamination of clothing Simple, disposable gowns usually adequate Use only once then discard

24 Pathogen Transmission
Disease TRANSMISSION-the transfer of a disease from one person to another or from an animal to other to a person. Several criteria must be present- 1-diease must be contagious 2-must have a means of transmission 3-must have a way into the body 4-disease must be considered infectious or capable of invading the body and causing damage to cells and tissues 5-individual must be susceptible to the organism 6-exposed versus infected-remember-infected means that the organism has entered and invaded and multiplied in the body

25 Pathogen Transmission
Routes of transmission Airborne/droplet transmission Direct Contact transmission Indirect Contact transmission Vector transmission

26 Pathogen Transmission
Airborne Transmission- organisms transmitted through the air can be attached to a particle of dust or droplet of moisture in the air Sneezing/coughing-URI

27 Pathogen Transmission
Direct Contact-straight from person to person Kissing Sexual contact Exposure to blood or feces (example-a patients’ blood dripping into an open wound or eyes of the healthcare provider; eating after your hands are soiled w/ pt’s feces)

28 Pathogen Transmission
Indirect Contact- touching surfaces that have been contaminated w/ the pathogen/bacteria using food utensils, cups that were used by an infected person Swimming in water that contains bacteria (e-coli)

29 Pathogen Transmission
Vector-borne-transmitted from one host or source to another by a “common carrier”, animal, insect Rocky Mtn. spotted fever Lyme disease Malaria

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