BY: BRITTANY, JENNA, ABBEY, & KAYHLA Respiratory System
Functions of Respiratory System 1. Providing an extensive surface area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood. 2. Moving air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs along the respiratory passageways. 3. Protecting respiratory surfaces from dehydration, temperature changes, or other environmental variations, and defending the respiratory system tissues from invasion by pathogens. 4. Producing sounds involved in speaking, singing and other forms of communication. 5. Facilitating the detection of olfactory stimuli by olfactory receptors in the superior portions of the nasal cavity.
Tongue Sphenoidal sinus Pharynx Internal nares Esophagus Nasal conchae Frontal sinus Hyoid bone Larynx Trachea Bronchus Diaphragm Nasal cavity Nose LEFT LUNG RIGHT LUNG Bronchioles UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Upper & Lower Respiratory System The Upper Respiratory consists of the nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and pharynx. The passageways filter, warm and humidify incoming air, protecting the more delicate surfaces of the lower respiratory system. Cools and dehumidifies outgoing air. Lower Respiratory Includes the larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli of the lungs. Mucosa of the nasal cavity prepares inhaled air for arrival at the lower respiratory system.
Respiratory Tract Consists of the airways that carry to and from the surfaces of your lungs. Conducting Portion and Respiratory Portion - The conducting portion begins at the entrance to the nasal cavity and extends through many passageways. - The respiratory portion of the tract includes the respiratory bronchioles and the alveoli which are air filled pockets in the lungs where gas exchange between air and blood occurs.
Respiratory Defense System If inhaled air becomes contaminated with debris or pathogens, it becomes prevented by filtration mechanisms that make up the respiratory defense system. Goblet cells in the epithelium and mucous glands in the lamina propria produce a sticky mucous that bathes exposed surfaces
Occupations Pulmonologists: physicians who specialize in evaluating and treating the lungs. Respiratory Therapist: specialize in airway management during trauma or extensive care. Anesthesiologist: administers anesthesia and are in charge of initiating and managing life support for people in intensive care units and emergency departments.
Diseases, Causes & Symptoms Asthma: condition of the lungs characterized by widespread narrowing of the bronchioles and formation of mucous plugs producing symptoms of wheezing, shortness of breathe and coughing; caused by the local release of factors during an allergic response. Bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchi; acute form is often due to a viral or bacterial infection, chronic form is due to air pollution or smoking. Pneumonia: inflammation of the lungs tissue in which the alveoli accumulate fluid and sometimes pus; causes include bacterial, viral, fungal pathogens or non infectious pathogens such as smoke and inhalation.
How Lungs Work System-01.htm System-01.htm &t=Respiratory-System &t=Respiratory-System
Nose and Naval Cavity The nose is the primary passageway for air entering the respiratory system. Air enters through the external nares (nostrils) which open to the nasal cavity. Nasal Vestibule is the space within the flexible tissues of the nose. Nasal Septum is what divides the nasal cavity into left and right portions.
Sound Production Air that passes through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds and produces sound waves. The pitch of the sound produced depends on the diameter, length and tension in the vocal folds. When the distance increases the vocal folds tense and the pitch gets higher, and when the distance decreases the pitch gets lower. The vocal cords of an adult male are thicker and longer than the vocal cords of a female. Children have slender, short vocal folds which is why their voices tend to be high-pitched but adults have longer, thicker vocal folds especially males after they hit puberty giving them that “deeper voice.” When you get sick and get that groggy, raspy voice its because your nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses fill with mucus instead of air which cause the larynx and epiglottis to become inflamed therefore changing the final production of distinct words.
Lobes and Surfaces of the Lungs The right lung has three lobes: superior, middle and inferior all separated by the horizontal and oblique fissures. Broader than the left because most of the heart and great vessels project into the left thoracic cavity. The left lung has two lobes: superior and inferior separated by the oblique fissure. Longer than the right because the diaphragm rises on the right side to accommodate the mass of the liver. The heart is located to the left of the midline, so the corresponding impression is larger in the left lung than the right.
The Movement of Air pulmonary ventilation (breathe in air) lungs gas diffusion oxygen is transported by the cells gas diffusion in the tissues carbon dioxide is transported by the cells back to the lungs
Pressure and Airflow Air flows from an area of high pressure (inhalation) to low pressure (exhalation). A single respiratory cycle consists of an inhalation and an exhalation. Together they involve changes in the volume of the lungs which create pressure gradients that help move air in or out of the respiratory tract. When no air movement occurs the pressure inside is equal to the pressure outside. Now breathe in, the pressure inside your lungs is greater than the pressure outside because your lungs fill with air. Release that air and the pressure is greater on the outside now because all of the air in your lungs is gone.
Modes of Breathing Quiet Breathing: Inhalation involves muscular contractions but exhalation is a passive process. Usually involves both the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles. *comes naturally* Diaphragmatic Breathing (deep breathing): Contraction of the diaphragm provides the necessary change in thoracic volume. Air is drawn into the lungs when the diaphragm contracts and is exhaled passively when the diaphragm relaxes. *blows up the stomach region* Costal Breathing (shallow breathing): The thoracic volume changes because the rib cage alters its shape. Inhalation occurs when the contractions of the external intercostal muscles elevate the ribs and enlarge the thoracic cavity, exhalation occurs passively when these muscles relax. *forces shoulders to move up and down* Forced Breathing: Involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements. Forced breathing calls on the accessory muscles to assist with inhalation and exhalation involving the internal intercostal muscles. *usually after a lot of physical activity or in other needs of tons of air…have to think about it*
Aging The elastic degenerates lowering the vital capacity of the lungs. Chest movement is restricted by decreased flexibility of cartilage and arthritic changes. Emphysema is generally present.
Aging Regular smoker Never smoked Stopped at age 45 Stopped at age 65 Death Disability Age (years) Respiratory performance (% of value at age 25)
Works Cited &t=Respiratory-System System-01.htmhttp://www.neok12.com/diagram/Respiratory- System-01.htm