Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Www.careandcompliance.com/eval Evaluations We deeply value your feedback, and will utilize it in the ongoing development of our courses and services.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Www.careandcompliance.com/eval Evaluations We deeply value your feedback, and will utilize it in the ongoing development of our courses and services."— Presentation transcript:

1 Evaluations We deeply value your feedback, and will utilize it in the ongoing development of our courses and services.

2 HIV/AIDS, Bloodborne Pathogens, and Tuberculosis

3 Introduction to Bloodborne Pathogens

4 What are bloodborne pathogens?
Infectious microorganisms in human blood that can cause disease in humans. Include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Adapted from

5 Who is at Risk? Workers in many occupations, including caregivers, housekeeping personnel, nurses and other healthcare personnel may be at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. Adapted from

6 Exposure Control Plan Must implement an exposure control plan
Describe how an employer will use a combination of engineering and work practice controls Ensure the use of personal protective clothing and equipment Provide training Medical surveillance Hepatitis B vaccinations Signs and labels Among other provisions… Adapted from

7 HIV and AIDS

8 What is HIV? Human immunodeficiency virus.
The virus that can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS.

9 What is HIV? HIV damage a person’s body by destroying specific blood cells, called CD4+ T cells, which are crucial to helping the body fight diseases

10 Symptoms Within a few weeks of being infected with HIV, some people develop flu-like symptoms that last for a week or two, but others have no symptoms at all. People living with HIV may appear and feel healthy for several years. However, even if they feel healthy, HIV is still affecting their bodies. 

11 Symptoms May experience flu-like symptoms 2-6 weeks after becoming infected Chills Rash Night sweats Muscle aches Sore throat Fatigue Swollen lymph nodes Ulcers in the mouth

12 Statistics The CDC estimates that about 56,000 people in the United States contracted HIV in 2006. Around 34 million people worldwide living with HIV Over 25 million have died since the first cases were reported in 1981

13 AIDS AIDS is the late stage of HIV infection
The person’s immune system is severely damaged and has difficulty fighting diseases and certain cancers.

14 Progression to AIDS Before the development of certain medications, people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a few years. Currently, people can live much longer - even decades - with HIV before they develop AIDS. This is because of “highly active” combinations of medications that were introduced in the mid 1990s.

15 Cardiovascular Health Hepatitis Opportunistic Infections
HIV complications Cardiovascular Health Hepatitis Opportunistic Infections Oral Health Issues

16 HIV complications Cancer Dementia Kidney disease Other complications

17 HIV Transmission

18 Transmission HIV can be detected in several fluids and tissues of a person living with HIV. Finding a small amount of HIV in a body fluid or tissue does not mean that HIV is transmitted by that body fluid or tissue. These specific fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the blood-stream for transmission to occur.

19 Which Body Fluids? These body fluids have been shown to contain high concentrations of HIV: Blood Semen Vaginal fluid Breast milk Other body fluids containing blood

20 Which Body Fluids? The following are additional body fluids that may transmit the virus that health care workers may come into contact with: Fluid surrounding the brain and the spinal cord Fluid surrounding bone joints Fluid surrounding an unborn baby

21 Transmission In the United States, HIV is most commonly transmitted through specific sexual behaviors (anal or vaginal sex) or sharing needles with an infected person. It is less common for HIV to be transmitted through oral sex or for an HIV-infected woman to pass the virus to her baby before or during childbirth or after birth through breastfeeding or by prechewing food for her infant.

22 Transmission It is possible to acquire HIV through exposure to infected blood, transfusions of infected blood, blood products, or organ transplantation This risk is extremely remote due to rigorous testing of the U.S. blood supply and donated organs.

23 Transmission Some healthcare workers have become infected after being stuck with needles containing HIV-infected blood or, less frequently, when infected blood comes in contact with a worker's open cut or is splashed into a worker's eyes or inside their nose.

24 HIV is NOT spread by Air or water Insects, including mosquitoes
Saliva, tears, or sweat Casual contact like shaking hands or sharing dishes Closed-mouth or “social” kissing

25 The risk to direct care providers
The risk of direct care provider being exposed to HIV on the job is very low Especially if they carefully follow standard precautions Casual, everyday contact with an HIV-infected person does not expose direct care providers or anyone else to HIV.

26 The risk to direct care providers
For direct care providers on the job, the main risk of HIV transmission is through accidental injuries from needles and other sharp instruments that may be contaminated with the virus Even this risk is small. The risk of infection from a needle-stick is less than 1%.

27 HIV Screening and Testing

28 Antibody Screening Test
Most common HIV test is the antibody screening test. This test can be performed with blood sample or oral fluid. This tests the antibodies your body produces to fight against HIV. Blood tests can detect HIV as soon as 3 weeks after being infected.

29 Follow-up Diagnostic Tests
Follow-up diagnostic test – these tests are performed after someone tests positive on his/her first test. HIV tests are usually very accurate, but a follow-up test is typically performed to confirm the results of the first test mostly for insurance/health care provider purposes.

30 Treatment and Support

31 Treatments Many people with HIV, including those who feel healthy, can benefit greatly from current medications used to treat HIV infection. These medications can limit or slow down the destruction of the immune system, improve the health of people living with HIV, and may reduce their ability to transmit HIV. 

32 Medications Can be expensive Can be very effective
Complicated dosing schedules In some cases, virus develops a resistance to the medication

33 Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy
HAART Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy

34 Medications Class Description Examples
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) NNRTIs disable a protein needed by HIV to make copies of itself. efavirenz (Sustiva), etravirine (Intelence) and nevirapine (Viramune) Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) NRTIs are faulty versions of building blocks that HIV needs to make copies of itself. Abacavir (Ziagen), and the combination drugs emtricitabine and tenofovir (Truvada), and lamivudine and zidovudine (Combivir) Protease inhibitors (PIs) PIs disable protease, another protein that HIV needs to make copies of itself.  atazanavir (Reyataz), darunavir (Prezista), fosamprenavir (Lexiva) and ritonavir (Norvir)

35 Medications Class Description Examples Entry or fusion inhibitors
These drugs block HIV's entry into CD4 cells enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) and maraviroc (Selzentry) Integrase inhibitors Works by disabling integrase, a protein that HIV uses to insert its genetic material into CD4 cells raltegravir (Isentress)

36 There is No Cure No one should become complacent about HIV and AIDS.
While current medications can dramatically improve the health of people living with HIV and slow progression from HIV infection to AIDS, existing treatments need to be taken daily for the rest of a person’s life, need to be carefully monitored, and come with costs and potential side effects. At this time, there is no cure for HIV infection.

37 Treatment and Support

38 Hepatitis B

39 Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis B virus. It can range in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness.

40 Hepatitis B Transmission
Hepatitis B is spread when blood, semen, or other body fluid infected with the Hepatitis B virus enters the body of a person who is not infected.

41 Hepatitis B Transmission
From an infected mother to her baby during birth Sex with an infected partner Sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment Sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person Direct contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person Exposure to blood from needlesticks or other sharp instruments 

42 Acute or Chronic Acute Hepatitis B
Short-term illness that occurs within the first 6 months after exposure. Can—but does not always—lead to chronic infection. Chronic Hepatitis B Long-term illness that occurs when the virus remains in a person’s body. Estimated 800,000 to 1.4 million persons have chronic Hepatitis B virus infection in the U.S.

43 Hepatitis B Vaccine The Hepatitis B vaccine series is a sequence of shots that stimulate a person’s natural immune system to protect against HBV. After the vaccine is given, the body makes antibodies that protect a person against the virus. These antibodies are then stored in the body and will fight off the infection if a person is exposed to the Hepatitis B virus in the future.

44 Hepatitis B Vaccine Safe and effective
Usually given as 3-4 shots over a 6-month period Recommended for health care workers (including caregivers) at risk for exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids on the job Employers must offer at not cost if a job puts you at risk for exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids on the job

45 Hepatitis C

46 Hepatitis C A contagious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. It can range in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness.

47 Can Be Acute or Chronic Acute Hepatitis C virus infection is a short-term illness that occurs within the first 6 months after someone is exposed to the Hepatitis C virus. For most people, acute infection leads to chronic infection. Chronic Hepatitis C is a serious disease than can result in long-term health problems, or even death.

48 How is hepatitis C spread?
Spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. Today, most people become infected with the Hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. Before 1992, when widespread screening of the blood supply began in the United States, Hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants.

49 How is hepatitis C spread?
People can become infected with the Hepatitis C virus during such activities as: Sharing needles, syringes, or other equipment to inject drugs Needlestick injuries in health care settings Being born to a mother who has Hepatitis C

50 How is hepatitis C spread?
Less commonly, a person can also get Hepatitis C virus infection through: Sharing personal care items that may have come in contact with another person’s blood, such as razors or toothbrushes Having sexual contact with a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus

51 Is there a vaccine? At this time there is not a vaccine for hepatitis C. Vaccines are available only for Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B. Research into the development of a vaccine is under way.

52 Diabetes and Hepatitis

53 Diabetes and Hepatitis
CDC has investigated multiple outbreaks of viral hepatitis among residents in long-term-care (LTC) communities Attributed to shared devices and other breaks in infection-control practices related to blood glucose monitoring

54 Diabetes and Hepatitis
Insulin pens and insulin cartridges Do not use to administer to multiple residents Not designed for, and are not safe for, use on more than one person

55 Diabetes and Hepatitis
Glucometers Assigned to individual residents Decontaminate regularly and any time contamination is suspected Maintain supplies and equipment within individual resident rooms if possible

56 Diabetes and Hepatitis
Unused supplies and medications taken to the bedside should not be used for another resident Never share fingerstick sampling Select single-use lancets that permanently retract upon puncture Dispose of in sharps container

57 Diabetes and Hepatitis
Any trays or carts used to deliver medications or supplies to individual residents should remain outside resident rooms. Do not carry supplies and medications in pockets.

58 Diabetes and Hepatitis
Prepare medications in a centralized medication area Multiple dose insulin vials should be assigned to individual residents and labeled appropriately. Store unused and used diabetes equipment and supplies separately Never reuse needles, syringes, or lancets.

59 How to Protect Yourself

60 Get vaccinated! Get the hepatitis B vaccine

61 At home… In your personal life the best way to protect yourself from bloodborne pathogens is to avoid engaging in activities that lead to their transmission, such as unprotected sex.

62 At work… At work you can protect yourself by applying the principles of standard precautions during any activity that may lead to exposure to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids

63 If you are exposed… If you experienced a needlestick or sharps injury or were exposed to the blood or other body fluid of a resident during the course of your work, immediately follow these steps:

64 If you are exposed… Wash needlesticks and cuts with soap and water
Flush splashes to the nose, mouth, or skin with water Irrigate eyes with clean water, saline, or sterile irrigants Report the incident to your supervisor Immediately seek medical treatment

65 Standard Precautions

66 Standard Precautions Replaced Universal Precautions
Includes elements of Universal Precautions and Body Substance Isolation

67 Should be applied to all residents, regardless of infectious status
Standard Precautions Two key elements: All blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions except sweat, nonintact skin, and mucous membranes may contain transmissible infectious agents Should be applied to all residents, regardless of infectious status

68 Standard Precautions Applies to all: Blood Body fluids Secretions
Excretions (except sweat) Nonintact skin Mucous membranes

69 Should be applied to all residents, regardless of infectious status
Standard Precautions Two key elements: All blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions except sweat, nonintact skin, and mucous membranes may contain transmissible infectious agents Should be applied to all residents, regardless of infectious status

70 Standard Precautions Hand Hygiene When How

71 Standard Precautions Hand Hygiene: When
Before having direct contact with residents After contact with blood, body fluids or excretions, mucous membranes, nonintact skin, or wound dressings After contact with a resident’s intact skin If hands will be moving from a contaminated-body site to a clean-body site during resident care After contact with inanimate objects (including medical equipment) in the immediate vicinity of the resident After removing gloves

72 Standard Precautions Hand Hygiene: Visibly Soiled
When hands are visibly dirty, contaminated with proteinaceous material, or visibly soiled with blood or body fluids Wash hands with either a nonantimicrobial soap and water or an antimicrobial soap and water

73 Standard Precautions Hand Hygiene: Not Visibly Soiled
If hands are not visibly soiled, or after removing visible material with nonantimicrobial soap and water, decontaminate hands The preferred method of hand decontamination is with an alcohol-based hand rub Alternatively, hands may be washed with an antimicrobial soap and water.

74 Standard Precautions Hand Hygiene: Spores
Wash hands with non-antimicrobial soap and water or with antimicrobial soap and water if contact with spores (e.g., C. difficile or Bacillus anthracis) is likely to have occurred

75 Standard Precautions Respiratory Hygiene

76 Standard Precautions Respiratory Hygiene
Cover the mouth/nose when coughing or sneezing

77 Standard Precautions Respiratory Hygiene
Post signs at entrances and in strategic places

78 Standard Precautions Respiratory Hygiene
Provide tissues and no-touch receptacles for disposal of tissues

79 Standard Precautions Respiratory Hygiene
Provide resources and instructions for performing hand hygiene in or near common areas

80 Standard Precautions Respiratory Hygiene
During periods of increased prevalence of respiratory infections in the community, offer masks to coughing residents and other symptomatic persons

81 Standard Precautions Resident Placement
Include the potential for transmission of infectious agents when selecting a resident's room/apartment Place residents who pose a risk for transmission to others (e.g., uncontained secretions, excretions or wound drainage) in a single-resident room when available

82 Standard Precautions Care of the Environment

83 Standard Precautions CLEAN then DISINFECT

84 Standard Precautions CLEANING DISINFECTING SANITIZING Removes germs
Kills germs Lowers # of germs Removes germs, dirt, and impurities from surfaces or objects Uses soap (or detergent) and water Physically remove germs from surfaces Does not necessarily kill germs Uses chemicals to kill germs on surfaces or objects Done after cleaning Works by either cleaning or disinfecting surfaces or objects to lower the risk of spreading infection

85 Standard Precautions Clean in disinfect properly:
Always follow label directions Wash surfaces with a general household cleaner to remove germs Rinse with water Follow with an EPA-registered disinfectant to kill germs

86 Standard Precautions Bleach is a good alternative:
Add 1 tablespoon of bleach to 1 quart (4 cups) of water. For a larger supply of disinfectant, add ¼ cup of bleach to 1 gallon (16 cups) of water Apply the solution to the surface with a cloth Let it stand for 3 to 5 minutes Rinse the surface with clean water

87 Regulated Waste

88 Regulated waste “Liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious materials; contaminated items that would release blood or other potentially infectious materials in a liquid or semi-liquid state if compressed; items that are caked with dried blood or other potentially infectious materials and are capable of releasing these materials during handling; contaminated sharps; and pathological and microbiological wastes containing blood or other potentially infectious materials.”

89 Standard Precautions Sharps containers
Contaminated sharps shall be discarded immediately or as soon as feasible in containers that are: Puncture resistant Leakproof on sides and bottom Labeled or color-coded

90 Standard Precautions Sharps containers, during use:
Easily accessible to personnel Located as close as is feasible to the immediate area where sharps are used or can be reasonably anticipated to be found (e.g., laundries) Maintained upright throughout use Replaced routinely and not be allowed to overfill.

91 Regulated waste Regulated Waste
Regulated waste shall be placed in containers which are: Closable Constructed to contain all contents and prevent leakage of fluids during handling, storage, transport or shipping Labeled or color-coded Closed prior to removal to prevent spillage or protrusion of contents

92 Personal Protective Equipment

93 Personal Protective Equipment
"Personal Protective Equipment" is specialized clothing or equipment worn or used by an employee for protection against a hazard. General work clothes (e.g., uniforms, pants, shirts or blouses) not intended to function as protection against a hazard are not considered to be personal protective equipment.

94 Personal Protective Equipment
Gloves For touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, contaminated items For touching mucous membranes and nonintact skin

95 Personal Protective Equipment
Gown When contact of clothing/exposed skin with blood/body fluids, secretions, and excretions is anticipated

96 Personal Protective Equipment
Mask/Eye Protection During procedures and activities likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions

97 Personal Protective Equipment
Resuscitation barrier device When performing CPR with mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

98 Personnel Protective Equipment
Must be provided by the employer Must be readily available to appropriate personnel Maintain appropriate sizes, etc. Provide training in use, donning, and removing

99 ACTIVITY: AGREE or DISAGREE

100 Agree or Disagree When assisting a resident in your Community that you know does NOT have HIV, you still should take precautions as if they were infected with HIV.

101 Agree or Disagree Every resident should be tested for HIV/AIDS before they are admitted into your Assisted Living Community.

102 Agree or Disagree Residents in your Community that have HIV or AIDS should NOT be allowed to have sexual relationships with another resident within the Community.

103 Agree or Disagree All of your residents and employees MUST be tested for Tuberculosis.

104 Tuberculosis

105 What is Tuberculosis? Abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis. TB bacteria usually attacks the lungs, but can attack any part of the body including the kidney, spine, and brain.

106 What is Tuberculosis? Research shows that TB is the second most common cause of death worldwide. If untreated, or not treated effectively, tuberculosis can be fatal.

107 Causes Tuberculosis is caused by the infectious agent known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Discovered by Dr. Robert Koch in 1882.

108 Risk Factors For someone to develop active TB disease, the following two events must take place: The bacteria enters the body and causes an Mtb infection. The immune system cannot stop the TB bacteria from growing and spreading after the initial infection.

109 What’s the difference? Active vs. Latent
There are two types or forms of TB: Active Latent What’s the difference?

110 Transmission Tuberculosis is primarily an airborne disease.
According to the CDC, “The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with active TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings.”

111 Transmission A person CANNOT get TB by:
Touching bed linens or toilet seats Shaking someone’s hand Sharing food/drink Sharing toothbrush Kissing

112 Symptoms The symptoms of TB can range from no symptoms or very mild illness (latent TB) to significant symptoms with massive involvement (active TB). TB may also lie dormant for years and reappear after the initial infection is contained.

113 Symptoms Early symptoms of active TB can include: Cough
Loss of appetite Shortness of breath Paleness Weight loss Joint pain Fatigue Chills Fever Swollen glands Night sweats Abdominal swelling General discomfort

114 Diagnostic Test What is PPD and what other test may be performed to detect or diagnose TB?

115 prevention What is the BCG vaccine and who is recommended to receive this vaccine? What are the risk factors involved?

116 Treatments What are the common challenges regarding TB treatments?
Long-term antibiotic therapy Risk of liver damage Costs Co-morbid conditions such as mental illness

117 Strategies to Ensure Quality of Care for Our Residents

118 Strategies to ensure quality of care
Successful treatment of tuberculosis has benefits both for the individual resident and the community in which the resident resides. The goals for treatment are: To minimize the transmission of TB to other persons To cure the individual resident of TB

119 Strategies to ensure quality of care
What are some ways we can ensure quality of care for our residents?

120 Strategies to ensure quality of care
Awareness It is important that people are aware that TB is not an ancient disease as it is often considered to be. TB is killing more people than ever before in history and remains one of the world’s deadliest infectious diseases. Healthcare workers, organizations, community members all need to assist in raising awareness.

121 STOP TB OSHA Requirements
Implement effective control programs to minimize exposure to Tuberculosis which include: Early Identification Isolation Treatment STOP TB

122 Policies and Procedures
One essential strategy to ensure quality of care for our residents is to develop and implement effective policies and procedures in our assisted living and residential care communities.

123 Staff Training Effective staff training is the key to providing the highest quality of care to our residents. Educate staff to be aware of the causes and risks The use of protective equipment Injury and illness prevention Resident rights and confidentiality

124 Strategies to Ensure Confidentiality and Personal Rights

125 Strategies to Ensure Confidentiality
Confidentiality is not an option, it’s a requirement!

126 Confidentiality/Personal Rights
Resident What are the resident’s personal rights? How can we ensure highest quality of care while maintaining confidentiality and resident rights?

127 Confidentiality/Personal Rights
Care Staff Identify how to respond when care staff are diagnosed with HIV or have latent TB.

128 Any Questions? Comments?

129 Quiz

130 Question #1 HIV is transmitted in ________________.
Air, water, and some foods Blood and some bodily fluids Blood only None of the above

131 Question #1 HIV is transmitted in ________________.
Air, water, and some foods Blood and some bodily fluids Blood only None of the above

132 Question #2 Hepatitis B is a non-contagious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis B virus. True False

133 Question #2 Hepatitis B is a non-contagious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis B virus. True False

134 Question #3 Personal protective equipment only includes: gloves and masks. True False

135 Question #3 Personal protective equipment only includes: gloves and masks. True False

136 Question #4 When a resident’s equipment has been contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids, you must first: Rinse with water Clean Disinfect None of the above

137 Question #4 When a resident’s equipment has been contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids, you must first: Rinse with water Clean Disinfect None of the above

138 Question #5 Sharps or Needlesticks injuries can occur ____________.
When a person uses them During disassembly Due to improper disposal All of the above

139 Question #5 Sharps or Needlesticks injuries can occur ____________.
When a person uses them During disassembly Due to improper disposal All of the above

140 Question #6 HIV is NOT spread by: Saliva, tears or sweat
Casual everyday contact with an HIV-infected person Casual contact like shaking hands or sharing dishes All of the above

141 Question #6 HIV is NOT spread by: Saliva, tears or sweat
Casual everyday contact with an HIV-infected person Casual contact like shaking hands or sharing dishes All of the above

142 Question #7 An exposure control plan must include information regarding how an employer will use a combination of engineering and work practice controls to prevent or reduce occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens. True False

143 Question #7 An exposure control plan must include information regarding how an employer will use a combination of engineering and work practice controls to prevent or reduce occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens. True False

144 Question #8 TB is a life-threatening infection that primarily affects the: Brain Blood Lungs Heart

145 Question #8 TB is a life-threatening infection that primarily affects the: Brain Blood Lungs Heart

146 Question #9 According to the CDC, “The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with active TB disease of the lungs or throat _______________.” Coughs Sneezes Speaks All of the above

147 Question #9 According to the CDC, “The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with active TB disease of the lungs or throat _______________.” Coughs Sneezes Speaks All of the above

148 Question #10 Symptoms of active TB include: Cough Weight loss
Night sweats All of the above

149 Question #10 Symptoms of active TB include: Cough Weight loss
Night sweats All of the above

150 Evaluation If you have not completed your evaluation please take time to complete when time permits, your feedback is greatly appreciated.


Download ppt "Www.careandcompliance.com/eval Evaluations We deeply value your feedback, and will utilize it in the ongoing development of our courses and services."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google