1)Mouthwash مضمضة p. 75 1)Mouthwash مضمضة p. 75 Aqueous solution used for its deoderant, refreshing or antiseptic effect. It may contain: Alcohol Glycerin Synthetic sweeteners Flavoring &coloring agents Surface active agents ????
Most mouthwashes are slightly alkaline..why?? Because: 1. Alkaline solutions are more effective in dissolving & removing mucous & saliva. 2. Acid solutions have a damaging effect on the teeth. 3. Strongly alkaline solution will produce tissue damage &sloughing of mucous membrane of mouth & throat. Many of the common oral preparation have a pH in alkaline range between 7 and 9. Those which are acidic in character rarely have a pH value below 5.
Rx Potassium bicarbonate 2 gm Sodium borate (borax) 2 gm Thymol 0.05 gm Eucalyptol 0.1 gm Methyl salicylate 0.05 ml Alcohol 20 ml Amaranth solution 14 ml Purified water to 100 ml Fiat : Mouthwash Mitte : 50 ml ( Volatile oils are refreshing, cooling, antiseptic & anti-inflammatory ). Aromatic mixture Calculation: F = R/P = 50/100 = 0.5 ¾ vehicle (water)= [50-(10+7)] x ¾ = 25ml I gm 1 gm 0.025gm 0.05 gm 0.025 ml 10 ml 7 ml 50 ml x 0.5 (Alkalinizer) (Antiseptic & Astringent) ( antiseptic & solvent) ( coloring agent (red))
Procedure: 1) In a beaker add 25 ml water.??? 2) dissolve KHCO3 & Borax 3) Filter 4) add amaranth solution (Aqueous solution) 5) In dry cup measure add 10 ml alcohol 6) Add 2 drops of the aromatic mixture (Alcoholic solution) 7) Add aqueous solution to the alcoholic solution portion wise with continuous stirring. (clear red solution) 8)Adjust volume with water. 50 ml
Fiat : Mouthwash Red label The Mouthwash To be used as directed.
2) Effervescent solutions 2) Effervescent solutions p.70 Uses of CO 2 in effervescent solution: 1)Refreshing 2)mask saline bad taste 3)digestive by stimulating gastric juice secretion A solution containing a recently prepared salt by combining an acid ( citric or/and tartaric) and alkali carbonate or bicarbonate ( potassium or sodium) Effervescent preparation are more agreeable to the taste when slightly acidic..so we add a slight excess of the acid. Types of effervescent solution: 1. Alkaline & acidic solutions dispensed in two separate bottles, one dose of each bottle is mixed just before administration.(Potion Reviere) 2. The alkaline salt is dispensed as powder in paper packets the patient adds the content of each packet to each dose of the acid dose 3. Mixture is dispensed charged with CO 2 in tightly closed bottles..the alkaline salt added at last & the bottle is corked &the cork is fixed with string.( Mg Citrate)
a) Potion Reviere Solution No. 1 Rx Sodium bicarbonate 0.35gm Syrup 2 ml Water to 15 ml Fiat : Alkaline solution Uses: Antiemetic Solution No. 2 Rx Citric acid 0.4 gm Syrup of lemon 2 ml Water to 15 ml Fiat : Acid solution Prepare VI doses of each Sig: 15 ml of each to be mixed directly before use. Calculation : Soln 1 : ¾ vehicle (water) =[90-12] x ¾ =58.5 ml Soln 2 : ¾ vehicle (water) =[90-12] x ¾ =58.5 ml x 6 2.1 gm 12 ml 9o ml x 6 2.4 gm 12 ml 9o ml
Procedure: The alkaline solution 1)add ¾ water 58 ml??? 2)Dissolve sodium bicarbonate 3)Filter using wetted cotton (if necessary) Clear solution 4)Add syrup(12 ml) 5)Complete to 90 ml with water The acid solution 1)add ¾ water 58 ml??? 2)Dissolve citric acid 3)Filter using wetted cotton (if necessary) Clear solution 4)Add syrup of lemon(12ml) 5)Complete to 90 ml with water Must be clear
Fiat : Alkaline solution Can we use lemon syrup (sweetening agent) in solution 1 ?? NO,as lemon syrup contain citric acid react with NaHCO 3 CO 2 (effervescence) Fiat : Acid solution Sig: 15 ml of each to be mixed directly before use. The Alkaline Solution One tablespoonful of each to be mixed directly before use. The Acid Solution One tablespoonful of each to be mixed directly before use. White label Why we use lemon syrup in solution 2?? Because flavor &taste of lemon syrup is matched & compatible with citric acid so can be used as flavoring & sweetening agent
b) Magnesium citrate p.72 b) Magnesium citrate p.72 Rx Magnesium carbonate 1.5 gm Sodium bicarbonate 3 gm Citric acid 3 gm Distilled water to 100 ml Fiat : mist Sig: m.d.s Uses: laxative ( magnesium citrate is the active ingredient) Calculation: ¾ vehicle (water) =100 x ¾ =75 ml
1) In a beaker 75 ml water 2) Dissolve 3g citric acid 3) Add 1.5 g magnesium carbonate 4) Boil on direct flame until clear solution is obtained 5) Transfer to cup measure & adjust the volume with water to 100 ml 6) Transfer into colourless 200 ml stoppered bottle ( test it!!) 7) Cool to room temperature(using tap water) 8) Add 3g NaHCO 3 on the wall of the bottle & immidiately stopper the bottle 9) Dissolve the NaHCO 3 by very gentle tilting of the bottle & slight rotation. 10) Keep the bottle on its side in a cool place. don’t try to open the bottle!! Procedure:
N.B. This prescription illustrates the importance of the order of mixing : First : citric + MgCO 3 (insoluble) heat Mg Citrate (soluble)+ CO 2 cool add soluble NaHCO 3 Clear solution If sol NaHCO 3 is added first to citric acid soluble Na Citrate &on adding MgCO 3 (insoluble), it will not find enough citric acid to change it to soluble Mg Citrate so some of MgCO 3 remain insoluble (ppt).
Auxilliary label “ keep in a cool place” as the solubility of CO 2 gas is increased at lower temperature, At higher temperature, it will be gathered above the solution causing pressure & the conc in the solution will be lowered. why we heat first?? to expel CO 2 help formation of sol MgCitrate role of citric acid convert insoluble MgCO 3 to soluble Mg Citrate Precaution required for storing solution charged with CO2 a)keep bottle on its side b) in a cool place.
Fiat : mist Sig.: m.d.s The Mixture To be taken as directed. Keep in a Cool Place
Measure of length: Meter is the fundamental unit. **
Measure of volume: liter is the fundamental unit. Unit Abbreviation Number of liters kiloliterkl1,000 hectolilterhl100 dekaliter Dl or dal10 literl1 deciliterdl0.1 centilitercl0.01 milliliterml0.001(1x10 -3 ) microliterµl 0.000,001(1X10 -6 )
Measure of weight: gram is the fundamental unit. Unit Abbreviation Number of grams kilogramkg1,000 hectogramhg100 dekagram Dg or dag10 gramGm, gm,g1 decigramdg0.1 centigramcg0.01 milligrammg0.001 (1x10 -3 ) microgramµg, mcg0.000,001(1X10 -6 ) nanogramng0.000,000,001(1X10 -9 )
kilo hecto deka nano centi milli deci micro Gram or liter or meter x10 x1000 x10 x1000 ÷ 10 ÷ 1000
How to reduce to lower or higher denomination: By simply moving the decimal point. Examples: Reduce 1.23 kg to grams 1.23kg=1.23 x10 3 =1.23x1000 =1230 g Reduce 85 µm to cm 85 µm = 0.085mm = 0.0085cm
To add or substract: To add or substract: we must 1) reduce them to a common denomination 2)arrange numbers for addition or subtraction as ordinary decimals. Example: Total wt of substances in a capsule: 0.075 g = 20 mg = 0.0005 g = 4 mg = 500 mcg = = 0.075 g 0.020 g 0.0005 g 0.004 g 0.0005 g 0.100 g=100 mg
To multiply or devide: To multiply or devide: like any decimal numbers Example: Multiply 820 ml by 12.5 &express the result in liters 820 x 12.5 =10250 ml =10250/1000=10.250 L Problems page 7
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