2Case Study-Respiratory System After a routine workout at your health club, you decide to soak in the hot tub. A young man in the tub tells you how he just finished a heavy weightlifting routine that lasted 2 hrs. He says that he soaks in the hot tub for 20 minutes to ward off muscle cramping. The man does this routine 7 days a week. The next day at the gym, you hear that he was hospitalized that morning with the following symptoms; chills, coughing, fatigue, fever, SOB, and tightness in his chest.
3He appeared healthy until that incident He appeared healthy until that incident. A friend of his who also works out at the club said he had no history of heart disease or respiratory ailments. However, lately he was losing weight because of the heavy workout. People at the health club are speculating what could have caused the illness. What do you think?
4How much of a supply of oxygen do you have? 4-6 minutes
5Therefore, the respiratory system must work continuously or death will occur.
6What is the purpose of the respiratory system? To take in oxygen, which all body cells need, and remove carbon dioxide, a waste product produced by cells when cells convert food into energy.
8Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEMNose- has two openings call nostrils or nares through which air enters.Nasal Septum- a wall of cartilage, divides the nose into two hollow spaces called the nasal cavities.Nasal cavities- lined with a mucous membrane and have a rich blood supply. Warms, filters, and moistens air as it enters.
9Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEMCilia- tiny, hair-like structures that filter inhaled air to trap dust and other particles. The cilia then helps move the mucous towards the esophagus where it can be swallowed.Sinuses- Cavities in the skull that surround the nasal area.
11Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEMPharynx- (throat), lies directly behind the nasal cavities. As air leaves the nose, it enters the pharynxNasopharynx-upper portion and includes the pharyngeal tonsils, adenoids, and eustachian tube.Oropharynx-middle section. This section receives both food and air from the mouth.Larynogopharynx- bottom section. The esophagus and trachea branch off from here.
12Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEMLarynx- (voice box) lies between the pharynx and trachea. It has 9 layers of cartilage including the Adam’s apple. The larynx also contains the vocal cords. As air leaves the lungs, the vocal cords vibrate and produce sound.Epiglottis- leaflike cartilage that closes the opening into the larynx during swallowing. This prevents food and liquids from entering the respiratory tract.
13Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEMTrachea or windpipeTube extending from larynx to center of the chestCarries air between pharynx and bronchiSeries of C-shaped cartilage, which are open on the dorsal, or back, surface. Helps keep trachea open
14Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEMBronchi- Two divisions of trachea near center of the chest. Carries air from the trachea to the lungs.Right bronchusLeft bronchusRight bronchus is shorter, wider, and extends more vertically than left bronchus
16Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEMLungs- The organ of respirationOrgans that contain divisions of bronchi and alveoliRight lung has three sections, or lobes; superior, middle, and inferiorLeft lung has only two lobes, superior and inferior
17Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEMWhy is the left lung smaller then the right?The heart lies to the left side of the chest!
18Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEMAlveoliAir sacs that resemble a bunch of grapesAdult lung contains approximately 500 million alveoliMade of one layer of squamous epithelium tissueContains a rich network of blood capillariesCapillaries allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to be exchanged between blood and lungs
20Organs and structures: RESPIRATORY SYSTEMPleura- membrane or sac enclosing each lungConsists of two layers of serous membranesVisceral pleura is attached to surface of lungParietal pleura is attached to chest wallPleural space is located between the two layers and is filled with thin layer of pleural fluid that lubricates membranes and prevents friction as lungs expand during breathing.
21The Process of Breathing VENTILATIONThe Process of Breathing
22Two phases of ventilation: InspirationExpiration
23Inspiration Inspiration- (is also referred to inhalation.) RESPIRATORY SYSTEMInspiration- (is also referred to inhalation.)The process of breathing in airDiaphragm- a dome shaped muscle between thoracic and abdominal cavities.The diaphragm contracts allowing more room for the lungs to expand allowing exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
24Expiration Expiration is also known as exhalation. RESPIRATORY SYSTEMExpiration is also known as exhalation.The diaphragm relaxes forces air out of the lungs and air passages.
26The process of inspiration and expiration is one completion respiration.
27Respiration is controlled by the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata. .
28* A decreased amount of oxygen or an increased amount of carbon dioxide in blood causes the medulla oblongata to increase rate of respirations. *Process is usually involuntary, but a person can control rate of breathing by breathing faster or slower.
29Diseases and abnormal conditions of the respiratory system
38What is bronchitis?Inflammation of the bronchi and bronchial tubes.
39Two types of bronchitis: Acute bronchitisChronic bronchitis
40Acute Bronchitis: Acute Bronchitis is usually caused by an infection. Characterized by a productive cough, dyspnea, rales (bubbly or noisy breath sounds), chest pain, and feverTreatment: Treated with antibiotics, expectorants to remove excessive mucus, rest, and drinking large amounts of waterarse.html
41Chronic Bronchitis:Occurs after frequent attacks of acute bronchitis and long-term exposure to pollutants or smokingCharacterized by chronic inflammation, damaged cilia, and enlarged mucous glands(COPD)
42Chronic Bronchitis: Symptoms: Treatment: Excessive mucus resulting in a productive coughWheezing and dyspneaChest painProlonged expiration of airThere is treatment, but no cureAntibioticsBronchodilatorsRespiratory Therapy
59Occurs when capillaries in nose become congested and bleed. EPISTAXISOccurs when capillaries in nose become congested and bleed.
60Causes of Epistaxis: Injury or blow to the nose Hypertension Chronic infectionsAnticoagulant drugsBlood diseases such as hemophilia or leukemia
61Treatment of Epistaxis: Compress nostrils toward the septum, elevate the head and tilt it slightly forward, and apply cold compresses.At times, it is necessary to insert nasal packing or to cauterize the bleeding vesselsEliminate the underlying cause, such as hypertension, etc.
62INFLUENZA OR FLUHighly contagious viral infection of the upper respiratory system with a sudden onset
66Immunizations with a flu vaccine: Recommended for the elderly, children, individuals with chronic diseases, pregnant women, and health care workersMany different viruses cause influenza, so vaccines are developed each year to immunize against the most common viruses identified
83Treatment Bedrest Oxygen Fluids Antibiotics if needed Respiratory therapyPain medication
84RhinitisInflammation of nasal mucous membranes resulting in a runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, soreness, and congestionCauses: infections and allergensTreatment: fluids and medication to relieve congestion
85Sinusitis Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the sinuses Usually caused by a bacteria of virus
86Symptoms: Headache, pressure, or dizziness Thick nasal discharge and congestionLoss of resonance in the voice
87Treatment of Sinusitis: Antibiotics if neededAnalgesics for painDecongestants to loosen secretionsMoist inhalationsSurgery in chronic sinusitis to open the cavities and encourage drainage
88SLEEP APNEACondition in which an individual stops breathing while asleep, causing a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels.
89Two main kinds of sleep apnea: ObstructiveCentral
90Obstructive sleep apnea: Caused by blockage in air passage that occurs when muscles that keep airway open relax and allow tongue and palate to block the airway.
91Caused by a disorder in the brain’s respiratory control center. Central sleep apnea:Caused by a disorder in the brain’s respiratory control center.
92Facts about sleep apnea: More common in menObesity increases riskHypertension increases riskSmoking increases riskAlcohol ingestion increases riskUse of sedatives may increase severity
93Diagnosis:Diagnosed when more than five periods of apnea lasting at least 10 seconds each occur during an hour of sleep.
94What does sleep apnea do? Periods of apnea lower the blood oxygen level.Causes the brain to awaken the individual, who then gasps for air and snores loudlyInterruption of the sleep cycle leads to excessive tiredness and drowsiness during the day.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mjQdAf9cQBo
95Treatment: Weight loss Abstaining from alcohol, smoking and sedatives Sleeping on side or stomachIn more severe cases a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure or CPAP is used to deliver pressure to the airway to keep it open while the individual sleeps.
96CPAP CPAP consists of a mask that fits securely against the face Tubing connects the mask with a blower device that can be adjusted to deliver air at different levels of pressure
106Cystic fibrosis is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and digestive system. A defective gene and its protein product cause the body to produce unusually thick, sticky mucus that:clogs the lungs and leads to life-threatening lung infections; andobstructs the pancreas and stops natural enzymes from helping the body break down and absorb food.
107The predicted median age of survival for a person with CF is in the mid-30s. eature=related